Lamisil - Anti Fungal, Onycal

Product Description Common use Lamisil is an anti-fungal antibiotic used to treat tinea versicolor, a fungal infection that produces brown, tan, white spots on the trunk of the body or other fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm. Lamisil works by killing sensitive fungi by interfering with the formation of the fungal cell membrane.

Dosage and direction Take it orally with full glass of water. Swallow it without chewing. Usually it taken for 6 to 12 weeks. The recommended dose is different from type of infection: 1. For onychomycosis: Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 6 to 12 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. 2. For tinea corporis: Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 2 to 4 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. 3. For tinea cruris (ringworm of the groin; jock itch): Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 2 to 4 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. 4. For tinea pedis: Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 2 to 6 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. Note: this instruction presented here just for review. It's very necessary to consult your doctor before using.

Precautions Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have a certain blood disorder or severe liver disease. Don't forget to tell your medical history, especially if it includes lupus. Driving is not recommended while you are taking this medication because it may cause dizziness or less alertness. Drinking alcohol during treatment may cause a fast heartbeat and flushing of the skin. Avoid sun, tanning booths, and sunlamps and use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing when going outdoors. Lamisil should not be used during pregnancy, becoming pregnant or lactating without doctor's advice. Do not use before breast-feeding without doctor's advice.

Contraindications Lamisil is not allowed to people who have problems with their liver or kidneys, hypersensitive to any component of this dug.

Possible side effect They may include an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Also the most possible side effects include: joint pain or swelling, swollen glands, patchy skin color, or a butterfly-shaped skin rash over your cheeks and nose fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms; changes in your vision; weight loss due to taste changes; scaly, itchy, and flaky skin rash; fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash. Less serious include: stomach pain, heartburn, diarrhea; headache; tired feeling; runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, cold symptoms; mild skin rash or itching; unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth; or decreased taste sensation. If you experience one of them stop using Lamisil and tell your doctor as soon as possible. Also consult your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual.

Drug interaction Lamisil interacts with the following medications: Cyclosporine Metoprolol Nortriptyline Warfarin Also note that interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. As usual it affects the effect of drugs, so consult your doctor about its interactions.

Missed dose If you forgot to take your dose in time, please do it as soon as you remember. But do not take if it is too late or almost time for your next dose. Do not take double or extra doses. Take your usual dose next day at the same time regularly.

Overdose Symptoms of Lamisil overdose may include: dizziness, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, or urinating more than usual. If you experience one of them call your doctor immediately.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets. Do not use after expiration date.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications that does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information at the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Anti Fungal - Onycal (Brand name: lamisil)

Product Description Common use Lamisil is an anti-fungal antibiotic used to treat tinea versicolor, a fungal infection that produces brown, tan, white spots on the trunk of the body or other fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm. Lamisil works by killing sensitive fungi by interfering with the formation of the fungal cell membrane.

Dosage and direction Take it orally with full glass of water. Swallow it without chewing. Usually it taken for 6 to 12 weeks. The recommended dose is different from type of infection: 1. For onychomycosis: Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 6 to 12 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. 2. For tinea corporis: Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 2 to 4 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. 3. For tinea cruris (ringworm of the groin; jock itch): Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 2 to 4 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. 4. For tinea pedis: Adults and teenagers 250 mg once a day for 2 to 6 weeks. Lamisil is used in children just after doctor's permission. Note: this instruction presented here just for review. It's very necessary to consult your doctor before using.

Precautions Before using this medicine, consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have a certain blood disorder or severe liver disease. Don't forget to tell your medical history, especially if it includes lupus. Driving is not recommended while you are taking this medication because it may cause dizziness or less alertness. Drinking alcohol during treatment may cause a fast heartbeat and flushing of the skin. Avoid sun, tanning booths, and sunlamps and use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing when going outdoors. Lamisil should not be used during pregnancy, becoming pregnant or lactating without doctor's advice. Do not use before breast-feeding without doctor's advice.

Contraindications Lamisil is not allowed to people who have problems with their liver or kidneys, hypersensitive to any component of this dug.

Possible side effect They may include an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Also the most possible side effects include: joint pain or swelling, swollen glands, patchy skin color, or a butterfly-shaped skin rash over your cheeks and nose fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms; changes in your vision; weight loss due to taste changes; scaly, itchy, and flaky skin rash; fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash. Less serious include: stomach pain, heartburn, diarrhea; headache; tired feeling; runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, cold symptoms; mild skin rash or itching; unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth; or decreased taste sensation. If you experience one of them stop using Lamisil and tell your doctor as soon as possible. Also consult your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual.

Drug interaction Lamisil interacts with the following medications: Cyclosporine Metoprolol Nortriptyline Warfarin Also note that interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. As usual it affects the effect of drugs, so consult your doctor about its interactions.

Missed dose If you forgot to take your dose in time, please do it as soon as you remember. But do not take if it is too late or almost time for your next dose. Do not take double or extra doses. Take your usual dose next day at the same time regularly.

Overdose Symptoms of Lamisil overdose may include: dizziness, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, skin rash, or urinating more than usual. If you experience one of them call your doctor immediately.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets. Do not use after expiration date.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications that does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information at the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Kemstro - Fda Prescribing Information, Side Effects And Uses, Kemstro

Kemstro

Kemstro™ (baclofen orally disintegrating tablets) is a muscle relaxant and antispastic. Baclofen USP is a white to off-white, odorless or practically odorless crystalline powder. It is slightly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in methanol, and insoluble in chloroform. Its chemical name is 4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-butanoic acid. The molecular weight of baclofen is 213.66 and the empirical formula is C 10 H 12 CINO 2. The structural formula is represented below:

Kemstro™ is available as 10 mg and 20 mg orally disintegrating tablets. Each orally disintegrating tablet also contains as inactive ingredients: aspartame, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, natural and artificial orange flavor and povidone.

Clinical Pharmacology

The precise mechanism of action of baclofen is not fully known. Baclofen is capable of inhibiting both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal level, possibly by hyperpolarization of afferent terminals, although actions at supraspinal sites may also occur and contribute to its clinical effect. Although baclofen is an analog of the putative inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), there is no conclusive evidence that actions on GABA systems are involved in the production of its clinical effects. In studies with animals, baclofen has been shown to have general CNS depressant properties as indicated by the production of sedation with tolerance, somnolence, ataxia, and respiratory and cardiovascular depression.

Pharmacokinetics

Baclofen is rapidly and extensively absorbed. Absorption may be dose-dependent, being reduced with increasing doses. Kemstro™ given with or without water is bioequivalent to the baclofen conventional tablet. Thus Kemstro™ can be placed on the tongue until it disintegrates and then be swallowed with or without water. Following a single 20 mg oral dose of Kemstro™, the peak plasma concentration was reached about 1½ hours after administration.

The apparent volume of distribution is 59 liters. Baclofen does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Plasma protein binding is approximately 30%.

In a study using radiolabeled baclofen, approximately 85% of the dose was excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. About 15% of the dose was metabolized, primarily by deamination. The γ-hydroxy metabolite, 3-( p - chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxybutyric acid, is formed after deamination of baclofen.

Baclofen is rapidly and extensively eliminated. There is a relatively large intersubject variation in elimination. Baclofen is excreted primarily by the kidney as unchanged drug; 70 - 80% of a dose appears in the urine as unchanged drug. The remainder is excreted as unchanged drug in the feces or as metabolites in the urine and feces. Excretion is complete within 72 hours after administration. The elimination half-life of Kemstro™ is approximately 5½ hours. Total systemic clearance is 180 mL/min and renal clearance is 103 mL/min.

Special Populations Elderly

The pharmacokinetics of baclofen tablets were evaluated in elderly patients (69-81 years) and in healthy younger subjects (23-53 years) after a single 10 mg dose. The C max was lower (119 ng/mL vs. 178 ng/mL) and the T max was longer (3 hours vs. 1 hour) in the elderly patients compared to the younger subjects. The AUCs were similar in the two groups. In this study, the elimination half-life was slightly prolonged in the elderly patients compared to the younger subjects, 4.43 hours vs. 3.75 hours, respectively.

Indications and Usage

Kemstro™ is useful for the alleviation of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and concomitant pain, clonus, and muscular rigidity.

Patients should have reversible spasticity so that treatment with Kemstro™ will aid in restoring residual function.

Kemstro™ may also be of some value in patients with spinal cord injuries and other spinal cord diseases.

Kemstro™ is not indicated in the treatment of skeletal muscle spasm resulting from rheumatic disorders.

The efficacy of Kemstro™ in stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson's disease has not been established and, therefore, it is not recommended for these conditions.

Contraindications

Kemstro™ is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.

Warning

Abrupt Drug Withdrawal

Hallucinations and seizures have occurred on abrupt withdrawal of baclofen. Therefore, except for serious adverse reactions, the dose should be reduced slowly when the drug is discontinued.

Impaired Renal Function

Because baclofen is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidneys, it should be given with caution and it may be necessary to reduce the dosage in patients with impaired renal function.

Stroke

Baclofen has not significantly benefited patients with stroke. These patients have also shown poor tolerability to the drug.

Precautions

General

Baclofen should be used with caution where spasticity is utilized to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or whenever spasticity is utilized to obtain increased function.

In patients with epilepsy, the clinical state and electroencephalogram should be monitored at regular intervals, since deterioration in seizure control and EEG have been reported occasionally in patients taking baclofen.

Information for patients

Because of the possibility of sedation, patients should be cautioned regarding the operation of automobiles or other dangerous machinery, and activities made hazardous by decreased alertness. Patients should also be cautioned that the central nervous system depressant effects of baclofen may be additive to those of alcohol and other CNS depressants.

Phenylketonurics

Phenylketonuric patients should be informed that Kemstro™ contains phenylalanine

3.9 mg per 10 mg orally disintegrating tablet and 7.9 mg per 20 mg orally disintegrating tablet.

Interactions

The central nervous system depressant effects of baclofen may be additive to those of alcohol and other CNS depressants.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

A dose-related increase in incidence of ovarian cysts and a less marked increase in enlarged and/or hemorrhagic adrenal glands was observed in female rats treated chronically with baclofen.

Ovarian cysts have been found by palpation in about 4% of the multiple sclerosis patients that were treated with baclofen for up to one year. In most cases these cysts disappeared spontaneously while patients continued to receive the drug. Ovarian cysts are estimated to occur spontaneously in approximately 1% to 5% of the normal female population.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C. Baclofen has been shown to increase the incidence of omphaloceles (ventral hernias) in fetuses of rats given approximately 13 times the maximum dose recommended for human use, at a dose which caused significant reductions in food intake and weight gain in dams. This abnormality was not seen in mice or rabbits. There was also an increased incidence of incomplete sternebral ossification in fetuses of rats given approximately 13 times the maximum recommended human dose, and an increased incidence of unossified phalangeal nuclei of forelimbs and hindlimbs in fetuses of rabbits given approximately 7 times the maximum recommended human dose. In mice, no teratogenic effects were observed, although reductions in mean fetal weight with consequent delays in skeletal ossification were present when dams were given 17 or 34 times the human daily dose. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Kemstro™ should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Kemstro™ is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 have not been established.

Geriatric use

Clinical studies of baclofen did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of Kemstro™ and observed closely.

Adverse Reactions

The most common adverse reaction during treatment with baclofen is transient drowsiness (10-63%). In one controlled study of 175 patients, transient drowsiness was observed in 63% of those receiving baclofen tablets compared to 36% of those in the placebo group. Other common adverse reactions are dizziness (5-15%), weakness (5-15%) and fatigue (2-4%). Others reported:

Neuropsychiatric: Confusion (1-11%), headache (4-8%), insomnia (2-7%); and, rarely, euphoria, excitement, depression, hallucinations, paresthesia, muscle pain, tinnitus, slurred speech, coordination disorder, tremor, rigidity, dystonia, ataxia, blurred vision, nystagmus, strabismus, miosis, mydriasis, diplopia, dysarthria, epileptic seizure.

Cardiovascular: Hypotension (0-9%). Rare instances of dyspnea, palpitation, chest pain, syncope.

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (4-12%), constipation (2-6%); and, rarely, dry mouth, anorexia, taste disorder, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and positive test for occult blood in stool.

Genitourinary: Urinary frequency (2-6%); and, rarely, enuresis, urinary retention, dysuria, impotence, inability to ejaculate, nocturia, hematuria.

Other: Instances of rash, pruritus, ankle edema, excessive perspiration, weight gain, nasal congestion.

Some of the CNS and genitourinary symptoms may be related to the underlying disease rather than to drug therapy. The following laboratory tests have been found to be abnormal in a few patients receiving baclofen: increased SGOT, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and elevation of blood sugar.

The adverse experience profile seen with Kemstro™ was similar to that seen with baclofen tablets.

Drug Abuse and Dependence

Overdosage

Signs and Symptoms

Vomiting, muscular hypotonia, drowsiness, accommodation disorders, coma, respiratory depression, and seizures.

In the alert patient, empty the stomach promptly by induced emesis followed by lavage. In the obtunded patient, secure the airway with a cuffed endotracheal tube before beginning lavage (do not induce emesis). Maintain adequate respiratory exchange, do not use respiratory stimulants. It is unknown what effect hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis has on the serum concentration of baclofen.

Dosage and Administration

The determination of optimal dosage requires individual titration. Start therapy at a low dosage and increase gradually until optimum effect is achieved (usually between 40-80 mg daily).

The following dosage titration schedule is suggested:

5 mg three times a day for 3 days

10 mg three times a day for 3 days

15 mg three times a day for 3 days

20 mg three times a day for 3 days

Thereafter additional increases may be necessary but the total daily dose should not exceed a maximum of 80 mg daily (20 mg four times a day).

The lowest dose compatible with an optimal response is recommended. If benefits are not evident after a reasonable trial period, patients should be slowly withdrawn from the drug (see WARNINGS, Abrupt Drug Withdrawal ).

Administration

Using dry hands, the patient should be instructed to place the tablet on the tongue, where it will disintegrate and can then be swallowed with or without water.

Patients with Renal Impairment

Because baclofen is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidneys, it should be given with caution and it may be necessary to reduce the dosage in patients with impaired renal function.

How Supplied

Kemstro™ (baclofen orally disintegrating tablets) 10 mg are white, round, orange-flavored, scored and engraved “10” on the unscored side and “SP” above and “351” below the score on the other side. They are supplied as follows:

Bottles of 100NDC 0091-3351-01

Kemstro™ (baclofen orally disintegrating tablets) 20 mg are white, round, orange-flavored, scored and engraved “20” on the unscored side and “SP” above and “352” below the score on the other side. They are supplied as follows:

Bottles of 100NDC 0091-3352-01

Dispense in a tight container as defined in the USP/NF with a child-resistant closure.

Store at controlled room temperature 20º- 25º (68º- 77º); excursions permitted between

15º- 30º (59º- 86º). Protect from moisture.

Manufactured for: Schwarz Pharma

Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA

CIMA LABS INC.®

Eden Prairie, MN 55344, USA

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Crotamiton Reviews - Ratings At, Acomexol

User Reviews for Crotamiton

Reviews for Crotamiton

Eurax (crotamiton) for Pruritus: "I just read what the medicine was designed for. Surprised. I have used Eurax G for the past 20 years. I obtained two tubes of it while in Japan. I have found that it promotes healing of cuts, scratches, and other minor injuries faster than any other medicine I have tried. I have also used it effectively for small areas of poison ivy/sumac as well as other minor skin irritations. I do not have scabies nor ever had scabies. Maybe my experience applies only to me. But I can attest to it's effectiveness for ME. I must emphasize however that it is for Eurax "G". There are other letter categories for Eurax, but "G" works for me for the conditions I mentioned."

US Marine Retired September 5, 2016

0 users found this comment helpful. Did you? Yes No

Eurax (crotamiton) for Pruritus: "I use this cream when my eczema flairs up its a great help to relieve itching i use it a lot and dont know what id do without it."

Apo-Valacyclovir - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Apo-Acyclovir

Apo-Valacyclovir

How does this medication work? What will it do for me?

Valacyclovir belongs to the class of medications known as antivirals. It is used to treat a viral infection affecting the skin known as shingles ( herpes zoster ). It is also used to treat cold sores . and to treat and prevent recurrences of genital herpes. It works by interfering with the way the virus reproduces. Valacyclovir works by stopping the virus from multiplying and spreading to nearby healthy cells.

It does not cure shingles, cold sores, or genital herpes, but it does help the sores to heal more quickly, and it relieves pain and discomfort. When used to prevent recurrences of herpes, it also reduces the risk of transmission (spreading) of the infection to others.

This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.

Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.

Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.

Explore your cold sore treatment options

Get answers to your questions about the most common ways you can treat cold sores.

What form(s) does this medication come in?

500 mg Each dark blue, film-coated, capsule-shaped tablet engraved with "APO" on one side and "VAL 500" on the other side contains valacyclovir HCl equivalent to 500 mg valacyclovir. Nonmedicinal ingredients: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Indigotine Aluminum Lake (Blue No. 2), polyethylene glycol, stearic acid, and titanium dioxide.

1000 mg Each white, oval-shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablet engraved with "APO" on one side and "VAL 1000" on the other side contains valacyclovir HCl equivalent to 1000 mg valacyclovir. Nonmedicinal ingredients: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyethylene glycol, stearic acid, colloidal silicon dioxide, and titanium dioxide.

Cold Sores: Doctor Discussion Guide

Your doctor can help you take control back from your cold sores. You can do something about your cold sores that actually works!

How should I use this medication?

The recommended adult dose of valacyclovir to treat shingles is 1000 mg 3 times daily for 7 days. The treatment should be started within 72 hours of the onset of the rash.

To treat the first episode of genital herpes, the dose ofvalacyclovir is 1000 mg twice daily for 10 days. Treatment should be started within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms, and ideally within 48 hours for best effectiveness.

To treat recurrent genital herpes, the dose of valacyclovir is 500 mg twice daily for 3 days. The treatment should be started at the first sign or symptom of recurrence.

To prevent recurrences of genital herpes, the recommended dose is 1000 mg once daily. For people with a history of 9 or fewer recurrences per year, the recommended dosage of valacyclovir is 500 mg orally once daily. This dose helps to reduce the risk of transmitting genital herpes to others.

To treat cold sores, the usual dose of valacyclovir is 2000 mg at the first sign of symptoms, followed by another 2000 mg 12 hours later. The treatment should be started at the first sign of a cold sore (tingling, itching, or burning sensations) for best effectiveness.

People with poor kidney function may need lower doses.

Many things can affect the dose of medication that a person needs, such as body weight, other medical conditions, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose different from the ones listed here, do not change the way you are using the medication without talking to your doctor.

Valacyclovir can be taken with or without food. If it causes stomach upset, taking it with food may help. Make sure you drink enough water to prevent dehydration while taking valacyclovir.

It is important to take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible and continue with your regular dosing schedule. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your usual dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you are not sure what to do after missing a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist for advice.

Store this medication at room temperature, protect it from light and moisture, and keep it out of the reach of children.

Do not dispose of medications in wastewater (e. g. down the sink or in the toilet) or in household garbage. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medications that are no longer needed or have expired.

Who should NOT take this medication?

Do not take this medication if you are allergic to valacyclovir, acyclovir, or any ingredients of the medication.

Test your knowledge about cold sores with this quick fact or myth quiz!

What side effects are possible with this medication?

Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an unwanted response to a medication when it is taken in normal doses. Side effects can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.

The side effects listed below are not experienced by everyone who takes this medication. If you are concerned about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medication with your doctor.

The following side effects have been reported by at least 1% of people taking this medication. Many of these side effects can be managed, and some may go away on their own over time.

Contact your doctor if you experience these side effects and they are severe or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to advise you on managing side effects.

abdominal pain

diarrhea

dizziness

dry mouth

flu-like symptoms

gas

headache

heartburn

itching

joint pain

muscle aches

nausea

skin rash

trouble sleeping

weakness

Although most of the side effects listed below don't happen very often, they could lead to serious problems if you do not seek medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

behaviour changes

confusion

depression

fast heartbeat

hallucinations

pain in the side between the ribs and hip or kidney area of the back

signs of anemia caused by red blood cell destruction (e. g. abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, confusion, swelling of hands and feet)

signs of bleeding (e. g. unusual bruising or bleeding, bleeding gums, unexplained nosebleeds)

signs of decreased kidney function (e. g. decreased urine production, loss of appetite, nausea)

Stop taking the medication and seek immediate medical attention if any of the following occur:

signs of a serious allergic reaction (e. g. abdominal cramps, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, swelling of the face and throat)

signs of a severe skin reaction (e. g. a rash combined with fever or discomfort, a rash covering a large area of the body, a rash that spreads quickly, blistering, peeling)

Some people may experience side effects other than those listed. Check with your doctor if you notice any symptom that worries you while you are taking this medication.

Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?

Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.

Genital herpes: To reduce the risk of spreading the virus, wash your hands immediately after touching your skin sores. You should avoid intimate contact when live lesions are visible on your skin. The herpes virus can still be spread even when you do not have blisters or sores.

Immunosuppression (weak immune system): People who have a weakened immune system should only use valacyclovir if the benefits outweigh the risks. If you have had an organ transplant, are infected with HIV, or otherwise have a weak immune system, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

Kidney disease: Valacyclovir may cause decreased kidney function or kidney failure. People with kidney disease may need a lower dose of this medication. If you have reduced kidney function or kidney disease, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.

If you experience signs of decreased kidney function, such as decreased urine production, nausea, fatigue, or muscle twitches or cramps, contact your doctor as soon as possible.

Safer sex: Valacyclovir, when taken in appropriate doses each day, can reduce the risk of passing on genital herpes to sexual partners. It should be used in combination with safer sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams. If you have any questions about practicing safer sex, speak to your doctor.

Systemic infection: The safety and effectiveness of using valacyclovir to treat herpes zoster infection that is inside the body has not been established. This is not an accepted use for this medication.

Pregnancy: Although valacyclovir does not appear to increase the risk of harm to an unborn baby, the safety of valacyclovir use during pregnancy has not been established. This medication should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefits outweigh the risks. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.

Breast-feeding: This medication passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are taking valacyclovir, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding.

Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication have not been established for children.

Seniors: Seniors are more likely to have decreased kidney function than younger adults. A decreased dose of valacyclovir may be required. It is important for seniors to drink enough water while taking this medication, to remain well-hydrated.

What other drugs could interact with this medication?

There may be an interaction between valacyclovir and any of the following:

foscarnet

mycophenolate

tenofovir

varicella virus vaccine

zidovudine

zoster vaccine

If you are taking any of these medications, speak with your doctor or pharmacist. Depending on your specific circumstances, your doctor may want you to:

stop taking one of the medications,

change one of the medications to another,

change how you are taking one or both of the medications, or

leave everything as is.

An interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. Speak to your doctor about how any drug interactions are being managed or should be managed.

Medications other than those listed above may interact with this medication. Tell your doctor or prescriber about all prescription, over-the-counter (non-prescription), and herbal medications that you are taking. Also tell them about any supplements you take. Since caffeine, alcohol, the nicotine from cigarettes, or street drugs can affect the action of many medications, you should let your prescriber know if you use them.

More on Body and Health

Acyclovir, Zovirax, Euroclovir

U. S. BRAND NAMES — Zovirax® PHARMACOLOGIC CATEGORY Antiviral Agent DOSING: ADULTS — Note: Obese patients should be dosed using ideal body weight Genital HSV: I. V. Immunocompetent: Initial episode, severe: 5 mg/kg every 8 hours for 5-7 days Oral: Initial episode: 200 mg every 4 hours while awake (5 times/day) for 10 days (per manufacturer’s labeling); 400 mg 3 times/day for 5-10 days has also been reported Recurrence: 200 mg every 4 hours while awake (5 times/day) for 5 days (per manufacturer’s labeling; begin at earliest signs of disease); 400 mg 3 times/day for 5 days has also been reported Chronic suppression: 400 mg twice daily or 200 mg 3-5 times/day, for up to 12 months followed by re-evaluation (per manufacturer’s labeling); 400-1200 mg/day in 2-3 divided doses has also been reported Topical: Immunocompromised: Ointment: Initial episode: 1/2″ ribbon of ointment for a 4″ square surface area every 3 hours (6 times/day) for 7 days Herpes labialis (cold sores): Topical: Apply 5 times/day for 4 days Herpes zoster (shingles): Oral: Immunocompetent: 800 mg every 4 hours (5 times/day) for 7-10 days I. V. Immunocompromised: 10 mg/kg/dose or 500 mg/m2/dose every 8 hours for 7 days HSV encephalitis: I. V. 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 10 days (per manufacturer’s labeling); 10-15 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 14-21 days also reported Mucocutaneous HSV: I. V. Immunocompromised: 5 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 7 days (per manufacturer’s labeling); dosing for up to 14 days also reported Oral: Immunocompromised (unlabeled use): 400 mg 5 times a day for 7-14 days Topical: Ointment: Nonlife-threatening, immunocompromised: 1/2″ ribbon of ointment for a 4″ square surface area every 3 hours (6 times/day) for 7 days Varicella-zoster (chickenpox): Begin treatment within the first 24 hours of rash onset: Oral: >40 kg (immunocompetent): 800 mg/dose 4 times a day for 5 days I. V. Immunocompromised (unlabeled use): 1500 mg/m2/day divided every 8 hours or 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 7-10 days Prevention of HSV reactivation in HIV-positive patients, for use only when recurrences are frequent or severe (unlabeled use): Oral: 200 mg 3 times/day or 400 mg 2 times/day Prevention of HSV reactivation in HSCT (unlabeled use): Note: Start at the beginning of conditioning therapy and continue until engraftment or until mucositis resolves (

30 days) Oral: 200 mg 3 times/day I. V. 250 mg/m2/dose every 12 hours Bone marrow transplant recipients (unlabeled use): I. V. Allogeneic patients who are HSV and CMV seropositive: 500 mg/m2/dose (10 mg/kg) every 8 hours; for clinically-symptomatic CMV infection, consider replacing acyclovir with ganciclovir DOSING: PEDIATRIC — Note: Obese patients should be dosed using ideal body weight (For additional information see “Acyclovir: Pediatric drug information”) Genital HSV: I. V. Children 12 years: Refer to adult dosing. Oral: Initial episode (unlabeled use): 40-80 mg/kg/day divided into 3-4 doses for 5-10 days (maximum: 1 g/day) Chronic suppression (unlabeled use; limited data): 80 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses (maximum: 1 g/day), re-evaluate after 12 months of treatment Herpes labialis (cold sores): Topical: Children 12 years: Refer to adult dosing. Herpes zoster (shingles): I. V. Children <12 years (immunocompromised): 20 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 7 days Children 12 years: Refer to adult dosing. HSV encephalitis: I. V. Children 3 months to 12 years: 20 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 10 days (per manufacturer’s labeling); dosing for 14-21 days also reported Children 12 years: Refer to adult dosing. Mucocutaneous HSV: I. V. Children <12 years (immunocompromised): 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 7 days Children 12 years: Refer to adult dosing. Neonatal HSV: I. V. Neonate: Birth to 3 months: 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 10 days (manufacturer’s labeling); 15 mg/kg/dose or 20 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 14-21 days has also been reported Varicella-zoster (chickenpox): Begin treatment within the first 24 hours of rash onset: Oral: Children 2 years and 40 kg (immunocompetent): 20 mg/kg/dose (up to 800 mg/dose) 4 times/day for 5 days Children >40 kg: Refer to adult dosing. I. V. Children <1 year (immunocompromised, unlabeled use): 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 hours for 7-10 days Children 1 year: Refer to adult dosing. Prevention of HSV reactivation in HIV-positive patients, for use only when recurrences are frequent or severe (unlabeled use): Oral: 80 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses Prevention of HSV reactivation in HSCT (unlabeled use): Note: Start at the beginning of conditioning therapy and continue until engraftment or until mucositis resolves (

30 days): I. V. 250 mg/m2/dose every 8 hours or 125 mg/m2/dose every 6 hours Bone marrow transplant recipients (unlabeled use): I. V. Refer to adult dosing. DOSING: ELDERLY — Refer to adult dosing. DOSING: RENAL IMPAIRMENT Oral: Clcr 10-25 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Normal dosing regimen 800 mg every 4 hours: Administer 800 mg every 8 hours Clcr <10 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Normal dosing regimen 200 mg every 4 hours, 200 mg every 8 hours, or 400 mg every 12 hours: Administer 200 mg every 12 hours Normal dosing regimen 800 mg every 4 hours: Administer 800 mg every 12 hours I. V. Clcr 25-50 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Administer recommended dose every 12 hours Clcr 10-25 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Administer recommended dose every 24 hours Clcr <10 mL/minute/1.73 m2: Administer 50% of recommended dose every 24 hours Hemodialysis: Administer dose after dialysis Peritoneal dialysis: No supplemental dose needed CAVH: 3.5 mg/kg/day CVVHD/CVVH: Adjust dose based upon Clcr 30 mL/minute DOSAGE FORMS — Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product Capsule: 200 mg Zovirax®: 200 mg Cream, topical: Zovirax®: 5% (2 g, 5 g) Injection, powder for reconstitution, as sodium: 500 mg, 1000 mg Zovirax®: 500 mg [DSC] Injection, solution, as sodium [preservative free]: 25 mg/mL (20 mL, 40 mL); 50 mg/mL (10 mL, 20 mL) Ointment, topical: Zovirax®: 5% (15 g) Suspension, oral: 200 mg/5 mL (480 mL) Zovirax®: 200 mg/5 mL (480 mL) [banana flavor] Tablet: 400 mg, 800 mg Zovirax®: 400 mg, 800 mg DOSAGE FORMS: CONCISE Capsule: 200 mg Zovirax®: 200 mg Cream, topical: Zovirax®: 5% (2 g, 5 g) Injection, powder for reconstitution: 500 mg, 1000 mg Injection, solution [preservative free]: 25 mg/mL (20 mL, 40 mL); 50 mg/mL (10 mL, 20 mL) Ointment, topical: Zovirax®: 5% (15 g) Suspension, oral: 200 mg/5 mL Zovirax®: 200 mg/5 mL Tablet: 400 mg, 800 mg Zovirax®: 400 mg, 800 mg GENERIC EQUIVALENT AVAILABLE — Yes: Excludes cream, ointment ADMINISTRATION Oral: May be administered with or without food. I. V. Avoid rapid infusion; infuse over 1 hour to prevent renal damage; maintain adequate hydration of patient; check for phlebitis and rotate infusion sites Topical: Not for use in the eye. Apply using a finger cot or rubber glove to avoid transmission to other parts of the body or to other persons. COMPATIBILITY — Stable in D5W, D5NS, D51/4NS, D51/2NS, LR, NS. Incompatible with blood products and protein-containing solutions. Y-site administration: Compatible: Allopurinol, amikacin, amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex, ampicillin, cefamandole, cefazolin, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, cimetidine, clindamycin, co-trimoxazole, dexamethasone, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, docetaxel, doxorubicin liposome, doxycycline, erythromycin lactobionate, etoposide, famotidine, filgrastim, fluconazole, gatifloxacin, gentamicin, granisetron, heparin, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, hydromorphone, imipenem/cilastatin, linezolid, lorazepam, magnesium sulfate, melphalan, methylprednisolone sodium succinate, metoclopramide, metronidazole, multivitamins, nafcillin, oxacillin, paclitaxel, penicillin G potassium, pentobarbital, perphenazine, piperacillin, potassium chloride, propofol, ranitidine, remifentanil, sodium bicarbonate, tacrolimus, teniposide, theophylline, thiotepa, ticarcillin, tobramycin, vancomycin, zidovudine. Incompatible: Amifostine, amsacrine, aztreonam, cefepime, dobutamine, dopamine, fludarabine, foscarnet, gemcitabine, idarubicin, levofloxacin, ondansetron, piperacillin/tazobactam, sargramostim, vinorelbine. Variable (consult detailed reference): Cisatracurium, diltiazem, meperidine, meropenem, morphine, TPN. Compatibility when admixed: Compatible: Fluconazole. Incompatible: Dobutamine, dopamine. Variable (consult detailed reference): Meropenem. USE — Treatment of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV), herpes labialis (cold sores), herpes zoster (shingles), HSV encephalitis, neonatal HSV, mucocutaneous HSV in immunocompromised patients, varicella-zoster (chickenpox) USE – UNLABELED / INVESTIGATIONAL — Prevention of HSV reactivation in HIV-positive patients; prevention of HSV reactivation in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT); prevention of HSV reactivation during periods of neutropenia in patients with acute leukemia ADVERSE REACTIONS SIGNIFICANT Systemic: Oral: >10%: Central nervous system: Malaise (12%) 1% to 10%: Central nervous system: Headache (2%) Gastrointestinal: Nausea (2% to 5%), vomiting (3%), diarrhea (2% to 3%) Systemic: Parenteral: 1% to 10%: Dermatologic: Hives (2%), itching (2%), rash (2%) Gastrointestinal: Nausea/vomiting (7%) Hepatic: Liver function tests increased (1% to 2%) Local: Inflammation at injection site or phlebitis (9%) Renal: BUN increased (5% to 10%), creatinine increased (5% to 10%), acute renal failure Topical: >10%: Dermatologic: Mild pain, burning, or stinging (ointment 30%) 1% to 10%: Dermatologic: Pruritus (ointment 4%), itching All forms: <1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Abdominal pain, aggression, agitation, alopecia, anaphylaxis, anemia, angioedema, anorexia, ataxia, coma, confusion, consciousness decreased, delirium, desquamation, diarrhea, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), dizziness, dry lips, dysarthria, encephalopathy, erythema multiforme, fatigue, fever, gastrointestinal distress, hallucinations, hematuria, hemolysis, hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypotension, insomnia, jaundice, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, local tissue necrosis (following extravasation), lymphadenopathy, mental depression, myalgia, neutrophilia, paresthesia, peripheral edema, photosensitization, pruritus, psychosis, renal failure, seizure, somnolence, sore throat, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS), thrombocytosis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, tremor, urticaria, visual disturbances CONTRAINDICATIONS — Hypersensitivity to acyclovir, valacyclovir, or any component of the formulation WARNINGS / PRECAUTIONS — Use with caution in immunocompromised patients; thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS) has been reported. Use caution in the elderly, pre-existing renal disease, or in those receiving other nephrotoxic drugs. Maintain adequate hydration during oral or intravenous therapy. Use I. V. preparation with caution in patients with underlying neurologic abnormalities, serious hepatic or electrolyte abnormalities, or substantial hypoxia. Safety and efficacy of oral formulations have not been established in pediatric patients <2 years of age. Chickenpox: Treatment should begin within 24 hours of appearance of rash; oral route not recommended for routine use in otherwise healthy children with varicella, but may be effective in patients at increased risk of moderate to severe infection (>12 years of age, chronic cutaneous or pulmonary disorders, long-term salicylate therapy, corticosteroid therapy). Genital herpes: Physical contact should be avoided when lesions are present; transmission may also occur in the absence of symptoms. Treatment should begin with the first signs or symptoms. Herpes labialis: For external use only to the lips and face; do not apply to eye or inside the mouth or nose. Treatment should begin with the first signs or symptoms. Herpes zoster: Acyclovir should be started within 72 hours of appearance of rash to be effective. ETHANOL / NUTRITION / HERB INTERACTIONS — Food: Does not affect absorption of oral acyclovir. PREGNANCY RISK FACTOR — B (show table) PREGNANCY IMPLICATIONS — Teratogenic effects were not observed in animal studies. Acyclovir has been shown to cross the human placenta. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Results from a pregnancy registry, established in 1984 and closed in 1999, did not find an increase in the number of birth defects with exposure to acyclovir when compared to those expected in the general population. However, due to the small size of the registry and lack of long-term data, the manufacturer recommends using during pregnancy with caution and only when clearly needed. Data from the pregnancy registry may be obtained from GlaxoSmithKline. LACTATION — Enters breast milk/use with caution (AAP rates “compatible”) BREAST-FEEDING CONSIDERATIONS — Nursing mothers with herpetic lesions near or on the breast should avoid breast-feeding. Limited data suggest exposure to the nursing infant of

0.3 mg/kg/day following oral administration of acyclovir to the mother. DIETARY CONSIDERATIONS — May be taken with or without food. Acyclovir 500 mg injection contains sodium

2 mEq). PRICING — (data from drugstore. com)Capsules (Acyclovir) 200 mg (30): $12.99 Capsules (Zovirax) 200 mg (30): $66.50 Cream (Zovirax) 5% (2): $42.53 5% (5): $94.81 Ointment (Zovirax) 5% (15): $105.18 Suspension (Acyclovir) 200 mg/5 mL (473): $82.68 Suspension (Zovirax) 200 mg/5 mL (473): $183.41 Tablets (Acyclovir) 400 mg (60): $28.99 800 mg (30): $24.99 Tablets (Zovirax) 400 mg (60): $242.78 800 mg (30): $236.13 MONITORING PARAMETERS — Urinalysis, BUN, serum creatinine, liver enzymes, CBC TOXICOLOGY / OVERDOSE COMPREHENSIVE — Overdoses of up to 20 g have been reported. Symptoms of overdose include agitation, seizures, somnolence, confusion, elevated serum creatinine, and renal failure. In the event of overdose, sufficient urine flow must be maintained to avoid drug precipitation within renal tubules. Hemodialysis has resulted in up to 60% reduction in serum acyclovir levels. CANADIAN BRAND NAMES — Apo-Acyclovir®; Gen-Acyclovir; Nu-Acyclovir; ratio-Acyclovir; Zovirax® INTERNATIONAL BRAND NAMES — Abbovir (PL); ACERPES (DE); Acic Creme (DE); Acicloftal (IT); Aciclor (VE); Aciclosina (PE); Aciclovir (PL); Aciclovir-BC IV (AU); Acihexal (AU); Acivir Cream (IL, IN); Acivir Eye (IN); Acix (PL); Aclova (KR); Aclovir (HR, TH, TW); Aclovirax (HK); ACS (KR); Activir (FR); Acyclo-V (AU, BH); Acyclostad (PL); Acyclovir (PL); Acyclovir Stada (PL); Acyklowir (PL); Acylene (MY); Acyrova (KR); Acyvir (EC, HK, IT); Aias (KR); Antivir (PL); Apicol (CO); Apo-Acyclovir (CA, PL); Avorax (HK, MY, SG); Avorax Cream (MY); Awirol (PL); Azovir (ID); Bearax (SG); Cicloferon (MX); Cicloviral (CO); Clinovir (ID, TH); Clovicin (TW); Clovir (BR); Cloviran (CL); Colsor (TH); Cusiviral (ES, HK, MY, PL, SG); Cyclivex (ZA); Cyclomed (IL); Cyclorax (HK); Cyclostad (PH); Cyclovir (BF, BJ, CI, ET, GH, GM, GN, KE, LR, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, NE, NG, SC, SD, SL, SN, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW); Cyllanvir (PH); Danovir (SG); Deherp (TH, TW); Dravyr (SG); Duvimex (AE, BH, CY, EG, IQ, IR, JO, KW, LB, LY, OM, QA, SA, SY, YE); Entir (SG, TH); Erlvirax (SG); Euroclovir (HK); Eurovir (PY); Exavir (BR); Expit (UY); Gen-Acyclovir (CA); Hascovir (PL); Herpefug (DE); Herpesin (PL); Herpex (BH, IN, PL); Herpoviric (DE); Herpoviric Rp Creme (DE); Heviran (PL); Inmerax (CL); Juviral (DE); Laciken (MX); Lermex (TH); Libravir (EC); Lisovyr (AR, CL); Lovir (AU, HK, MY, NZ, SG); Lovire (ZA); Marvir (TH); Matrovir (ID); Maynor (ES); Medovir (AE, BF, BG, BH, BJ, CI, CY, EG, ET, GH, GM, GN, IQ, IR, JO, KE, KW, LB, LR, LY, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, MY, NE, NG, OM, QA, SA, SC, SD, SG, SL, SN, SY, TZ, UG, YE, ZM, ZW); Nevirz (ID); Norum (TH); Nu-Acyclovir (CA); Olvit (MX); Oppvir (TH, TW); Opthavir (MX); Poviral (EC); Proviral (AR); Qualiclovir (HK); Quavir (ID); Ranvir (TH); Ranviran (PL); ratio-Acyclovir (CA); Skirax (TW); Supra-Vir (IL); Supraviran (DE, PL); Supraviran Creme (AE, BH, CY, DE, EG, IQ, IR, JO, KW, LB, LY, OM, QA, SA, SY, YE); Syntovir (HK); Vacrax (MY); Vermis (TH); Vicorax (TH, TW); Viraban (NZ); Viracir (PL); Viralex-DS (PH); Virax (KR); Vircella (ID); Virest (MY, SG); Virex (CO); Virless (CN, TW); Viroclear (HK); Virogon (TH); Virolan (TW); Virolex (HR, PL); Viromed (TH); Virucid (HK); Virules (HK); Vivir (KR); Warviron (HK); Zetavir (MX); Zeven Cream (MY); Zevin (HK, TH); Zoral (HK, SG); Zoral Cream (MY); Zorax (SG); Zorel (ID); Zoter (ID); Zovir (DK); Zovirax [tabs./susp./ungt.] (PL); Zovirax (AE, AN, AR, AT, AU, BB, BD, BE, BF, BG, BH, BJ, BM, BO, BR, BS, BZ, CA, CH, CI, CL, CN, CR, CY, CZ, DE, DK, DO, EG, ES, ET, FI, FR, GB, GH, GM, GN, GR, GT, GY, HK, HN, HR, HU, ID, IE, IL, IN, IQ, IR, IT, JM, JO, JP, KE, KR, KW, LB, LR, LY, MA, ML, MR, MU, MW, MX, MY, NE, NG, NI, NL, NO, NZ, OM, PA, PE, PH, PK, PR, PT, PY, QA, RU, SA, SC, SD, SE, SL, SN, SR, SV, SY, TR, TT, TW, TZ, UG, UY, YE, ZA, ZM, ZW); Zumasid (ID); Zyclir (AU); Zyclorax (ID); Zyvir (KE) MECHANISM OF ACTION — Acyclovir is converted to acyclovir monophosphate by virus-specific thymidine kinase then further converted to acyclovir triphosphate by other cellular enzymes. Acyclovir triphosphate inhibits DNA synthesis and viral replication by competing with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase and being incorporated into viral DNA. PHARMACODYNAMICS / KINETICS Absorption: Oral: 15% to 30% Distribution: Vd: 0.8 L/kg (63.6 L): Widely (eg, brain, kidney, lungs, liver, spleen, muscle, uterus, vagina, CSF) Protein binding: 9% to 33% Metabolism: Converted by viral enzymes to acyclovir monophosphate, and further converted to diphosphate then triphosphate (active form) by cellular enzymes Bioavailability: Oral: 10% to 20% with normal renal function (bioavailability decreases with increased dose) Half-life elimination: Terminal: Neonates: 4 hours; Children 1-12 years: 2-3 hours; Adults: 3 hours Time to peak, serum: Oral: Within 1.5-2 hours Excretion: Urine (62% to 90% as unchanged drug and metabolite) PATIENT INFORMATION — This is not a cure for herpes (recurrences tend to continually reappear every 3-6 months after original infection), nor will this medication reduce the risk of transmission to others when lesions are present; avoid sexual intercourse when visible lesions are present. Take as directed for full course of therapy; do not discontinue even if feeling better. Oral doses may be taken with food. (For additional information see “Acyclovir: Patient drug information”)

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The Amp Whisperer, Amp Equine

I'm moving operations over Stockport way next week, will be up and running again tout suite though. The last job done in Levenshulme was this lovely little early 50s Gibson BR9, which i fitted a new speaker into and gave a general once over for the best pedal steel player this side of the Rockies, Chris Hillman.

6 августа в 13:36 · Доступно всем

The Amp Whisperer добавил(-а) 2 новых фото — здесь: International Anthony Burgess Foundation

Had a great time guesting on a few tunes for Alexis Taylor last night. It was the inaugural gig for the AC30 clone I made by 'up cycling' the chassis and speakers from one of those diabolical Vox Valvetronix things (apologies if you own one, but it's yer own fault). I added a variable power control…

The Amp Whisperer добавил(-а) 2 новых фото .

Introducing; The Megacab! Standard Marshall 1960A cab with the (all knackered, natch) factory fitted Celestions replaced with Heritage G12s and the wiring modded for 4,16 or stereo 8 ohm use. Sounds cracking when married to this Selmer Treble And Bass Mk II I've just finished re-wiring. Rock on!

3 июня в 14:52 · Доступно всем

Baumalight - Pto Generators, Bamalite

For Tractors from 10 - 50 HP

The TX series generators are designed to back up small farms and estates like yours. Simple connections and controls provide quick and easy access to power when you need it. TX series generators are suited to tractors from 10hp to 50 hp. These rugged little units provide backup or remote power from 7 Kilowatts to 31 Kilowatts.

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Your operation cannot afford to be without power for long. The QC series of generators allow you to take matters into your own hands. These portable power plants are designed to fit tractors from 20 to 200 hp. The extensive QC model line up supports power requirements from 12 Kilowatts to 100 Kilowatts.

Learn how much generator power you need with our QC Power Calculator

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Buy Rytmobeta - Sotalol - Online Without Prescriptions, Rytmobeta

Betapace (Rytmobeta)

Betapace is used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat (ventricular arrhythmias). Betapace is a beta-blocker. It works by helping the heart beat regularly for a longer period of time.

Use Betapace as directed by your doctor.

Take Betapace by mouth with or without food. Try to take it the same way (either with food or without food) each time you take your dose. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about taking Betapace with food.

Do not take an antacid that has aluminum or magnesium in it within 2 hours before or after you take Betapace.

Taking Betapace at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

Continue to use Betapace even if you feel well. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Betapace, skip the missed dose. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Betapace.

Store Betapace at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Betapace out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Sotalol HCl.

Do NOT use Betapace if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Betapace

you have certain heart problems (eg, severe low heart rate, uncontrolled heart failure, certain types of abnormal heartbeat rhythm), low blood potassium or magnesium levels, severe kidney problems, or a history of asthma

you are taking cisapride, astemizole, terfenadine, mibefradil, dofetilide, or a theophylline (eg, aminophylline).

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Betapace. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have breathing or lung problems (eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder [COPD], asthma), a decreased appetite, an overactive thyroid, kidney problems, bronchitis, diabetes, blood flow problems, a tumor on your adrenal gland, or other heart problems

if you are scheduled for surgery.

Some medicines may interact with Betapace. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Indomethacin or phenylpropanolamine because they may decrease Betapace's effectiveness

Clonidine, diltiazem, mibefradil, nifedipine, or verapamil because the risk of side effects, such as low blood pressure or heart problems, may be increased

Amiodarone, antiarrhythmics (eg, quinidine, propafenone), arsenic, cisapride. dofetilide, droperidol, H 1 antagonists (eg, astemizole, terfenadine), ketanserin, macrolides and ketolides (eg, erythromycin, azithromycin), mefloquine, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (eg, sildenafil), phenothiazines (eg, thioridazine), quinolones (eg, ciprofloxacin), or ziprasidone because the risk of abnormal heart rhythms may be increased

Bupivacaine, cocaine, epinephrine, insulin, lidocaine, meglitinide antidiabetics (eg, nateglinide), nifedipine, or quinazolines (eg, prazosin) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Betapace

Certain stimulants (eg, albuterol, pseudoephedrine), phenformin, or theophyllines (eg, aminophylline) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Betapace.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Betapace may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Betapace may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or lightheadedness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Betapace with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Betapace may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Betapace before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Do not suddenly stop taking Betapace. Sharp chest pain, irregular heartbeat, and sometimes heart attack may occur if you suddenly stop Betapace. The risk may be greater if you have certain types of heart disease. Heart disease is common and you may not know you have it. Your doctor should slowly lower your dose over several weeks if you need to stop taking it. Limit physical activity while you are lowering your dose. If new or worsened chest pain or other heart problems occur, contact your doctor right away. You may need to start taking Betapace again.

Lab tests, including heart function, kidney function, and blood pressure monitoring, may be performed while you use Betapace. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Betapace while you are pregnant. Betapace is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Betapace.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Dizziness; drowsiness; headache; light-headedness; tiredness; trouble sleeping.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormally fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; changes in vision; decreased appetite; excessive thirst; numbness of an arm or leg; severe or persistent nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea; severe stomach pain; sharp or crushing chest pain; sudden leg pain; sudden severe headache, vomiting, dizziness, or fainting; sudden shortness of breath; unusual sweating.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Customers who bought this product also bought

Buy Oxemet Metformin Online Without Prescriptions, Oxemet

Metformin is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines. Metformin is a biguanide antidiabetic. It works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb. It also helps to make your body more sensitive to the insulin that you naturally produce.

Use Metformin as directed by your doctor.

Take Metformin by mouth with food.

Take Metformin on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Metformin at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

Continue to take Metformin even if you feel well. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Metformin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Metformin.

Store Metformin at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Metformin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Metformin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Metformin

you have congestive heart failure that is treated by medicine

you have a severe infection, low blood oxygen levels, kidney or liver problems, high blood ketone or acid levels (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis), or severe dehydration

you have had a stroke or a recent heart attack, or you are in shock

you are 80 years old or older and have not had a kidney function test

you will be having surgery or certain lab procedures.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Metformin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have a history of heart problems (eg, heart failure), lung or breathing problems, thyroid problems, stomach or bowel problems (eg, paralysis, blockage), adrenal or pituitary problems, or lactic acidosis

if you have vomiting, diarrhea, poor health or nutrition, low blood calcium or vitamin B 12 levels, or anemia, or if you are dehydrated

if you have an infection, fever, recent injury, or moderate to severe burns

if you drink alcohol or have a history of alcohol abuse

if you will be having surgery or certain lab procedures

if you take a beta-blocker (eg, propranolol).

Some medicines may interact with Metformin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Amiloride, cimetidine, digoxin, morphine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, ranitidine, triamterene, trimethoprim, or vancomycin because they may increase the risk of Metformin's side effects

Calcium channel blockers (eg, nifedipine), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), insulin, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, phenothiazine (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormones (eg, levothyroxine) because the risk of high or low blood sugar may be increased.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Metformin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Dizziness may occur while you are taking Metformin. This effect may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Metformin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Follow the diet and exercise program given to you by your health care provider.

Do not drink large amounts of alcohol while you use Metformin. Talk to your doctor or health care provider before you drink alcohol while you use Metformin.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Metformin before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Be careful not to become dehydrated, especially during hot weather or while you are being active. Dehydration may increase the risk of Metformin's side effects.

If vomiting or diarrhea occurs, you will need to take care not to become dehydrated. Contact your doctor for instructions.

Carry an ID card at all times that says you have diabetes. Check your blood sugar levels as directed by your doctor. If they are often higher or lower than they should be and you take Metformin exactly as prescribed, tell your doctor.

Metformin does not usually cause low blood sugar. Low blood sugar may be more likely to occur if you skip a meal, exercise heavily, or drink alcohol. It may also be more likely if you take Metformin along with certain medicines for diabetes (eg, sulfonylureas, insulin). It is a good idea to carry a reliable source of glucose (eg, tablets or gel) to treat low blood sugar. If this is not available, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens. To prevent low blood sugar, eat meals at the same time each day and do not skip meals.

Fever, infection, injury, or surgery may increase your risk for high or low blood sugar levels. If any of these occur, check your blood sugar closely and tell your doctor right away.

Metformin may commonly cause stomach upset, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea at the beginning of treatment. If you develop unusual or unexpected stomach problems, or if you develop stomach problems later during treatment, contact your doctor at once. This may be a sign of lactic acidosis.

Lab tests, including kidney function, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A 1c . and blood counts, may be performed while you use Metformin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Metformin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects. Low blood sugar levels may also be more difficult to recognize in the elderly.

Metformin should not be used in children younger 10 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Metformin while you are pregnant. It is not known if Metformin is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Metformin.

When used for long periods of time, Metformin may not work as well. If your blood sugar has been under control and then becomes hard to manage, contact your doctor. Do not change the dose of your medicine without checking with your doctor.

Bicalutamide, Casodex, Cosudex, Meditamide, Ormandyl, Tubibermide, Ormandyl

What is it?

This information is produced and provided originally by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). We only provide general information and advice from medical professionals should be followed. It is very important to consult more information about the drug, such as side-effects, benefits, indications, approval and so forth. More information concerning the use of this drug is available on the NCI-website at www. cancer. gov. This information was last updated by NCI in July 2014. It is always important to consult the leaflet information.

A drug used with another drug to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Bicalutamide binds to proteins called androgen receptors, which are found in some prostate cancer cells. These proteins bind to androgens (male hormones) and may cause cancer cells to grow. Bicalutamide blocks these proteins and may keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of antiandrogen .

More info

To get more information about this drug, a patient summary is available. Click here .

To get more professional information about this drug ( FDA information) click here .

Casodex (brand name)

Cosudex (brand name)

Ormandyl ( brand name )

Tubibermide ( brand name )

This therapy belongs to:

Information is available for:

Last updated: 13/8/2015

Glossary

Our website also features an extensive list of relevant medical terms and their meaning. In most cases these terms are marked in the text but you can also page through the glossary yourself to look up certain words. Go to the Glossary

Rani-Q Indication, Action Of Rani-Q, Interactions, Rani-Q

Rani-Q [in more detail]

Rani-Q Indication:

Used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), dyspepsia, stress ulcer prophylaxis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Rani-Q Mechanism Of Action:

The H2 antagonists are competitive inhibitors of histamine at the parietal cell H2 receptor. They suppress the normal secretion of acid by parietal cells and the meal-stimulated secretion of acid. They accomplish this by two mechanisms: histamine released by ECL cells in the stomach is blocked from binding on parietal cell H2 receptors which stimulate acid secretion, and other substances that promote acid secretion (such as gastrin and acetylcholine) have a reduced effect on parietal cells when the H2 receptors are blocked.

Rani-Q Drug Interactions:

Anisindione The anti-H2 increases the anticoagulant effect Dicumarol The anti-H2 increases the anticoagulant effect Acenocoumarol The anti-H2 increases the anticoagulant effect Warfarin The anti-H2 increases the anticoagulant effect Itraconazole The anti-H2 decreases the absorption of the imidazole Ketoconazole The anti-H2 decreases the absorption of the imidazole Procainamide The histamine H2-receptor antagonist increases the effect of procainamide Dasatinib Possible decreased levels of dasatinib Atazanavir This gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanaivr Tolazoline Anticipated loss of efficacy of tolazoline

Food Interactions:

Avoid alcohol. Avoid milk, calcium containing dairy products, iron, antacids, or aluminum salts 2 hours before or 6 hours after using antacids while on this medication. Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).

Rani-Q Chemical Formula:

Lanx Fabrics ? Chemical And Biological Protective Apparel, Lanx

LANX Fabric Systems is currently accepting orders from military organizations, law enforcement, EMS, hospital caregivers, fire departments and any federal, state, or local governments, emergency agencies or first responders. In addition, we accept orders from certain businesses, news agencies and public utilities personnel tasked with maintaining critical infrastructure facilities and services. We certainly appreciate your visit to our web site and look forward to being of service to you.

LANX Fabric Systems comprise a family of NBC products that are absorbent, durable, air permeable, user comfortable and can be fire resistant, as required. The base adsorption technology is polymerically encapsulated activated carbon, a new and unique technology which provides extremely uniform carbon distribution and chemical protection.

A key distinguishing feature of LANX fabrics is their tailorable stretch, which results in good fit and user comfort.

A second feature of LANX fabrics is their moisture transport qualities. LANX fabrics are constructed to be air permeable and to promote evaporative cooling, which reduces heat stress.

The LANX Fabric Systems product line can meet the demanding NBC protection required for today's and tomorrow's soldiers. Breathable, chemically adsorbent fabrics are available for a variety of applications and needs, including undergarments. overgarments. duty uniforms, gloves and boot liners.

OSHA Regulation 1910.132

Zyvir-800; Tablet, Satyam Healthcare P, Zyvir

ZYVIR-800 - Tablet, Satyam Healthcare P. LTD

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Dexium Injection For Animal Use, Dexium Sp

Dexium Injection

Dexium Injection Caution

Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

Description

Dexamethasone Solution is a synthetic analogue of prednisolone, having similar but more potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic action and diversified hormonal and metabolic effects. Modification of the basic corticoid structure as achieved in Dexium ® offers enhanced anti-inflammatory effect compared to older corticosteroids. The dosage of Dexium ® required is markedly lower than that of prednisone and prednisolone.

Dexium ® is not species-specific; however, the veterinarian should read the sections on INDICATIONS, DOSAGE, SIDE EFFECTS, CONTRAINDICATIONS, PRECAUTIONS, and WARNINGS before this drug is used.

Dexium ® is intended for intravenous or intramuscular administration. Each mL contains 2 mg dexamethasone, 500 mg polyethylene glycol 400, 9 mg benzyl alcohol, 1.8 mg methylparaben and 0.2 mg propylparaben as preservatives, 4.75% alcohol, HCl to adjust pH to approximately 4.9, water for injection q. s.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES: Experimental animal studies on dexamethasone have revealed it possesses greater anti-inflammatory activity than many steroids. Veterinary clinical evidence indicates dexamethasone has approximately 20 times the anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone and 70 to 80 times that of hydrocortisone. Thymus involution studies show dexamethasone possesses 25 times the activity of prednisolone. In reference to mineralocorticoid activity, dexamethasone does not cause significant sodium or water retention. Metabolic balance studies show that animals on controlled and limited protein intake will exhibit nitrogen losses on exceedingly high dosages.

Dexium Injection Indications

Dexium ® is indicated for the treatment of primary bovine ketosis and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the bovine and equine.

As supportive therapy, Dexium ® may be used in the management of various rheumatic, allergic, dermatologic, and other diseases known to be responsive to anti-inflammatory corticosteroids. Dexium ® may be used intravenously as supportive therapy when an immediate hormonal response is required.

Dexium ® is offered for the treatment of primary ketosis. The gluconeogenic effects of Dexium ®. when administered intramuscularly, are generally noted within the first 6 to 12 hours. When Dexium ® is used intravenously, the effects may be noted sooner. Blood sugar levels rise to normal levels rapidly and generally rise to above normal levels within 12 to 24 hours. Acetone bodies are reduced to normal concentrations usually within 24 hours. The physical attitude of animals treated with Dexium ® brightens and appetite improves, usually within 12 hours. Milk production, which is suppressed as a compensatory reaction in this condition, begins to increase. In some instances, it may even surpass previous peaks. The recovery process usually takes from 3 to 7 days.

Dexium ® may be used as supportive therapy in mastitis, metritis, traumatic gastritis, and pyelonephritis, while appropriate primary therapy is administered. In these cases, the corticosteroid combats accompanying stress and enhances the feeling of general well-being.

Dexium ® may also be used as supportive therapy in inflammatory conditions such as arthritic conditions, snake bite, acute mastitis, shipping fever, pneumonia, laminitis, and retained placenta.

Dexium ® is indicated for the treatment of acute musculoskeletal inflammations, such as bursitis, carpitis, osselets, tendonitis, myositis, and sprains. If boney changes exist in any of these conditions, joints, or accessory structures, a response to Dexium ® cannot be expected. In addition, Dexium ® may be used as supportive therapy in fatigue, heat exhaustion, influenza, laminitis, and retained placenta provided that the primary cause is determined and corrected.

ADMINISTRATION AND DOSAGE: Therapy with Dexium ®. as with any other potent corticosteroid, should be individualized according to the severity of the condition being treated, anticipated duration of steroid therapy, and animal’s threshold or tolerance for steroid excess.

Treatment may be changed over to Dexium ® from any other glucocorticoid with proper reduction or adjustment of dosage.

Bovine: Dexium ®. 5 - 20 mg intravenously or intramuscularly.

Equine: Dexium ®. 2.5 - 5 mg intravenously or intramuscularly.

Contraindications

Except for emergency therapy, do not use in animals with chronic nephritis and hyper-corticalism (Cushing’s syndrome). Existence of congestive heart failure, diabetes, and osteoporosis are relative contraindications. Do not use in viral infections during the viremic stage.

Precautions

Animals receiving Dexium ® should be under close observation. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be masked and it may be necessary to stop treatment until a further diagnosis is made. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss, and weight gain.

Dexium ® may be administered to animals with acute or chronic bacterial infections providing the infections are controlled with appropriate antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents.

Doses greater than those recommended in horses may produce transient drowsiness or lethargy in some horses. The lethargy usually abates in 24 hours.

Use of corticosteroids, depending on the dose, duration, and specified steroid, may result in inhibition of endogenous steroid production following drug withdrawal. In patients presently receiving or recently withdrawn from systemic corticosteroid treatments, therapy with a rapidly acting corticosteroid should be considered in unusually stressful situations.

Warnings

Clinical and experimental data have demonstrated that corticosteroids administered orally or parenterally to animals may induce the first stage of parturition when administered during the last trimester of pregnancy and may precipitate premature parturition followed by dystocia, fetal death, retained placenta, and metritis.

Additionally, corticosteroids administered to dogs, rabbits, and rodents during pregnancy have produced cleft palate. Other congenital anomalies including deformed forelegs, phocomelia, and anasarca have been reported in offspring of dogs which received corticosteroids during pregnancy.

A withdrawal period has not been established for this product in pre-ruminating calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal.

Side Effects

Side effects, such as SAP and SGPT enzyme elevations, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, and polyuria have occurred following the use of synthetic corticosteroids in dogs. Vomiting and diarrhea (occasionally bloody) have been observed in cats and dogs. Cushing’s syndrome in dogs has been reported in association with prolonged or repeated steroid therapy.

Corticosteroids reportedly cause laminitis in horses.

How Supplied

Dexium ®. 2 mg per mL, 100 mL multiple dose vial.

Storage

Store between 2° and 30°C (36° and 86°F).

FOR ANIMAL USE ONLY

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

Dexium is a Registered Trademark of Bimeda, Inc.

Manufactured by: Bimeda-MTC Animal Health Inc. Cambridge, Ontario, Canada N3C 2W4

Bimeda, Inc. and Bimeda-MTC Animal Health Inc. are Divisions of Cross Vetpharm Group Ltd.

Manufactured for: Bimeda, Inc. Le Sueur, MN 56058

Buy Peprazol Omeprazole Online Without Prescriptions, Peprazol

Prilosec is used for treating heartburn or irritation of the esophagus caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It may also be used for short-term treatment of ulcers of the stomach or small intestines. It may also be used with certain antibiotics to treat ulcers of the small intestines and to help prevent them from coming back. It may also be used to treat conditions that cause your body to make too much stomach acid (eg, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome). Prilosec is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). It works by decreasing the amount of acid produced in the stomach.

Use Prilosec as directed by your doctor.

Take Prilosec by mouth on an empty stomach before eating.

Swallow Prilosec whole. Do not break, crush, chew, or open Prilosec before swallowing.

If you have trouble swallowing the capsule, add 1 tablespoon of applesauce to an empty bowl. Open the capsule and empty the pellets onto the applesauce. Mix the pellets with the applesauce and swallow the mixture at once, followed by a glass of cool water. The applesauce used should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed with out chewing. Do not chew or crush the pellets. Do not store the mixture for further use.

You may take antacids while you are using Prilosec if you are directed to do so by your doctor.

If you also take an imidazole antifungal (eg, ketoconazole), take it at least 2 hours before taking Prilosec.

If you also take sucralfate, take Prilosec at least 30 minutes before taking sucralfate.

Continue to take Prilosec even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

If you miss a dose of Prilosec, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Prilosec.

Active Ingredient: Omeprazole.

Store Prilosec at room temperature, between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Prilosec out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Prilosec if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Prilosec

you are taking an HIV protease inhibitor (eg, atazanavir).

Contact your doctor right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Prilosec. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have liver problems or stomach or bowel cancer.

Some medicines may interact with Prilosec. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Clarithromycin or voriconazole because they may increase the risk of Prilosec's side effects

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam), cilostazol, cyclosporine, digoxin, disulfiram, phenytoin, or tacrolimus because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Prilosec

Ampicillins, azole antifungals (eg, ketoconazole), clopidogrel, ginkgo biloba, HIV protease inhibitors (eg, atazanavir), or iron because their effectiveness may be decreased by Prilosec.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Prilosec may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Prilosec may cause drowsiness or dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Prilosec with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Contact your doctor if you have any symptoms of a bleeding ulcer, such as black, tarry stools or vomit that looks like coffee grounds, or if you experience throat pain, chest pain, severe stomach pain, or trouble swallowing.

Prilosec may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Prilosec.

Prilosec should be used with caution in Asian patients; the risk of side effects may be increased in these patients.

Prilosec should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 2 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Prilosec while you are pregnant. Prilosec is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Prilosec.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; unusual hoarseness); chest pain; dark urine; fast or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or sore throat; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; swelling of the hands, ankles, or feet; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual tiredness; vision changes; yellowing of the eyes or skin.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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Copyright © 2004-2016 All Rights Reserved

Isee - International Society For Environmental Epidemiology, Isee

Thank you to everyone who participated in the recent membership survey. Here are the results from the survey (past members. current members. and student members ). These results will be used to assist with the organization's strategic planning. To learn more about the organization's strategic planning, please attend the ISEE membership meeting in Rome.

Members of the ISEE Policy Committee recently provided feedback and suggestions to the World Health Organization (WHO) with regards to several areas related to environmental health. Among the topics discussed at the 69th World Health Assembly in Geneva in May 2016, a report on Ending Childhood Obesity was presented. While ISEE commended WHO for the quality of their report. the Policy Committee recommended that in addition to the well-known role of physical activity and diet on the development of obesity, the emerging evidence regarding the role of some chemicals as obesogens should be highlighted. See our full comments here. ISEE also offered strong support for the WHO road map on atmospheric pollution, as detailed here. Finally, the Policy Committee offered advice on the role of the health sector in the sound management of chemicals, as detailed here.

The Gulf Research Program & Robert Wood Johnson Foundation are committing $10 million to enhancing coastal community resilience. There is a need for researchers and community members working across the boundaries of science and practice and of society and the environment to advance our understanding of what makes and keeps Gulf communities resilient, healthy, and thriving. Funding is being provided for projects that explore the human dynamics of resilience. Apply for a grant today.

Accessing Your Membership Account . To access your membership account where you can check your payment status, update your account information including contact information, print copies of invoices, etc. My Login Page

Studying Human Health and the Environment

The International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) provides a forum for the discussion of problems unique to the study of health and the environment. With membership open to environmental epidemiologists and other scientists worldwide, ISEE provides a variety of forums for discussions, critical reviews, collaborations and education on issues of environmental exposures and their human health effects.

Students and New Researchers Network

The SNRN is open to students, postdoctoral trainees and new researchers in environmental epidemiology or related disciplines.

Mentorship Program Learn how to become a mentor or mentee

2016 ISEE Awards

ISEE Awards Committee presents several annual awards. Learn more about our awards.

The following awardees were honored September 1-4, 2016 at the ISEE 28th Annual Conference in Rome, Italy.

John Goldsmith Award for Outstanding Contributions to Environmental Epidemiology 2016 Awardee: Philippe Grandjean, MD, PhD

This award recognizes environmental epidemiologists who, like John Goldsmith, serve as models of excellence in research, unwavering promotion of environmental health, and integrity. Learn more

Rebecca James Baker Award 2016 Awardee: Ana Maria Mora . PhD 2016 Honorable Mention: Shuhei Nomura

To honor Rebecca's memory and to encourage students and new investigators to follow her example, the Rebecca James Baker Memorial Prize is awarded each year at the ISEE annual conference. Learn more

Best Environmental Epidemiology Paper

2016 Award: Antonio Gasparrini, Yuming Guo, Masahiro Hashizume, Eric Lavigne, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz, Aurelio Tobias, Shilu Tong, Joacim Rocklov, Bertil Forsberg, Michela Leone, Manuela De Sario, Michelle L Bell, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Chang-fu Wu, Haidong Kan, Seung-Muk Yi, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim, and Ben Armstrong: Mortality Risk Attributable to High and Low Ambient Temperature: a Multicountry Observational Study Published in Lancet ; 386: 369–75 May 21, 2015 http://dx. doi. org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62114-0

The Best Environmental Epidemiology Paper award aims to recognize excellence in the field of environmental epidemiology and encourage the publication of outstanding papers. Learn more

Tony McMichael Mid-Term Career Award 2016 Awardees: Mireille Toledano, PhD and Marc Weisskopf, PhD, ScD

This annual award was created to honor Tony McMichael, who passed away in 2014. He was a world renowned epidemiologist, known not only for his original scientific work, but also for his compassionate mentoring of junior colleagues. He was President of ISEE from 2008-2009. Learn more

Outstanding Abstracts and Student Posters

ISEE recognizes new researchers and students at each annual conference with awards for outstanding abstracts and student posters. Awards are given to the first author of an accepted abstract or poster presented at the conference.

2016 Outstanding Abstracts by Young Investigators Erin Semmens, PhD: Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollutants and Cognitive Trajectories in the Cardiovascular Health Study Marina Vafeiadi, PhD: Early Life Phthalate Exposure and Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits in Childhood

2016 Outstanding Student Posters

Ester Rita Alessandrini: Distributed-lag models of long-term health effects of exposure to industrial air pollution in the Taranto area (Southern Italy)

Kristine Belesova: Household Crop Harvest and Children’s Nutritional Status in Rural Burkina Faso

Oscar Rojas-Sanchez: Association among Outdoor and Indoor Exposure to PM2.5 and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Adult Population in Bucaramanga, Colombia

ISEE members receive a free print and online subscription to Epidemiology, the official journal of ISEE. Published six times yearly, Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research on the full spectrum of epidemiologic topics. Read more about Epidemiology

Join ISEE and receive your free subscription to Epidemiology .

Thank you to everyone who participated in the recent membership survey. Here are the results from the survey (past members. current members. and student members ). These results will be used to assist with the organization's strategic planning. To learn more about the organization's strategic planning, please attend the ISEE membership meeting in Rome.

Members of the ISEE Policy Committee recently provided feedback and suggestions to the World Health Organization (WHO) with regards to several areas related to environmental health. Among the topics discussed at the 69th World Health Assembly in Geneva in May 2016, a report on Ending Childhood Obesity was presented. While ISEE commended WHO for the quality of their report. the Policy Committee recommended that in addition to the well-known role of physical activity and diet on the development of obesity, the emerging evidence regarding the role of some chemicals as obesogens should be highlighted. See our full comments here. ISEE also offered strong support for the WHO road map on atmospheric pollution, as detailed here. Finally, the Policy Committee offered advice on the role of the health sector in the sound management of chemicals, as detailed here.

The Gulf Research Program & Robert Wood Johnson Foundation are committing $10 million to enhancing coastal community resilience. There is a need for researchers and community members working across the boundaries of science and practice and of society and the environment to advance our understanding of what makes and keeps Gulf communities resilient, healthy, and thriving. Funding is being provided for projects that explore the human dynamics of resilience. Apply for a grant today.

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Studying Human Health and the Environment

The International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) provides a forum for the discussion of problems unique to the study of health and the environment. With membership open to environmental epidemiologists and other scientists worldwide, ISEE provides a variety of forums for discussions, critical reviews, collaborations and education on issues of environmental exposures and their human health effects.

Students and New Researchers Network

The SNRN is open to students, postdoctoral trainees and new researchers in environmental epidemiology or related disciplines.

Mentorship Program Learn how to become a mentor or mentee

2016 ISEE Awards

ISEE Awards Committee presents several annual awards. Learn more about our awards.

The following awardees were honored September 1-4, 2016 at the ISEE 28th Annual Conference in Rome, Italy.

John Goldsmith Award for Outstanding Contributions to Environmental Epidemiology 2016 Awardee: Philippe Grandjean, MD, PhD

This award recognizes environmental epidemiologists who, like John Goldsmith, serve as models of excellence in research, unwavering promotion of environmental health, and integrity. Learn more

Rebecca James Baker Award 2016 Awardee: Ana Maria Mora . PhD 2016 Honorable Mention: Shuhei Nomura

To honor Rebecca's memory and to encourage students and new investigators to follow her example, the Rebecca James Baker Memorial Prize is awarded each year at the ISEE annual conference. Learn more

Best Environmental Epidemiology Paper

2016 Award: Antonio Gasparrini, Yuming Guo, Masahiro Hashizume, Eric Lavigne, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz, Aurelio Tobias, Shilu Tong, Joacim Rocklov, Bertil Forsberg, Michela Leone, Manuela De Sario, Michelle L Bell, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Chang-fu Wu, Haidong Kan, Seung-Muk Yi, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Yasushi Honda, Ho Kim, and Ben Armstrong: Mortality Risk Attributable to High and Low Ambient Temperature: a Multicountry Observational Study Published in Lancet ; 386: 369–75 May 21, 2015 http://dx. doi. org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62114-0

The Best Environmental Epidemiology Paper award aims to recognize excellence in the field of environmental epidemiology and encourage the publication of outstanding papers. Learn more

Tony McMichael Mid-Term Career Award 2016 Awardees: Mireille Toledano, PhD and Marc Weisskopf, PhD, ScD

This annual award was created to honor Tony McMichael, who passed away in 2014. He was a world renowned epidemiologist, known not only for his original scientific work, but also for his compassionate mentoring of junior colleagues. He was President of ISEE from 2008-2009. Learn more

Outstanding Abstracts and Student Posters

ISEE recognizes new researchers and students at each annual conference with awards for outstanding abstracts and student posters. Awards are given to the first author of an accepted abstract or poster presented at the conference.

2016 Outstanding Abstracts by Young Investigators Erin Semmens, PhD: Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollutants and Cognitive Trajectories in the Cardiovascular Health Study Marina Vafeiadi, PhD: Early Life Phthalate Exposure and Obesity and Cardiometabolic Traits in Childhood

2016 Outstanding Student Posters

Ester Rita Alessandrini: Distributed-lag models of long-term health effects of exposure to industrial air pollution in the Taranto area (Southern Italy)

Kristine Belesova: Household Crop Harvest and Children’s Nutritional Status in Rural Burkina Faso

Oscar Rojas-Sanchez: Association among Outdoor and Indoor Exposure to PM2.5 and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in Adult Population in Bucaramanga, Colombia

ISEE members receive a free print and online subscription to Epidemiology, the official journal of ISEE. Published six times yearly, Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research on the full spectrum of epidemiologic topics. Read more about Epidemiology

Join ISEE and receive your free subscription to Epidemiology .

Melbexa - ?Tu Colega Siempre En Linea, Melbexa

MELBEXA

MELBEXA TABLETAS Hipoglucemiante INVESTIGACION FARMACEUTICA, S. A. de C. V.

- DENOMINACION GENERICA - FORMA FARMACEUTICA Y FORMULACION - INDICACIONES TERAPEUTICAS - FARMACOCINETICA Y FARMACODINAMIA EN HUMANOS - CONTRAINDICACIONES - PRECAUCIONES GENERALES - RESTRICCIONES DE USO DURANTE EL EMBARAZO Y LA LACTANCIA - REACCIONES SECUNDARIAS Y ADVERSAS - INTERACCIONES MEDICAMENTOSAS Y DE OTRO GENERO - ALTERACIONES EN LOS RESULTADOS DE PRUEBAS DE LABORATORIO - PRECAUCIONES EN RELACION CON EFECTOS DE CARCINOGENESIS, MUTAGENESIS, TERATOGENESIS Y SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD - DOSIS Y VIA DE ADMINISTRACION - MANIFESTACIONES Y MANEJO DE LA SOBREDOSIFICACION O INGESTA ACCIDENTAL - PRESENTACIONES - RECOMENDACIONES SOBRE ALMACENAMIENTO - LEYENDAS DE PROTECCION - LABORATORIO Y DIRECCION - NUMERO DE REGISTRO Y CLAVE IPPA

FORMA FARMACEUTICA Y FORMULACION:

Cada tableta contiene:

Clorhidrato de metformina. 500 y 850 mg

Excipiente cbp. 1 tableta

· Para el tratamiento de diabetes mellitus tipo II y tratamiento de ovario poliquistico.

· La metformina esta indicada en pacientes con diabetes mellitus estable del adulto, especialmente en el obeso.

· Fallas primarias y secundarias a otros hipoglucemiantes orales.

· Diabeticos en tratamiento con sulfonilureas con tendencia al aumento de peso.

· Pacientes obesos con resistencia a la insulina.

· Pacientes obesos con dislipidemia.

· Pacientes obesas con sindrome de ovario poliquistico.

FARMACOCINETICA Y FARMACODINAMIA EN HUMANOS:

Farmacocinetica: La metformina se absorbe a partir del intestino delgado en el transcurso de aproximadamente 6 horas. El farmaco es estable no se une a proteinas plasmaticas y se excreta sin cambios en la orina.

La vida media plasmatica es de 1.25 a 2.6 horas con un promedio de 1.8 ± 0.6 horas.

Su biodisponibilidad a dosis terapeuticas alcanza de 50 a 60%.

Metabolismo: Su biotrasformacion es escasa, su principal metabolito es la hidroximetilbiguanida (hidroxilacion) y esto sucede en el higado a nivel microsomal.

Eliminacion o excrecion: Su eliminacion es principalmente por los rinones de 80 a 90%.

La vida media de eliminacion plasmatica varia de 1.5 a 4.5 horas y la excrecion urinaria es de 8.9 a 19 horas.

La vida media se alarga en pacientes con insuficiencia renal en relacion a la depuracion de creatinina, por lo que puede existir prolongacion de esta en el anciano. La eliminacion se lleva a cabo en los rinones por secrecion tubular activa. Despues de la administracion oral de 500 mg de metformina, 50% se recupera en la orina y 27% en la heces.

Farmacodinamia: La metformina reduce los niveles de glucosa en pacientes diabeticos, mientras que a diferencia de las sulfonilureas, no causa una reduccion de los niveles de glucosa en sujetos normoglucemicos. La accion antihiperglucemica es debida principalmente a su mecanismo de accion en sitios extrapancreaticos. La principal accion de la metformina es el resultado de la potencializacion de los efectos metabolicos de la insulina en los tejidos perifericos incrementando la utilizacion de glucosa en el interior de la celula, un aumento de la oxidacion de glucosa y un incremento en la incorporacion a glucogeno. En el higado la metformina inhibe la gluconeogenesis, tambien por incremento de la sensibilidad a la insulina. La hiperglucemia postprandial se reduce como resultado de un mecanismo de absorcion de glucosa retardada a nivel gastrointestinal de metformina.

Estas propiedades significan que la accion de la metformina depende de la presencia de cierto grado de insulina plasmatica, ya sea de origen endogena o exogena. Agregado a su efecto antihiperglucemico, la metformina tiene efectos favorables sobre el metabolismo de grasas. Los niveles de trigliceridos y colesterol se reducen con el tratamiento. La actividad anorexigenica de la metformina favorece la perdida de peso y por lo tanto, da soporte a las medidas de reduccion y/o conservacion de peso.

El espectro de accion de la metformina hace que sea el tratamiento adecuado en pacientes diabeticos no insulinodependientes con sobrepeso y pacientes obesos, en donde la hiperglucemia es causada por resistencia a la insulina y en quienes se asocian trastornos dislipidemicos.

· Pacientes con hipersensibilidad a la metformina.

· Complicaciones agudas de la diabetes, como cetoacidosis o estado hiperosmolar.

· Deterioro de la funcion renal.

· Desnutricion importante con compromiso del estado general.

· Insuficiencia renal, hepatica, respiratoria o cardiaca severas.

· Intoxicacion alcoholica o alcoholismo.

· Diabetes mellitus con complicaciones tardias severas (nefropatia, retinopatia, neuropatia).

· Deficiencia de vitamina B12 hierro y acido folico.

Se debe tener en cuenta que existen varios informes relacionados con el uso de biguanidas como un factor que puede propiciar la aparicion de acidosis lactica, trastorno metabolico potencialmente fatal, caracterizado por la elevacion de los niveles de lactato, aumento de la relacion lactato-piruvato y una disminucion del pH sanguineo, aunque estos informes estan relacionados con el uso de otras biguanidas como la fenformina, el hecho de que MELBEXA® este elaborado a base de una biguanida hace necesario tomar en cuenta las siguientes precauciones para su uso: no utilizarlo en pacientes en quienes existe el riesgo de acidosis lactica como aquellos que presentan insuficiencia cardiaca, renal o hepatica, enfermedades vasculares isquemicas, insuficiencia respiratoria, infarto agudo del miocardio y otras enfermedades caracterizadas por hipoxemia. En caso de presentar sintomas como malestar general, esta situacion debera notificarse inmediatamente al medico.

Durante el uso de metformina, no debera darse concomitantemente acido acetilsalicilico, anticoagulantes ni fibrinoliticos.

RESTRICCIONES DE USO DURANTE EL EMBARAZO Y LA LACTANCIA:

Asi como cualquier medicamento antidiabetico oral, la metformina esta contraindicada en el embarazo. Las mujeres embarazadas que cursen con diabetes, deben ser tratadas con insulina para un optimo control metabolico. No hay estudios clinicos que avalen la seguridad de metformina durante la lactancia.

REACCIONES SECUNDARIAS Y ADVERSAS:

Intolerancia gastrointestinal como nauseas, vomito, diarrea, anorexia y gastralgia y sabor metalico. En casos rarisimos, acidosis lactica en pacientes con factores predisponentes como insuficiencia renal y colapso circulatorio.

INTERACCIONES MEDICAMENTOSAS Y DE OTRO GENERO:

La metformina potencializa el efecto de los anticoagulantes y de los fibrinoliticos. Inhibe la absorcion de la vitamina B12 en casos aislados. La metformina por si sola no causa hipoglucemia, sin embargo se debe tener atencion en la posibilidad de hipoglucemia cuando se administra concomitantemente con otros agentes hipoglucemiantes.

La clorpromazina, corticoides, diureticos, hormonas tiroideas, simpaticomimeticos y anticonceptivos orales pueden disminuir el efecto reductor de la glucosa de la metformina mediante alteracion de la tolerancia a la glucosa. Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, el acido acetilsalicilico o la cimetidina pueden reducir la excrecion renal de metformina y, por lo tanto, aumentar el riesgo de acidosis lactica.

ALTERACIONES EN LOS RESULTADOS DE PRUEBAS DE LABORATORIO:

En casos aislados puede haber mala absorcion de vitamina B12, que puede elevar el desarrollo de anemia megaloblastica. Disminuye los parametros de trigliceridos, colesterol total y LDL. No modifica las HDL. Excepcionalmente puede haber incremento en los niveles sericos de lactato, en pacientes predispuestos.

PRECAUCIONES EN RELACION CON EFECTOS DE CARCINOGENESIS, MUTAGENESIS, TERATOGENESIS Y SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD:

Estudios encaminados a la busqueda de este tipo de alteraciones en animales como ratas, conejos, perros y monos, no mostraron ninguna alteracion.

DOSIS Y VIA DE ADMINISTRACION:

Via de administracion: Oral.

La dosis maxima en ninos y adultos es de 2,550 g al dia. Se recomienda incrementar de 500 o 850 g a la semana de acuerdo a las necesidades metabolicas de cada paciente.

El numero maximo de tabletas recomendadas por dia es de 5 para MELBEXA® de 500 mg y de 3 para MELBEXA® de 850 mg.

Es preferible iniciar con la tableta en el desayuno.

Despues de 12 a 15 dias, adaptar la posologia de acuerdo a la mejoria de los pacientes.

En el caso de pacientes insulinodependientes, MELBEXA ® no sustituye el uso de insulina. Sin embargo la administracion conjunta con esta ultima permite reducir la dosis de insulina mejorando los niveles de glucemia. Si la dosis de insulina es menor a 40 U. MELBEXA ® debe administrarse a la dosis habitual y de acuerdo a la mejoria metabolica individual. Se debe reducir la insulina de dos a cuatro unidades cada dos dias.

Esquema de dosificacion de MELBEXA ® en pacientes con Sx. de ovario poliquistico

En el sindrome de Ovario poliquistico se recomienda iniciar con dosis de 500 mg. La maxima dosis posible con metformina es de 850 mg tres 3 veces al dia.

Es aconsejable dejar un intervalo de 1 a 2 semanas entre los incrementos posologicos.

MANIFESTACIONES Y MANEJO DE LA SOBREDOSIFICACION O INGESTA ACCIDENTAL:

Existen escasos reportes de sobredosis con metformina. La manifestacion importante corresponde a la acidosis lactica. En casos de sobre dosificacion se recomienda lavado gastrico y medidas de apoyo de acuerdo a la sintomatologia.

La sobredosis de metformina por si sola no causa hipoglucemia. Sin embargo la hipoglucemia se puede presentar si se esta administrando concomitantemente otro hipoglucemiante o se ha ingerido alcohol.

Los sintomas de intoxicacion son similares a las reacciones adversas. Se debe tener en mente el riesgo de acidosis lactica. El diagnostico debe ser confirmado mediante determinaciones sericas de lactato y metformina.

Cuando la metformina esta implicada como causa de acidosis lactica, los niveles plasmaticos deben estar > 5 microgramos/ml.

Si se sospecha intoxicacion con metformina, el paciente debe ser referido a un hospital para manejo intensivo por el riesgo de acidosis lactica.

En caso de intoxicacion, la terapia con hemodialisis es la manera mas efectiva de eliminar lactato y metformina. Medidas sintomaticas deben llevarse a cabo para estabilizar la circulacion, corregir la acidosis y la hipoxia.

Caja con 30 tabletas de 500 mg.

Caja con 30 tabletas de 850 mg.

RECOMENDACIONES SOBRE ALMACENAMIENTO:

Conservese a temperatura ambiente, a no mas de 30°C y en lugar seco.

LEYENDAS DE PROTECCION:

Literatura exclusiva para medicos. Su venta requiere receta medica. No se deje al alcance de los ninos. No se administre durante el embarazo y la lactancia

LABORATORIO Y DIRECCION: Hecho en Mexico por: INVESTIGACION FARMACEUTICA, S. A. de C. V. Calle 13 Este Num. 5 CIVAC 62500 Jiutepec, Morelos ® Marca registrada

NUMERO DE REGISTRO Y CLAVE IPPA: Reg. Num. 531M2000, S. S.A. IV DEAR-06330060102507/RM2007/IPPA

Pipe Plugs And Accessories, Rent Or Sell By Stemar Equipment - Supply Co, Inc, Stamar

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Stemar, Inc. has the largest inventory of "low pressure" pipe plugs and "high pressure" pipe plugs, for rent or purchase, anywhere in the USA. From less than 1" to more than 10 feet, Stemar, Inc. has the solutions wanted for pipeline stoppage, pipe flow diversion, pipeline acceptance testing, and pipeline leak locating. Stemar, Inc. also offers a complete pipeline "air test package" or "water test package" that's easy to use and Contractor Ready . Stemar, Inc. has the underground solutions necessary to solve difficult applications in tough locations. Stemar, Inc. will ship the same day or deliver anywhere including the U. S. and Canada.

Lidoxlor - Opisanie, Protivopokazaniya, Primenenie, Lidochlor

Лидохлор" /> Латинское название: Lidochlor Фармакологические группы: Антисептики и дезинфицирующие средства. Местные анестетики Действующее вещество (МНН) Лидокаин* (Lidocaine*)

Применение: Желудочковые экстрасистолии и тахиаритмии, в т. ч. при остром инфаркте миокарда, в послеоперационном периоде, фибрилляция желудочков; местная анестезия: поверхностная, инфильтрационная, проводниковая, эпидуральная, спинальная, интралигаментарная при оперативных вмешательствах, болезненных манипуляциях, эндоскопических и инструментальных исследованиях.

Противопоказания: Гиперчувствительность, наличие в анамнезе эпилептиформных судорог на лидокаин, WPW-синдром, кардиогенный шок, слабость синусного узла, блокады сердца (AV, внутрижелудочковая, синусно-предсердная), тяжелые заболевания печени, миастения.

Ограничения к применению: Беременность, кормление грудью.

Применение при беременности и кормлении грудью: При беременности и кормлении грудью возможно, если ожидаемый эффект терапии превышает потенциальный риск для плода и ребенка.

Побочные действия: Со стороны нервной системы и органов чувств: угнетение или возбуждение ЦНС, нервозность, эйфория, мелькание "мушек" перед глазами, светобоязнь, сонливость, головная боль, головокружение, шум в ушах, диплопия, нарушение сознания, угнетение или остановка дыхания, мышечные подергивания, тремор, дезориентация, судороги. Со стороны сердечно-сосудистой системы и крови (кроветворение, гемостаз): синусовая брадикардия, нарушение проводимости сердца, поперечная блокада сердца, гипотензия, коллапс. Со стороны органов ЖКТ: тошнота, рвота. Прочие: ощущение жара, холода или онемения конечностей, злокачественная гипертермия, угнетение иммунной системы, аллергические реакции (сыпь, генерализованный эксфолиативный дерматит, анафилактический шок); кратковременное ощущение жжения в области действия аэрозоля.

Взаимодействие: Бета-адреноблокаторы повышают вероятность развития брадикардии и гипотензии. Норэпинефрин и бета-адреноблокаторы, уменьшая печеночный кровоток, снижают (возрастает токсичность), изадрин и глюкагон - увеличивают клиренс лидокаина. Циметидин повышает концентрацию в плазме (вытесняет из связи с белками и замедляет инактивацию в печени). Барбитураты, вызывая индукцию микросомальных ферментов, стимулируют деградацию лидокаина и снижают его активность. Противосудорожные средства (производные гидантоина) ускоряют биотрансформацию в печени (уменьшается концентрация в крови), при в/в введении возможно усиление кардиодепрессивного действия лидокаина. Антиаритмики (амиодарон, верапамил, хинидин, аймалин) потенцируют кардиодепрессию. Сочетание с новокаинамидом может вызывать возбуждение ЦНС и галлюцинации. Усиливает угнетающее действие наркозных (гексобарбитал, тиопентал натрий), снотворных и седативных средств на дыхательный центр, ослабляет кардиотоническое влияние дигитоксина, углубляет миорелаксацию, вызываемую курареподобными препаратами (возможен паралич дыхательных мышц). Ингибиторы МАО пролонгируют местную анестезию.

Передозировка: Симптомы: психомоторное возбуждение, головокружение, общая слабость, снижение АД, тремор, тонико-клонические судороги, кома, коллапс, возможна AV блокада, угнетение ЦНС, остановка дыхания. Лечение: прекращение приема, легочная вентиляция, оксигенотерапия, противосудорожные средства, вазоконстрикторы (норадреналин, мезатон), при брадикардии - холинолитики (атропин). Возможно проведение интубации, ИВЛ, реанимационных мероприятий. Диализ неэффективен.

Способ применения и дозы: Аритмии: в/в струйно (в течение 3-4 мин) 50-100 мг/кг массы тела) со скоростью 25-50 мг/мин, затем капельно со скоростью 1-4 мг/мин. В/м из расчета 4,3 мг/кг массы тела, при необходимости повторно через 60-90 мин. Максимальная доза для взрослых при в/в и в/м введении - до 300-400 мг в течение 1 ч. Максимальная суточная доза - 2000 мг. Детям вводят струйно 1 мг/кг со скоростью 25-50 мг/мин, через 5 мин возможно повторное введение (суммарная доза не должна превышать 3 мг/кг). Затем инфузируют со скоростью 30 мкг/кг/мин. Максимальная суточная доза для детей - 4 мг/кг. Для поверхностной анестезии - 2-10% раствор (не более 200 мг - 2 мл). У взрослых для инфильтрационной анестезии используется 0,5% раствор, для проводниковой - 1-2% раствор. Максимальная общая доза - 300-400 мг. Детям до 2 лет назначают для поверхностной анестезии, предварительно нанеся на ватный тампон, 1-2 аэрозольные дозы (4,8-9,6 мг). В офтальмологии - по 2 капли 2-4% раствора в конъюнктивальный мешок за 30-60 мин до операции.

Меры предосторожности: Следует соблюдать осторожность при заболеваниях печени и почек, гиповолемии, тяжелой сердечной недостаточности с нарушением сократимости, генетической предрасположенности к злокачественной гипертермии. У детей, ослабленных и пожилых пациентов необходима коррекция дозы в соответствии с возрастом и физическим статусом. При введении в васкуляризированные ткани рекомендуется проводить аспирационную пробу.

Особые указания: Для удлинения действия анестетика возможно добавление 1 капли 0,1% раствора адреналина на 5-10 мл лидокаина (при этом максимальная допустимая доза увеличивается до 500 мг).

Торговые названия препаратов с действующим веществом Лидокаин* (Lidocaine*)

Динексан А Лидокаин-АКОС (Lidocainum-AKOS) Лидокаина гидрохлорида раствор (глазные капли) (Solutio Lidocaini hydrochloridi (guttae ophthalmicae)) Ксилодонт (Xylodont) Лидокаин-Н. С. (Lidocainum-N. C.) Лидокаина гидрохлорида раствор для инъекций (Solutio Lidocaini hydrochloridi pro injectionibus) Лидокаин (Lidocaine) Лидокаина гель (Gel Lidocaini) Лидохлор (Lidochlor) Лидокаин ICN (Lidocaine ICN) Лидокаина гидрохлорид (Lidocaini hydrochloridum) Ликаин (Licain)

Copyright © MedCatalog. net All rights reserved Перед применением любого из вышеперечисленных препаратов обязательно Проконсультируйтесь со своим Лечащим Врачом

Microflox 500mg Tablet ( Micro ) - Buy Microflox 500mg Tablet Online At Best Price In India, Microfl

MICROFLOX 500MG TABLET

What is Ciprofloxacin for:

This medication is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, prescribed for certain types of bacterial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract, skin, bones and joint infections. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal infections.

How does Ciprofloxacin work:

Ciprofloxacin works to harm the bacteria and fight the infection.

How should Ciprofloxacin be used:

Adult - Oral - The recommended dose range is 250 to 750mgday in divided doses. It comes as a tablet, capsule and syrup to take by mouth. It also comes as a solution for injection to be administered by a healthcare provider into the vein. It also comes as eyeear drops to instill over the affected eyes.

Common side effects of Ciprofloxacin :

Belly pain. Upset stomach or throwing up. Many small meals, good mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help. Loose stools (diarrhea). Yogurt or probiotics may help. You may get these products at health food stores or in some pharmacies. Tendons may rarely get irritated and tear. Unsafe allergic effects may rarely happen.

What do I do if I miss a dose

Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it. - If it is close to the time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time. - Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses. - Do not change the dose or stop this drug. - Talk with the doctor.

What precautions should I take when taking Ciprofloxacin :

Do not take Ciprofloxacin if you have a history of allergic reactions (rashes, breathlessness, swollen eyes) to similar antibiotics such as levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin or ofloxacin. - Alert your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. - Do not take Ciprofloxacin if you are pregnant. - Do not give Ciprofloxacin to children or teenagers unless instructed by the doctor.

When do I need to seek medical help

If you think there was an overdose, call your local poison control center or ER right away. Signs of a very bad reaction to the drug. These include wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue or gray skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat. A fast heartbeat. Very upset stomach or throwing up. Very loose stools (diarrhea), even after drug is stopped. Pain in back of the ankle. Joint pain or swelling. Very bad muscle pain or weakness. Numbness or tingling in your hands or feet. Seizures. Any rash. Side effect or health problem is not better or you are feeling worse.

Can I take Ciprofloxacin with other medicines:

Do not take Ciprofloxacin at the same time as antacids or supplements that contain aluminium, calcium, iron, magnesium or zinc. These reduce the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin. If you must take antacids or multivitamins containing aluminium, calcium, iron, magnesium or zinc, take Ciprofloxacin at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after such products. Alert your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, especially those listed here: - warfarin (a blood-thinning medicine). - any diabetes medicine. - theophylline (an asthma medicine). - amiodarone, sotalol (heart medicines). - psychiatric medicines. - phenytoin (an epilepsy medicine). - sucralfate, cisapride (gastric medicines). - other medicines such as didanosine, methotrexate, ciclosporin, ropinirole, tizanidine. Always inform your doctor and pharmacist if you are taking any other medicines, including herbal medicines and medicines that you buy without a prescription.

Are there any food restrictions

Do not take Ciprofloxacin with dairy products such as milk, cheese, yoghurt or ice-cream. Dairy products reduce the effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin when taken at the same time. Take Ciprofloxacin at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after you have taken any dairy products. - Avoid caffeine-containing beverages such as coffee, tea and certain soft drinks. - Avoid alcohol.

How do I store Ciprofloxacin :

Store ciprofloxacin in the container it came in at room temperature. Keep it out of the reach of children.

Pregnancy Category

Category C. Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.

Therapeutic Classification

Quinolones, Eye Anti-Infectives & Antiseptics. Ear Anti-Infectives & Antiseptics

This medication is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, prescribed for certain types of bacterial infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract, skin, bones and joint infections. It is also used to treat gastrointestinal infections.

Pixar - Disney Wiki, Prixar

Pixar

“ Where story is king. ” ―Company motto

Pixar Animation Studios . is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, California. The studio has earned twenty-seven Academy Awards, seven Golden Globes, and three Grammy Awards, along with many other awards and acknowledgements.

It is best known for its CGI-animated feature films created with PhotoRealistic RenderMan, its own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering application programming interface used to generate high-quality images. Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group, part of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm before it was acquired by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs in 1986. The Walt Disney Company bought Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion; the transaction made Jobs the largest shareholder in Disney.

Thirteen of the films has received critical and financial success, with the notable exception being Cars 2 . which although was a financial success, received substantially less praise than Pixar's previous films. As of December 2013, its feature films have made over $8.5 billion worldwide, with an average worldwide gross of $607 million per film. In addition, all of the films produced by Pixar are among the top 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time, with Finding Nemo (#26), and Toy Story 3 (#12) all in the top 50 highest-grossing films of all time.

Since the award's inauguration in 2001, most of Pixar's films have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, with eight winning; Finding Nemo . The Incredibles . Ratatouille . WALL-E . Up . Toy Story 3 . Brave . and Inside Out . Up and Toy Story 3 are two of only three animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.

On September 6. 2009. executives John Lasseter. Brad Bird. Pete Docter. Andrew Stanton. and Lee Unkrich were presented with the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement by the Biennale Venice Film Festival. The award was granted by Lucasfilm founder George Lucas.

Contents

History of Pixar

Early history

The ten franchises made by Disney Pixar up to 2009

Pixar was founded as The Graphics Group, which is one third of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm that was launched in 1979 with the hiring of Dr. Ed Catmull from the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), where he was in charge of the Computer Graphics Lab (CGL). At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the "alpha channel" (by Catmull and Alvy Ray Smith); years later the CGL produced an experimental film called The Works.

After moving to Lucasfilm, the team worked on creating the precursor to RenderMan, called REYES (for "renders everything you ever saw"); and developed a number of critical technologies for CG—including "particle effects" and various animation tools.

In 1982 the team began working on film sequences with Industrial Light & Magic on special effects. After years of research, and key milestones in films such as the Genesis Effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and the Stained Glass Knight in Young Sherlock Holmes . the group, which numbered about 45 individuals back then, was purchased in Feb 1986 by Steve Jobs shortly after he left Apple Computer. Jobs paid $5 million to George Lucas and put $5 million as capital into the company.

A factor contributing to Lucas' sale was an increase in cash flow difficulties following his 1983 divorce, which coincided with the sudden drop-off in revenues from Star Wars licenses following the release of Return of the Jedi . The newly independent company was headed by Jobs, who served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Pixar. Dr. Edwin Catmull served as Chief Technology Officer and Dr. Alvy Ray Smith as Executive Vice President and Director. In 2001, Edwin Catmull was named President of Pixar.

Initially, Pixar was a high-end computer hardware company whose core product was the Pixar Image Computer, a system primarily sold to government agencies and the medical community. One of the buyers of Pixar Image Computers was Disney Studios, which was using the device as part of their secretive CAPS project, using the machine and custom software to migrate the laborious ink and paint part of the 2-D animation process to a more automated and thus efficient method. The Image Computer never sold well. In a bid to drive sales of the system, Pixar employee John Lasseter — who had long been creating short demonstration animations, such as Luxo Jr. . to show off the device's capabilities—premiered his creations at SIGGRAPH, the computer graphics industry's largest convention, to great fanfare.

As poor sales of Pixar's computers threatened to put the company out of business, Lasseter's animation department began producing computer-animated commercials for outside companies. Early successes included campaigns for Tropicana, Listerine, Life Savers and Terminator 2: Judgment Day . In April 1990 Jobs sold Pixar's hardware division, including all proprietary hardware technology and imaging software, to Vicom Systems, and transferred 18 of Pixar's approximate 100 employees.

The same year Pixar moved from San Rafael to Richmond, California. During this period, Pixar continued its relationship with Walt Disney Feature Animation. a studio whose corporate parent would ultimately become its most important partner. In 1991, after a tough start of the year when about 30 employees in the company's computer department had to go (including the company's president, Chuck Kolstad), which reduced the total number of employees to just 42, Pixar made a $26 million deal with Disney to produce three 3D computer-animated feature films, the first of which was Toy Story . At that point, the software programmers, who were doing RenderMan and CAPS, and Lasseter’s animation department, who made television commercials and a few shorts for Sesame Street . was all that was left of Pixar.

Despite the total income of these products, the company was still losing money, and Jobs often considered selling it. Even as late as 1994, Jobs contemplated selling Pixar to other companies, among them Microsoft. Only after confirming that Disney would distribute Toy Story for the 1995 holiday season did he decide to give it another chance. The film went on to gross more than $350 million worldwide. Later that year, Pixar held its initial public offering on November 29, 1995, and the company's stock was priced at US$22 per share.

Disney

Pixar and Disney had disagreements after the production of Toy Story 2 . Originally intended as a straight-to-video release (and thus not part of Pixar's three-picture deal), the film was eventually upgraded to a theatrical release during production. Pixar demanded that the film then be counted toward the three-picture agreement, but Disney refused. Pixar's first five feature films have collectively grossed more than $2.5 billion, equivalent to the highest per-film average gross in the industry.

Though profitable for both, Pixar later complained that the arrangement was not equitable. Pixar was responsible for creation and production, while Disney handled marketing and distribution. Profits and production costs were split 50-50, but Disney exclusively owned all story and sequel rights and also collected a distribution fee. The lack of story and sequel rights was perhaps the most onerous aspect to Pixar and set the stage for a contentious relationship. Pixar movies like Pixie Dust is just to show that Pixar movies make sense again and people will buy it.

The two companies attempted to reach a new agreement in early 2004. The new deal would be only for distribution, as Pixar intended to control production and own the resulting film properties themselves. The company also wanted to finance their films on their own and collect 100 percent of the profits, paying Disney only the 10 to 15 percent distribution fee. More importantly, as part of any distribution agreement with Disney, Pixar demanded control over films already in production under their old agreement, including The Incredibles and Cars . Disney considered these conditions unacceptable, but Pixar would not concede.

Disagreements between Steve Jobs and then Disney Chairman and CEO Michael Eisner made the negotiations more difficult than they otherwise might have been. They broke down completely in mid-2004, with Jobs declaring that Pixar was actively seeking partners other than Disney. Pixar did not enter negotiations with other distributors. After a lengthy hiatus, negotiations between the two companies resumed following the departure of Eisner from Disney in September 2005.

In preparation for potential fallout between Pixar and Disney, Jobs announced in late 2004 that Pixar would no longer release movies at the Disney-dictated November time frame, but during the more lucrative early summer months. This would also allow Pixar to release DVDs for their major releases during the Christmas shopping season. An added benefit of delaying Cars was to extend the time frame remaining on the Pixar-Disney contract to see how things would play out between the two companies.

Pending the Disney acquisition of Pixar, the two companies created a distribution deal for the intended 2007 release of Ratatouille . in case the acquisition fell through, to ensure that this one film would still be released through Disney's distribution channels. (In contrast to the earlier Disney/Pixar deal Ratatouille was to remain a Pixar property and Disney would have received only a distribution fee.) The completion of Disney's Pixar acquisition, however, nullified this distribution arrangement. Unlike the earlier Pixar/Disney deal used for the earlier films, this one has the following caveats:

Pixar is responsible for 100% of the production costs.

Pixar owns the film and the rights to the characters.

Disney is paid only a straight distribution fee.

Acquisition by Disney

Disney announced on January 24. 2006 that it had agreed to buy Pixar for approximately $7.4 billion in an all-stock deal. Following Pixar shareholder approval, the acquisition was completed May 5, 2006. The transaction catapulted Steve Jobs, who was the majority shareholder of Pixar with 50.1%, to Disney's largest individual shareholder with 7% and a new seat on its board of directors. Jobs' new Disney holdings exceeded holdings belonging to ex-CEO Michael Eisner. the previous top shareholder, who still held 1.7%; and Disney Director Emeritus Roy E. Disney. who held almost 1% of the corporation's shares. Pixar shareholders received 2.3 shares of Disney common stock for each share of Pixar common stock redeemed.

As part of the deal, John Lasseter. by then Executive Vice President, became Chief Creative Officer (reporting to President and CEO Robert Iger and consulting with Disney Director Roy Disney) of both Pixar and the Walt Disney Animation Studios. as well as the Principal Creative Adviser at Walt Disney Imagineering. which designs and builds the company's theme parks. Catmull retained his position as President of Pixar, while also becoming President of Walt Disney Animation Studios, reporting to Bob Iger and Dick Cook, chairman of Walt Disney Studio Entertainment. Steve Jobs' position as Pixar's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer was also removed, and instead he took a place on the Disney board of directors.

Lasseter and Catmull's oversight of both the Disney and Pixar studios did not mean that the two studios were merging, however. In fact, additional conditions were laid out as part of the deal to ensure that Pixar remained a separate entity, a concern that analysts had expressed about the Disney deal. Some of those conditions were that Pixar HR policies would remain intact, including the lack of employment contracts. Also, the Pixar name was guaranteed to continue, and the studio would remain in its current Emeryville, California location with the "Pixar" sign. Finally, branding of films made post-merger would be "Disney•Pixar" (beginning with Cars ).

Jim Morris, producer of WALL-E . has been named general manager of Pixar. In this new position, Morris is in charge of the day-to-day running of the studio facilities and products. There were additional conditions laid out as part of the deal to ensure that Pixar remains a separate entity, a concern that many analysts had about the Disney deal [1].

If Pixar pulls out of the deal, they must pay Disney a penalty of US $210 million.

The Disney board would include Steve Jobs.

John Lasseter has the authority to approve films for both Disney and Pixar studios, with Disney CEO Robert Iger carrying final approving authority.

The deal requires that Pixar's primary directors and creative executives must also join the combined company. This includes Andrew Stanton. Pete Docter, Brad Bird, Bob Peterson, Brenda Chapman. Lee Unkrich, and Gary Rydstrom.

There will be a steering committee that will oversee animation for both Disney and Pixar studios, with a mission to maintain and spread the Pixar culture. This committee will consist of Catmull, Lasseter, Jobs, Iger, Cook, and Tom Staggs. They will meet at Pixar headquarters at least once every two months.

Pixar HR policies will remain intact, including the lack of employment contracts.

Ensures the Pixar name will continue, and that the studio will remain in its current Emeryville, California location with the "Pixar" sign.

Branding of films made post-merger will be "Disney Pixar".

Expansion

On April 20, 2010, Pixar Animation Studios opened a new studio in the downtown area of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The roughly 2,000 square meters studio is primarily producing shorts and TV specials based on characters from Pixar's feature films. The studio's first production was the Cars Toons episode, "Air Mater".

Traditions

While some of Pixar's first animators were former cel animators, including John Lasseter, they also came from stop motion animation and/or computer animation or were fresh college graduates. A large number of animators that make up the animation department at Pixar were hired around the time Pixar released A Bug's Life and Toy Story 2 . Although Toy Story was a successful film, it was Pixar's only feature film at the time. The majority of the animation industry was, and is still located in Los Angeles, California, while Pixar is located 350 miles north in the San Francisco Bay Area. Also, traditional 2-D animation was still the dominant medium for feature animated films.

With the death of Los Angeles–based animators willing to move their families so far north, give up traditional animation, and try computer animation, Pixar's new-hires at this time either came directly from college, or had worked outside feature animation. For those who had traditional animation skills, the Pixar animation software (Marionette) is designed so that traditional animators would require a minimum amount of training before becoming productive.

In an interview with PBS talk show host Tavis Smiley, Lasseter said that Pixar films follow the same theme of self-improvement as the company itself has: with the help of friends or family, a character ventures out into the real world and learns to appreciate his friends and family. At the core, Lasseter said, "it's gotta be about the growth of the main character, and how he changes."

Pixar has been criticized for its lack of female protagonists. Brave . Pixar's 13th cinema release, is the studio's first with a female lead (voiced by Kelly Macdonald ). By the MPAA, most of the films are rated G, while four of them are rated PG ( The Incredibles . Up . Brave . Inside Out , and The Good Dinosaur ). However, the G-Rated Cars 2 contains violence and rude humor, which was a controversy in 2011. Also, except for Cars 2 . their films have had positive reviews, with 10 films (the only exceptions being Cars . Brave , Monsters University . and The Good Dinosaur ) being above 90% on Rotten Tomatoes.

All Pixar films are box office successes except for The Good Dinosaur . which worldwide made $317.5 million on a $200 million budget. Also, Cars 2 made $191 million in USA on a $200 million budget.

Sequels and prequels

Toy Story 2 was commissioned by Disney as a direct-to-video, 60-minute film. Feeling the material was not very good, John Lasseter convinced the Pixar team to start from scratch and make that their third full-length feature film. Toy Story 3 was the second big-screen sequel when it was released on June 18. 2010. Cars 2 . the studio's third theatrical sequel, was released on June 24, 2011. On June 27, 2011, Tom Hanks implied that a fourth Toy Story movie was in the works, and in 2015. the film Toy Story 4 was announced for a June 16. 2017 release date.

Pixar states that they believe that sequels should only be made if they can come up with a story as good as the original. Following the release of Toy Story 2 . Pixar and Disney had a gentlemen's agreement that Disney would not make any sequels without Pixar's involvement, despite their right to do so. In 2004, after Pixar announced they were unable to agree on a new deal, Disney announced that they would go ahead with sequels to Pixar's films with or without Pixar. Toy Story 3 was put into pre-production at the new CGI division of Walt Disney Feature Animation, Circle 7 Animation.

When Lasseter was placed in charge of all Disney and Pixar animation following the merger, he immediately put all sequels on hold; Disney stated that Toy Story 3 had been cancelled. However, in May 2006, it was announced that Toy Story 3 was back in pre-production, under Pixar's control when a new plot had been conceived.

Lasseter further fueled speculation on future sequels when he stated, "If we have a great story, we'll do a sequel". Cars 2 . Pixar's first sequel not based on Toy Story . was officially announced on April 8, 2008. Monsters University . the prequel to Monsters, Inc. and Pixar's first prequel, was announced on April 22, 2010, for release on November 2, 2012. However, on April 5, 2011, it was announced that the film's release date had been pushed back to June 21, 2013 due to the success of Pixar films that are released in the summer, according to Disney distribution executive Chuck Viane.

In 2014, Brad Bird recently claimed to have begun pre-production on a sequel to The Incredibles .

Expansion to television

Toy Story was the first Pixar film to be extended into television, with the Buzz Lightyear of Star Command film and TV series. Cars was expanded to television via Cars Toons . a series of shorts (three to five minutes) running between regular Disney Channel shows and featuring Mater (the tow truck voiced by comedian Larry the Cable Guy ).

Animation and live-action

All Pixar films to date have been computer-animated features ( WALL-E has so far been the only Pixar film not to be completely animated, featuring a small live-action element). 1906 . the live action film by Brad Bird about the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, is currently in development. Bird has stated that he was "interested in moving into the live action realm with some projects" while "staying at Pixar [because] it's a very comfortable environment for me to work in."

Product pipeline

In 2008, Pixar announced Newt . a story about the last two blue-footed newts in existence destined to mate to save their species from extinction, scheduled for release in June 2012. This project was to be followed by the fantasy film The Bear and the Bow .

In April 2010, Disney/Pixar announced that, instead, The Bear and the Bow would be released first, under the new name Brave . followed by a sequel (actually a prequel) to their 2001 feature Monsters, Inc. later that year. Newt was also removed from the official Disney A to Z Encyclopedia supplement by chief archivist Dave Smith, who confirmed that the film had been cancelled. In May 2011, Pixar CCO John Lasseter implied that Newt had been shelved due to it having a similar plot-line to Blue Sky Studios' film Rio .

In April 2012, Pixar announced their intention to create a film centered on the Mexican holiday Dia de los Muertos and to be directed by Lee Unkrich.

Executive leadership

Up to late 2011, Jobs continued in his role as chairman, and was also the company's CEO. Catmull remains president. Lasseter — a two-time Academy Award-winning director and animator — oversees all of the company's projects as Executive Vice President of the Creative Department. Other notable members of the executive team are Sarah McArthur (Executive Vice President of Production), Simon Bax (Executive Vice President and CFO), and Lois Scali (Executive Vice President and General Counsel).

Exhibitions

Since December 2005, Pixar has held exhibitions celebrating the art and artists of Pixar, over their first twenty years in animation.

Pixar: 20 Years of Animation

Pixar held one such exhibition, from April to June 2010, at Science Centre Singapore, in Jurong East, Singapore. It was their first time holding an exhibition in Singapore.

The exhibition highlights consist of work-in-progress sketches from various Pixar productions, clay sculptures of their characters, and an autostereoscopic short showcasing a 3D version of the exhibition pieces which is projected through 4 projectors. Another highlight is the Zoetrope, where visitors of the exhibition are shown figurines of Toy Story characters "animated" in real-life through the zoetrope.

Pixar: 25 Years of Animation

Pixar celebrated 25 years of animation in 2011 with the release of its twelfth feature film, Cars 2 . Pixar had celebrated its 20th anniversary with the first Cars . The Pixar: 25 Years of Animation exhibition was held at the Oakland Museum of California from July 2010 until January 2011. The exhibition tour debuts in Hong Kong, and was held at the Hong Kong Heritage Museum in Sha Tin, between March 27 and July 11, 2011.

Pixar: 25 Years of Animation includes all of the artwork from Pixar: 20 Years of Animation . plus art from Ratatouille. WALL-E . Up . and Toy Story 3 .

The Science Behind Pixar

The Science Behind Pixar is a travelling exhibition, developed by the Museum of Science in Boston. Massachusetts in collaboration with Pixar, that teaches about the production pipeline at Pixar in the form of the film making process. The exhibition's tour started at the Museum of Science in mid-2015 and is expected to last ten years with limited tour availability beginning in 2021.

Pixar: 30 Years of Animation

It is currently unknown what a 30-year anniversary celebration of Pixar's films and achievements would entail.

Films

Short films ("Shorts")

Feature film traditions

The Pixar Format

All Pixar features have a common theme. The setting of the film is always a world in which people/creatures/objects that are not commonly thought to have normal everyday lives live in societies resembling modern American society. For example:

Toy Story . Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3 — Toys come to life and have adventures when their owners are away.

A Bug's Life — Insects live in harmony and have their own hierarchy and tiny little cities.

Monsters, Inc. and Monsters University — Horrifying monsters live everyday lives in their own community. Scaring kids is just their day job.

Finding Nemo and Finding Dory — The ocean, like Earth's land mass, has its own cities, schools and communities ruled by fish.

The Incredibles — Superheroes live among us and take ordinary jobs and have ordinary problems, such as a greedy boss or a troublemaking son.

Cars and Cars 2 — Vehicles are by themselves without humans.

Ratatouille — A rat visits Paris and wants to cook.

WALL•E — A little robot finds adventure in space.

Up — An old man's house gets lifted by balloons and finds adventure.

Brave — In a kingdom, a rebellious princess wants to live as freely as she desires.

Inside Out — Taking place Inside a little girl's mind, five emotions have conflict helping her adjust to a new life in a new place.

The Good Dinosaur — A young dinosaur is trying to find his way home with the help of a strange caveboy.

John Ratzenberger

John Ratzenberger. most widely known as the Clifford Calvin from the television sitcom Cheers . is always a character voice, referred to by the studio as their "good luck charm". The following is a list of his roles in the first sixteen Pixar movies:

He also voiced a character in the English dub of Spirited Away . overseen by John Lasseter. Actor Wallace Shawn also appears in multiple Pixar Films. He has become such a stable part of the company that he plays on its softball team.

Joe Ranft

Like John Ratzenberger (above), Joe Ranft had made the voice of characters in all of the Pixar films (until Cars. which was completed prior to his untimely passing and noted in the credits of the film). The following is a list of his roles in the first seven Pixar movies:

A113

Similar to George Lucas' 1138, the letter-number sequence A113 is an animation in-joke which appears in all Pixar films to date. It is a reference to one of the room numbers at CalArts (where several of the employees are alumni).

Examples

Toy Story: As Ms. Davis' license plate number.

A Bug's Life . As a code on a cereal box as Flik enters the bug city. Also on the Casey Jr. Cookies wagon as "Vitamin A113."

Toy Story 2 . One of the announcements at the airport calls for a "LassetAir Flight A113," also referencing John Lasseter. Appears again on Ms. Davis' license plate.

Finding Nemo . As the model code for the diver's underwater camera.

The Incredibles: A room number in Syndrome's lair, as Level A1, Room #13, the conference room where Mr. Incredible was attacked by Omnidroid v. X9.

Cars . Mater's license plate number. Also appears on the train Lightning McQueen almost crashed into.

Ratatouille . Git, the lab rat, has a tag on his left ear that bears the sequence.

WALL•E . As the directive code for Auto to carry out. This is the first time the sequence has bore any significance to the a movie's plot.

Up . On the sign of the courtroom.

Toy Story 3 . Once again as Ms. Davis' license plate number.

Cars 2 . Again as Mater's license plate number.

Brave . Appears as "ACXIII" above the front door of the Witch's cottage.

Monsters University . The number of the classroom when Sulley bursts in.

Inside Out . Graffiti on the wall when Riley gets a call as she is running away.

The Good Dinosaur . Formed by sticks on the fence around the chicken pen.

The Pizza Planet Truck

The Pizza Planet Truck which featured prominently in Toy Story appears in each of the Pixar films. The truck is noticeable for only showing the letters "Yo" (the only letters left from the car's brand; "Gyoza"- Gyoza is a Chinese Food/dish, not "Toyota" as is commonly thought.)

Examples

Toy Story . Buzz and Woody get to Pizza Planet in this truck.

A Bug's Life . As the two bugs are talking about seeing the light, the truck can be seen on-screen.

Toy Story 2 . The toys steal and drive the truck to the airport.

Monsters, Inc. . At the end of the movie, Randall is thrown through a door and ends up in a caravan where he is mistaken for a gator. The caravan is next to the Pizza Planet truck. It also happens to be the same place as the one with the bugs (above).

Finding Nemo . While the escape plan is being shown, as the bags of water cross the road, the truck drives past.

The Incredibles . It can be seen on the freeway briefly towards the end of the film.

Cars: The Pizza Planet truck is seen in the Life is a Highway scene and is also next to the Elvis car where Bob Cutlass and Darrell Cartrip are talking about the race towards the end of the film.

Ratatouille . The truck is seen driving in the background of the sequence where Remy is chased by Skinner.

WALL•E . Eve looks in the engine while she is looking for the plant.

Toy Story 3 . Lotso. Chuckles. and Big Baby ride on a Pizza Planet truck's rear bumper in the rain at night to get from Daisy's house to Sunnyside.

Cars 2: It is attending to the Radiator Springs Grand Prix. He also appears in the background of a triptych poster of the movie, in front of Buckingham Palace.

Brave . The truck is a wooden carving in the Witch 's cottage.

Monsters University: The Pizza Planet truck is parked outside the first house party.

Inside Out . In a memory orb that Bing-Bong knocks down, in a memory orb that Bing-Bong holds on the Train of Thought, and in several memory orbs at headquarters during the time Riley is trying out for hockey.

Teaser trailers

The Pixar teaser trailers since A Bug's Life consist of footage created specifically for the trailer, spotlighting certain central characters in a comic situation. Though similar scenes and situations may appear, these sequences are not in the films being advertised, but instead are original creations.

Examples

A Bug's Life . All the insects from the circus troupe and Flik gather onto a leaf right before Heimlich bites the end of it off, causing them to fall.

Toy Story 2 . The green alien toys come up to a center with the claw coming down. First, the claw was carrying down " Toy Story " with the aliens doing their trademark "Oooh". Second, the claw brings down a "2" and with the aliens turning around and looking at the audience and saying "Twoooo". Then Woody and Buzz come up with little greetings.

Monsters, Inc. . Sulley and Mike stumble into the wrong bedroom. (Also, in a preview shown before the first Harry Potter film, Sulley is shown playing charades with Mike, but Mike is unable to guess the phrase 'Harry Potter'. The clip never specifically mentions Harry Potter . but the end states that Monsters, Inc. is playing right next door.)

Finding Nemo . Marlin asks the school of fish for directions and Dory scares them away.

The Incredibles . An out-of-shape Mr. Incredible struggles to get his belt on.

Cars . Mater, a rusty tow truck talks to Lightning McQueen after hitting and killing a baby bumblebee.

Ratatouille . Remy, a grayish-blue rat steals a piece of cheese by a food cafe.

WALL•E . Andrew Stanton talks about a time when they went to lunch in the summer of 1994 and had great ideas ( Toy Story . A Bug's Life . Monsters, Inc. . Finding Nemo and WALL-E ) WALL•E pops out of his yellow body. Then, he makes a cube out of trash. Then, when he puts the cube into a cube of trash square, he looks up at the sky turning to night. Then he says "WALL•E (Walla-Eee!)"

Up . A bunch of balloons lift up a house and in the house we see Carl sitting on the front porch. He says "Afternoon".

Toy Story 3 . All the toys in Andy's bedroom look like they're building something. Then they show that thay have built the Toy Story 3 logo. Then Woody bumps into Buzz, who has built a more refined logo. Later, Woody puts up a set of magnets that say "June 18, 2010" (the release date). Then when Woody leaves, Buzz puts up another refined logo, and Woody; who is off-screen says, "I saw that!", then Buzz leaves nervously.

Cars 2 . Lightning McQueen and Mater are caught in red lasers.

Feature film inside references

In an homage to Ray Harryhausen, stop motion animation pioneer and designer of countless cinematic monsters, the restaurant in Monsters, Inc. is named "Harryhausen's."

Gallery

Probitor (Omeprazole Enteric Capsules) Drug, Probitor

Probitor

NOTICE: This Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is intended for persons living in Australia. This page contains answers to some common questions about Probitor. It does not contain all the information that is known about Probitor. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risk of you using this medicine against the benefits he/she expects it will have for you. If you have any concerns about using this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Bookmark or print this page, you may need to read it again.

What Probitor is used for

The name of your medicine is Probitor. It contains the active ingredient omeprazole.

Ulcers

This medicine is used to treat and help heal peptic ulcers.

Depending on the position of the ulcer it is called a gastric or duodenal ulcer. A gastric ulcer occurs in the stomach. A duodenal ulcer occurs in the duodenum which is the tube leading out of the stomach.

Ulcers can be caused in part by too much acid being made in the stomach.

This medicine is also used to help prevent gastric or duodenal ulcers from coming back.

Reflux oesophagitis

This medicine is used to treat and prevent reflux oesophagitis. This can be caused by "washing back" (reflux) of food and acid from the stomach into the oesophagus (food pipe).

Reflux can cause a burning sensation in the chest rising up to the throat, also known as heartburn.

Peptic ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori

Many people who have a peptic ulcer also have bacteria called Helicobacter pylori in their stomach. When Probitor is taken together with antibiotics, it will help kill the bacteria and allow your peptic ulcer to heal.

Peptic Ulcers Associated with Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Some peptic ulcers are caused by taking medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These medicines are commonly taken to treat joint disease or arthritis.

This medicine is also used to heal and prevent ulcers associated with NSAIDs.

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

This medicine is also used to treat a rare condition called Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, where the stomach produces very large amounts of acid.

How Probitor works

Probitor belongs to a group of medicines called proton pump inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of acid made by the stomach. This does not stop food being digested in the normal way. It helps reduce the pain and also allows the ulcer to heal.

Ask your doctor if you have any questions about why this medicine has been prescribed for you.

Your doctor may have prescribed it for another reason.

There is no evidence that this medicine is addictive.

This medicine is available only with a doctor's prescription.

There is not enough information to recommend the use of this medicine for children.

Before you take Probitor

When you must not take it

Do not take this medicine if you have an allergy to:

omeprazole, the active ingredient, or to any of the other ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet under Product Description

any other similar medicines especially if they are in the same drug class as omeprazole (proton pump inhibitors), e. g. esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole.

Some of the symptoms of an allergic reaction may include:

shortness of breath

wheezing or difficulty breathing

swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body

rash, itching or hives on the skin.

Do not take this medicine if you are also taking cilostazol.

Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking cilostazol. This medicine can be affected by Probitor.

Do not take this medicine after the expiry date printed on the pack has passed.

Do not use this medicine if the packaging is torn or shows signs of tampering.

If it has expired, is damaged or shows any signs of deterioration (e. g. darkening of the capsules), return it to your pharmacist for disposal.

If you are not sure whether you should start taking this medicine, talk to your doctor.

Before you start to take it

Tell your doctor if you have allergies to any other medicines, foods, preservatives or dyes.

Tell your doctor if you have or have had any problems with your liver or any other medical conditions.

Tell your doctor if you are taking other medicines that may cause low levels of magnesium in the blood (hypomagnesaemia). For example diuretics.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant or are breastfeeding.

Your doctor can discuss with you the risks and benefits involved.

If you have not told your doctor about any of the above, tell them before you start taking Probitor.

Taking other medicines

Do not take Probitor if you are taking the following medicine:

cilostazol, a medicine used to treat intermittent claudication.

Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, including any that you buy without a prescription from your pharmacy, supermarket or health food shop.

Some medicines and Probitor may interfere with each other. These include:

ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole - medicines used to treat fungal infection

diazepam - a medicine used to treat anxiety and some other conditions

phenytoin - a medicine used to treat epilepsy or fits

warfarin and clopidogrel - medicines used to prevent blood clots

clarithromycin or rifampicin - medicines used to treat infections

atazanavir and nelfinavir - medicines used to treat viral infection such as HIV

erlotinib or related medicines used to treat cancer

tacrolimus - a medicine used to assist in organ transplants

St. John's wort - a medicine used to treat anxiety, stress, nervous tension and some other conditions.

digoxin - a medicine used to treat heart problems.

These medicines may be affected by Probitor, or may affect how well it works. You may need different amounts of your medicine or you may need to take different medicines.

Your doctor and pharmacist have more information on medicines to be careful with or avoid while taking this medicine.

How to take Probitor

Follow all directions given to you by your doctor and pharmacist carefully.

They may differ from the information contained in this leaflet.

If you do not understand the instructions on the pack, ask your doctor or pharmacist for help.

How much to take

The dose for Probitor varies from patient to patient. Your doctor will decide the right dose for you.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are unsure of the correct dose for you.

They will tell you exactly how much to take.

Follow the instructions they give you.

If you take the wrong dose, Probitor may not work as well and your problem may not improve.

How to take it

Swallow the capsules with a glass of water.

Do not crush or chew the capsules.

If the granules or pellets contained in the capsules are crushed or chewed, they will not work properly.

When to take Probitor

Take each dose of Probitor at about the same time each day.

Taking it at the same time each day will have the best effect. It will also help you remember when to take it.

This medicine can be taken with food or on an empty stomach.

How long to take Probitor

Continue taking your medicine for as long as your doctor tells you.

If you are taking this medicine to heal an ulcer or to treat reflux disease, you will usually need to take it for 4 to 8 weeks.

It is very important that you take the full course of this medicine as prescribed by your doctor so that your condition is properly treated.

If you are taking this medicine to stop an ulcer from coming back or to treat other conditions, your doctor will tell you how long you need to take the capsules.

If you forget to take it

Take your dose as soon as you remember, and continue to take it as you would normally.

If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the dose you missed and take your next dose when you are meant to.

Do not take a double dose to make up for the dose that you missed.

This may increase the chance of you getting an unwanted side effect.

If you are not sure what to do, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

If you have trouble remembering to take your medicine, ask your pharmacist for some hints.

If you take too much (overdose)

Immediately telephone your doctor or the Poisons Information Centre (telephone Australia 13 11 26 or New Zealand 0800 POISON or 0800 764766), for advice, or go to Accident and Emergency at your nearest hospital, if you think that you or anyone else has taken too much Probitor. Do this even if there are no signs of discomfort or poisoning. You may need urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of an overdose may include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and headache.

While you are taking Probitor

Things you must do

If you are about to be started on any new medicine, remind your doctor and pharmacist that you are taking Probitor.

Tell any other doctors, dentists, and pharmacists who treat you that you are taking this medicine.

If you become pregnant while taking this medicine, tell your doctor immediately.

Things you must not do

Do not take Probitor to treat any other complaints unless your doctor tells you.

Do not give your medicine to anyone else, even if they have the same condition as you.

Things to be careful of

Be careful driving or operating machinery until you know how Probitor affects you.

Side effects

Tell your doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible if you do not feel well while you are taking Probitor.

All medicines have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time they are not. You may need urgent medical attention if you get some of the side effects.

Do not be alarmed by this list of possible side effects. You may not experience any of them.

Ask your doctor or pharmacist any questions you may have.

Tell your doctor if you notice any of the following and they worry you:

depression, agitation, confusion, mood changes or hallucinations

bruising or bleeding more easily than normal

signs of frequent infections such as fever, severe chills, sore throat or mouth ulcers

signs of liver inflammation including yellowing of the skin or eyes, feeling generally unwell, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite.

Inability to get or maintain erection.

Fractures, for example hip, wrist or spine.

These are serious side effects which may require medical attention. Serious side effects are rare.

If any of the following happen, tell your doctor immediately or go to Accident and Emergency at your nearest hospital:

swelling of face, lips, mouth, tongue or throat which may cause difficulty in breathing

shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing

skin reaction which may include rash, itching, redness, blistering or peeling of the skin

ulcers, blisters or bleeding of the lips, eyes, mouth, nose and genitals

swelling of feet, hands and ankles.

These are very serious side effects. You may need urgent medical attention or hospitalisation. These side effects are very rare.

Tell your doctor if you notice anything that is making you feel unwell.

Other side effects not listed above may occur in some people.

Other health problems may arise from the condition being treated itself rather than the treatment.

For this reason, contact your doctor immediately if you notice any of the following:

pain or indigestion during treatment with this medicine

vomiting blood or food

passing black or blood-stained motions

unexpected weight loss.

After taking Probitor

Storage

Keep your medicine in the original container.

If you take it out of its original container, it may not keep well.

Keep your medicine in a cool dry place where the temperature stays below 25°C.

Do not store Probitor or any other medicine in a bathroom or near a sink. Do not leave it in the car or on a window sill.

Heat and dampness can destroy some medicines.

Keep it where children cannot reach it.

A locked cupboard at least one-and-a-half metres above the ground is a good place to store medicines.

Disposal

If your doctor tells you to stop taking this medicine or the expiry date has passed, ask your pharmacist what to do with any medicine that is left over.

Product description

What it looks like

Probitor is an opaque yellow cap and body enteric capsule containing off-white to cream-white spherical pellets.

Available in bottles of 30 enteric capsules and in blister packs of 6, 7 and 30 enteric capsules.

Ingredients

Probitor 20mg - 20mg omeprazole.

What You Need To Know About Sifis - The Short Answer, Sifi

What you need to know about SIFIs

General Electric is seeking to shed its label as a “systemically important financial institution,” saying it has sufficiently shrunk its once-massive financial services arm and no longer poses a threat to the financial system. The request comes a day after a federal judge rescinded regulators’ designation of MetLife as a systemically important financial institution. Here’s what you need to know about SIFIs:

What is a SIFI?

The acronym stands for systemically important financial institution. The label comes from the 2010 Dodd - Frank law, which gave the Financial Stability Oversight Council of top regulators the authority to apply the label to financial firms that “could pose a threat to the financial stability of the United States” if they failed or engaged in risky activities. Any firm designated a SIFI is subject to stricter oversight from the Federal Reserve, including taking stress tests, writing bankruptcy plans known as living wills, and meeting stricter capital requirements.

What is the Financial Stability Oversight Council?

The FSOC is a group of major regulators, chaired by the Treasury secretary. Other members include the chairmen of the Fed and Securities and Exchange Commission. Dodd-Frank created the council to keep watch over the entire financial system, after the 2008 financial crisis exposed gaps in the way that individual regulators monitor their turf. Designating SIFIs is one of the council’s main jobs, and it takes a vote of two thirds of the group, including the chairman, to apply the label.

Why did Congress set up the SIFI process?

The ultimate goal of Dodd Frank is to avoid taxpayer bailouts like the ones that occurred in 2008. One particularly large bailout rescued American International Group Inc. which nearly brought down the financial system because of its large derivatives exposures. AIG didn’t have a single federal regulator watching over all its operations. So Congress, in an effort to prevent that from ever happening again, created a process for regulators to identify big, complex, potentially risky firms that aren’t already tightly regulated and bring them under the federal government’s scrutiny.

Which companies have been designated SIFIs?

So far, there are four nonbank SIFIs in the U. S. insurance giants AIG, Prudential Financial Inc. and MetLife Inc. and GE Capital, the financing arm of General Electric Co. Large banks are also considered systemically important, and under Dodd-Frank any U. S. bank holding company with more than $50 billion in assets is automatically subject to stricter rules.

What is the impact of becoming a SIFI?

Stricter regulation can be costly for firms. Dodd-Frank requires that SIFIs abide by “enhanced” rules that are tougher than the ones that apply to smaller, less-complex peers. Higher capital requirements effectively limit how much SIFIs can borrow, and can crimp profitability. Preparing for the Fed’s annual stress tests, which examine whether firms can assess risk across all of their vast operations, is a multimillion-dollar endeavor, as is writing a living will. Defenders of the SIFI process say those stricter regulations are justified because SIFIs pose an outsize risk to the stability of the broader economy.

More On What you need to know about SIFIs

More The Short Answer

The Short Answer What Is Chikungunya and Why Is India Worried About It?

Artrifilm, Artrifilm

Artrifilm

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Urex (Methenamine Hippurate) Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses, Urirex K

What are the possible side effects of methenamine (Hiprex, Mandelamine, Urex)?

If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking methenamine and seek emergency medical attention or contact your doctor immediately:

an allergic reaction (shortness of breath; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, face, or tongue; or hives;

lower back or side pain;

blood in urine; or

increasingly painful or difficult urination.

Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take methenamine and talk to your doctor if you experience

What are the precautions when taking methenamine hippurate (Urex)?

Before taking methenamine, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to formaldehyde; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney problems, liver problems, dehydration.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

This drug passes into breast milk and the effect on a.

Last reviewed on RxList: 3/28/2008 This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Clotrim Antifungal Topical Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings - Dosing, Clotrim

Selected from data included with permission and copyrighted by First Databank, Inc. This copyrighted material has been downloaded from a licensed data provider and is not for distribution, expect as may be authorized by the applicable terms of use.

CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment.

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Tetrax 72009 Geo Smartphone, Tetrax

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Prime free trial and invitee customers: We will automatically apply an Amazon. com Gift Card to your Gift Card Balance in the amount equal to the Prime exclusive discount after you become a paid Prime member. If you cancel your paid Prime membership or return the qualifying smartphone within the first 3 months of your paid Prime membership, we may void your Gift Card or charge you in the amount of the Gift Card. Terms and Conditions apply.

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Description

Features & details

Tetrax does not limit the view and it keeps your cell phone in a perfect position for a speaker phone conversation

All electronics are visible and at your fingertips, dashboard looks neat and organized

Unique, attractive, ergonomic and essential, made in Italy and protected by international patents

About this item

Features

Tetrax does not limit the view and it keeps your cell phone in a perfect position for a speaker phone conversation

All electronics are visible and at your fingertips, dashboard looks neat and organized

Unique, attractive, ergonomic and essential, made in Italy and protected by international patents

Four gold plated neodymium alloy magnets plus clip with 3M high performance structural adhesive, guaranteed to hold your devices in place

Creative, simple design and high quality materials allows an extensive usage

Product Information

Lipofen - Fda Prescribing Information, Side Effects And Uses, Lipofin

Lipofen

Primary Hypercholesterolemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia

Lipofen is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (total-c), Triglycerides (TG) and apolopoprotein B (Apo B), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia.

Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

Lipofen is also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for treatment of adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Improving glycemic control in diabetic patients showing fasting chylomicronemia will usually obviate the need for pharmacologic intervention.

Markedly elevated levels of serum triglycerides (e. g. > 2,000 mg/dL) may increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. The effect of fenofibrate therapy on reducing this risk has not been adequately studied.

Important Limitations of Use

Fenofibrate at a dose equivalent to 150 mg of Lipofen was not shown to reduce coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in 2 large, randomized controlled trials of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [see Warnings and Precautions(5.1 )].

Lipofen Dosage and Administration

General Considerations

Lipofen capsules should be given with meals thereby optimizing the absorption of the medication.

Patients should be advised to swallow Lipofen capsules whole. Do not open, crush, dissolve or chew capsules.

Patients should be placed on an appropriate lipid-lowering diet before receiving Lipofen, and should continue this diet during treatment with Lipofen.

The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy, thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, are sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of the specific etiologic agent may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia.

Periodic determination of serum lipids should be obtained during initial therapy in order to establish the lowest effective dose of Lipofen. Therapy should be withdrawn in patients who do not have an adequate response after two months of treatment with the maximum recommended dose of 150 mg per day.

Consideration should be given to reducing the dosage of Lipofen if lipid levels fall significantly below the targeted range.

Primary Hypercholesterolemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia:

The dose of Lipofen is 150 mg once daily.

Severe Hypertriglyceridemia:

The initial dose is 50 to 150 mg per day. Dosage should be individualized according to patient response, and should be adjusted if necessary following repeat lipid determination at 4 to 8 week intervals.

The maximum dose of Lipofen is 150 mg once daily.

Impaired Renal Function

In patients with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, treatment with Lipofen should be initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day, and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose. The use of Lipofen should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6 ) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )] .

Geriatric Patients

Dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5 ) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )] .

Dosage Forms and Strengths

50 mg: Size 3 white opaque gelatin capsule imprinted “G 246” and “50” in black ink.

150 mg: Size 1 white opaque gelatin capsule imprinted “G 248” and “150” in green ink.

Contraindications

Lipofen is contraindicated in:

patients with severe renal impairment, including those receiving dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )].

patients with active liver disease, including those with primary biliary cirrhosis and unexplained persistent liver function abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3 )].

patients with preexisting gallbladder disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5 )] .

patients with known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate or fenofibric acid [see Warnings and Precautions(5.9 )].

nursing mothers [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3 )] .

Warnings and Precautions

Coronary Heart Disease Morbidity and Mortality

The effect of Lipofen on coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality has not been established.

The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Lipid (ACCORD Lipid) trial was a randomized placebo-controlled study of 5518 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on background statin therapy treated with fenofibrate. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.7 years. Fenofibrate plus statin combination therapy showed a non-significant 8% relative risk reduction in the primary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular disease death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.08) (p=0.32) as compared to statin monotherapy. In a gender subgroup analysis, the hazard ratio for MACE in men receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.99), and the hazard ratio for MACE in women receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 1.38 (95% CI 0.98-1.94) (interaction p=0.01). The clinical significance of this subgroup finding is unclear.

The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was a 5-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate demonstrated a non-significant 11% relative reduction in the primary outcome of coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05, p=0.16) and a significant 11% reduction in the secondary outcome of total cardiovascular disease events (HR 0.89 [0.80-0.99], p=0.04). There was a non-significant 11% (HR 1.11 [0.95, 1.29], p=0.18) and 19% (HR 1.19 [0.90, 1.57], p=0.22) increase in total and coronary heart disease mortality, respectively, with fenofibrate as compared to placebo. 1

Because of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical similarities between fenofibrate, clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, the adverse findings in 4 large randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies with these other fibrate drugs may also apply to Lipofen.

In the Coronary Drug Project, a large study of post myocardial infarction patients treated for 5 years with clofibrate, there was no difference in mortality seen between the clofibrate group and the placebo group. There was however, a difference in the rate of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis requiring surgery between the two groups (3.0% vs. 1.8%).

In a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5000 subjects without known coronary artery disease were treated with placebo or clofibrate for 5 years and followed for an additional one year. There was a statistically significant, higher age-adjusted all-cause mortality in the clofibrate group compared with the placebo group (5.70% vs. 3.96%, p=<0.01). Excess mortality was due to a 33% increase in non-cardiovascular causes, including malignancy, post-cholecystectomy complications, and pancreatitis. This appeared to confirm the higher risk of gallbladder disease seen in clofibrate-treated patients studied in the Coronary Drug Project.

The Helsinki Heart Study was a large (n=4081) study of middle aged men without a history of coronary artery disease. Subjects received either placebo or gemfibrozil for 5 years, with a 3.5 year open extension afterward. Total mortality was numerically higher in the gemfibrozil randomization group but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.19, 95% confidence interval for relative risk G:P=0.91-1.64). Although cancer deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group (p=0.11), cancers (excluding basal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed with equal frequency in both study groups. Due to the limited size of the study, the relative risk of death from any cause was not shown to be different than that seen in the 9 year follow-up data from the WHO study (RR=1.29).

A secondary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study enrolled middle-aged men excluded from the primary prevention study because of known or suspected coronary heart disease. Subjects received gemfibrozil or placebo for 5 years. Although cardiac deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group, this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-5.05).

Skeletal Muscle

Fibrates increase the risk for myopathy and have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. The risk for serious muscle toxicity appears to be increased in elderly patients and in patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency, or hypothyroidism.

Data from observational studies indicate that the risk for rhabdomyolysis is increased when fibrates, in particular gemfibrozil, are co-administered with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin). The combination should be avoided unless the benefit of further alterations in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )].

Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevations of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels.

Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels should be assessed in patients reporting these symptoms, and Lipofen therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed.

Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with fenofibrates co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing fenofibrate with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.4 ) ].

Liver Function

Fenofibrate at doses equivalent to 100 mg to 150 mg Lipofen per day has been associated with increases in serum transaminases [AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)]. In a pooled analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials of fenofibrate, increases to > 3 times the upper limit of normal of ALT occurred in 5.3% of patients taking fenofibrate versus 1.1% of patients treated with placebo. The incidence of increases in transaminases observed with fenofibrate therapy may be dose related. When transaminase determinations were followed either after discontinuation of treatment or during continued treatment, a return to normal limits was usually observed.

Chronic active hepatocellular and cholestatic hepatitis associated with fenofibrate therapy have been reported after exposures of weeks to several years. In extremely rare cases, cirrhosis has been reported in association with chronic active hepatitis.

Baseline and regular monitoring of liver tests, including ALT should be performed for the duration of therapy with Lipofen, and therapy discontinued if enzyme levels persist above three times the normal limit.

Serum Creatinine

Elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients on fenofibrate. These elevations tend to return to baseline following discontinuation of fenofibrate. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. Monitor renal function in patients with renal impairment taking Lipofen. Renal monitoring should also be considered for patients taking Lipofen and are at risk for renal insufficiency, such as the elderly and patients with diabetes.

Cholelithiasis

Fenofibrate, like clofibrate and gemfibrozil, may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to cholelithiasis. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies are indicated. Lipofen therapy should be discontinued if gallstones are found.

Coumarin Anticoagulants

Caution should be exercised when Lipofen is given in conjunction with coumarin anticoagulants. Lipofen may potentiate the anticoagulant effects of these agents resulting in prolongation of the Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR). To prevent bleeding complications, frequent monitoring of PT/INR and dose adjustment of the anticoagulant are recommended until PT/INR has stabilized [see Drug Interactions (7.1 )] .

Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis has been reported in patients taking fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and clofibrate. This occurrence may represent a failure of efficacy in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, a direct drug effect, or a secondary phenomenon mediated through biliary tract stone or sludge formation with obstruction of the common bile duct.

Hematologic Changes

Mild to moderate decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell decreases have been observed in patients following initiation of fenofibrate therapy. However, these levels stabilize during long term administration. Thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrate. Periodic monitoring of red and white blood cell counts is recommended during the first 12 months of Lipofen administration.

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Acute hypersensitivity reactions including severe skin rashes such as Steven-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis requiring patient hospitalization and treatment with steroids have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrate. Urticaria was seen in 1.1 vs. 0% and rash in 1.4 vs. 0.8% of fenofibrate and placebo patients respectively in controlled trials.

Venothromboembolic Disease

In the FIELD trial, pulmonary embolus (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed at higher rates in the fenofibrate than the placebo-treated group. Of 9,795 patients enrolled in FIELD, 4,900 in the placebo group and 4,895 in the fenofibrate group. For DVT, there were 48 events (1%) in the placebo group and 67 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.074); and for PE, there were 32 (0.7%) events in the placebo group and 53 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.022).

In the Coronary Drug Project, a higher proportion of the clofibrate group experienced definite or suspected fatal or nonfatal pulmonary embolism or thrombophlebitis than the placebo group (5.2% vs. 3.3% at 5 years; p<0.01).

Paradoxical Decreases in HDL Cholesterol Levels

There have been postmarketing and clinical trial reports of severe decreases in HDL cholesterol levels (as low as 2 mg/dL) occurring in diabetic and non-diabetic patients initiated on fibrate therapy. The decrease in HDL-C is mirrored by a decrease in apolipoprotein A1. This decrease has been reported to occur within 2 weeks to years after initiation of fibrate therapy. The HDL-C levels remain depressed until fibrate therapy has been withdrawn; the response to withdrawal of fibrate therapy is rapid and sustained. The clinical significance of this decrease in HDL-C is unknown. It is recommended that HDL-C levels be checked within the first few months after initiation of fibrate therapy. If a severely depressed HDL-C level is detected fibrate therapy should be withdrawn, and the HDL-C level monitored until it has returned to baseline, and fibrate therapy should not be re-initiated.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rate observed in clinical practice.

Adverse reactions reported by 2% or more of patients treated with fenofibrate (and greater than placebo) during the double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, regardless of causality, are listed in Table 1 below. Adverse events led to discontinuation of treatment in 5.0% of patients treated with fenofibrate and in 3.0% treated with placebo. Increases in liver function tests were the most frequent events, causing discontinuation of fenofibrate treatment in 1.6% of patients in double-blind trials.

Table 1. Adverse Reactions Reported by 2% or More of Patients Treated with Fenofibrate and Greater than Placebo During the Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

* Dosage equivalent to 150 mg Lipofen ** Significantly different from placebo

Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of fenofibrate: myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, acute renal failure, muscle spasm, hepatitis, cirrhosis, anemia, arthralgia, decreases in hemoglobin, decreases in hematocrit, white blood cell decreases, asthenia, and severely depressed HDL cholesterol levels. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Drug Interactions

Coumarin Anticoagulants

Potentiation of coumarin-type anticoagulant effect has been observed with prolongation of the PT/INR.

Caution should be exercised when Lipofen is given in conjunction with coumarin anticoagulants. Lipofen may potentiate the anticoagulant effect of these agents resulting in prolongation of the PT/INR. To prevent bleeding complications, frequent monitoring of PT/INR and dose adjustment of the oral anticoagulant as recommended until the PT/INR has stabilized [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6 )] .

Immunosuppressants

Immunosuppressant agents such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus can impair renal function and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including Lipofen, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration of renal function. When immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents are co-administered with Lipofen, the lowest effective dose of Lipofen should be employed and renal function should be monitored.

Bile-Acid Binding Resins

Since bile-acid binding resins may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take Lipofen at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption.

Colchicine

Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with fenofibrates co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing fenofibrate with colchicine.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Safety in pregnant women has not been established. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of fenofibrate in pregnant women. Fenofibrate should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

In female rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day of fenofibrate from 15 days prior to mating through weaning, maternal toxicity was observed at 0.3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2 .

In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, adverse developmental findings were not observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2 ). At higher multiples of human doses evidence of maternal toxicity was observed.

In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, aborted litters were observed at 150 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons: mg/m 2 ). No developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2 ).

In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), maternal toxicity was observed at less than 1 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons; mg/m 2 .

Nursing Mothers

Fenofibrate should not be used in nursing mothers. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use

Fenofibrate is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, the dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5 ) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )]. Fenofibrate exposure is not influenced by age. Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking Lipofen.

Renal Impairment

The use of Lipofen should be avoided in patients who have severe renal impairment [ see Contraindication (4 ) ]. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4 ) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )]. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended.

Hepatic Impairment

The use of Lipofen has not been evaluated in patients with hepatic impairment [see Contraindications (4 ) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )].

Overdosage

There is no specific treatment for overdose with Lipofen. General supportive care of the patient is indicated, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of clinical status, should an overdose occur. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage. The usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. Because fenofibrate is highly bound to plasma proteins, hemodialysis should not be considered.

Lipofen Description

Lipofen ® (fenofibrate capsules, USP), is a lipid regulating agent available as hard gelatin capsules for oral administration. Each hard gelatin capsule contains 50 or 150 mg of fenofibrate, USP. The chemical name for fenofibrate is 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl) phenoxy]-2-methyl-propanoic acid, 1-methylethyl ester with the following structural formula:

The empirical formula is C 20 H 21 O 4 C1 and the molecular weight is 360.83; fenofibrate is insoluble in water. The melting point is 79-82 o C. Fenofibrate is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.

Lipofen (fenofibrate capsules, USP) meets USP Dissolution Test 2.

Inactive Ingredients: Each hard gelatin capsule contains Gelucire 44/14 (lauroyl macrogol glyceride type 1500), polyethylene glycol 20,000, polyethylene glycol 8000, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium starch glycolate, gelatin, titanium dioxide, shellac, propylene glycol, may also contain black iron oxide, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Red #40, D&C Yellow #10.

Lipofen - Clinical Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action

The active moiety of Lipofen is fenofibric acid. The pharmacological effects of fenofibric acid in both animals and humans have been extensively studied through oral administration of fenofibrate.

The lipid-modifying effects of fenofibric acid seen in clinical practice have been explained in vivo in transgenic mice and in vitro in human hepatocyte cultures by the activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Through this mechanism, fenofibrate increases lipolysis and elimination of triglyceride-rich particles from plasma by activating lipoprotein lipase and reducing production of apoprotein C-III (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity). The resulting decrease in triglycerides produces an alteration in the size and composition of LDL from small, dense particles (which are thought to be atherogenic due to their susceptibility to oxidation), to large buoyant particles. These larger particles have a greater affinity for cholesterol receptors and are catabolized rapidly. Activation of PPARα also induces an increase in the synthesis of apolipoproteins AI, AII and HDL cholesterol.

Fenofibrate also reduces serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic and normal individuals by increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid.

Pharmacodynamics

Elevated levels of total-c, LDL-C, and apo B and decreased levels of HDL-C and its transport complex, Apo AI and Apo AII, are risk factors for atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-c, LDL-C, and triglycerides, and inversely with the level of HDL-C. The independent effect of raising HDL-C or lowering triglycerides (TG) on the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.

Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, produces reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoprotein (VLDL) in treated patients. In addition, treatment with fenofibrate results in increases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoproteins AI and AII.

Pharmacokinetics

The extent and rate of absorption of fenofibric acid after administration of 150 mg Lipofen capsules are equivalent under low-fat and high-fat fed conditions to 160 mg TriCor ® tablets.

Fenofibrate is a pro-drug of the active chemical moiety fenofibric acid. Fenofibrate is converted by ester hydrolysis in the body to fenofibric acid which is the active constituent measurable in the circulation. In a bioavailability study with Lipofen capsules 200 mg, following single-dose administration, the plasma concentration (AUC) for the parent compound fenofibrate was approximately 40 μg/mL compared to 204 μg/mL for the metabolite, fenofibric acid. In the same study, the half-life was observed to be 0.91 hrs for the parent compound versus 16.76 hrs for the metabolite.

Absorption: The absolute bioavailability of fenofibrate cannot be determined as the compound is virtually insoluble in aqueous media suitable for injection. However, fenofibrate is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Following oral administration in healthy volunteers, approximately 60% of a single dose of radiolabeled fenofibrate appeared in urine, primarily as fenofibric acid and its glucuronate conjugate, and 25% was excreted in the feces. Peak plasma levels of fenofibric acid occur within approximately 5 hours after oral administration.

The absorption of fenofibrate is increased when administered with food. With Lipofen, the extent of absorption is increased by approximately 58% and 25% under high-fat fed and low-fat fed conditions as compared to fasting conditions, respectively.

In a single dose and multiple dose bioavailability study with Lipofen capsules 200 mg, the extent of absorption (AUC) of fenofibric acid, the principal metabolite of fenofibrate, was 42% larger at steady state compared to single-dose administration. The rate of absorption (C max ) of fenofibric acid was 73% greater after multiple-dose than after single-dose administration.

The extent of absorption of Lipofen in terms of AUC value of fenofibric acid increased in a less than proportional manner while the rate of absorption in terms of C max value of fenofibric acid increased proportionally related to dose.

Distribution: Upon multiple dosing of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid steady state is achieved after 5 days. Plasma concentrations of fenofibric acid at steady state are slightly more than double those following a single dose. Serum protein binding was approximately 99% in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects.

Metabolism: Following oral administration, fenofibrate is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases to the active metabolite, fenofibric acid; unchanged fenofibrate is detected at low concentrations in plasma compared to fenofibric acid over most of the single dose and multiple dosing periods.

Fenofibric acid is primarily conjugated with glucuronic acid and then excreted in urine. A small amount of fenofibric acid is reduced at the carbonyl moiety to a benzhydrol metabolite which is, in turn, conjugated with glucuronic acid and excreted in urine.

In vitro and in vivo metabolism data indicate that neither fenofibrate nor fenofibric acid undergo oxidative metabolism (e. g. cytochrome P450) to a significant extent.

Elimination: After absorption, fenofibrate is mainly excreted in the urine in the form of metabolites, primarily fenofibric acid and fenofibric acid glucuronide. After administration of radiolabeled fenofibrate, approximately 60% of the dose appeared in the urine and 25% was excreted in feces.

Fenofibric acid is eliminated with a half-life of approximately 20 hours allowing once daily dosing.

Geriatrics: In elderly volunteers 77 to 87 years of age, the apparent oral clearance of fenofibric acid following a single oral dose of fenofibrate was 1.2 L/h, which compares to 1.1 L/h in young adults. This indicates that an equivalent dose of Lipofen can be used in elderly subjects with normal renal function, without increasing accumulation of the drug or metabolites [see Dosage and Administration (2.5 ) and Use in Specific Populations (8.5 )] .

Pediatrics: Pharmacokinetics of Lipofen has not been studied in pediatric patients.

Gender: No pharmacokinetic difference between males and females has been observed for fenofibrate.

Race: The influence of race on the pharmacokinetics of fenofibrate has not been studied, however fenofibrate is not metabolized by enzymes known for exhibiting inter-ethnic variability.

Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of fenofibric acid was examined in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment. Patients with mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73m 2 ) to moderate (eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) renal impairment had similar exposure but an increase in the half-life for fenofibric acid was observed as compared to that of healthy subjects. Patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) showed a 2.7-fold increase in exposure for fenofibric acid and increased accumulation of fenofibric acid during chronic dosing compared to that of healthy subjects. In patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, treatment with Lipofen should be initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day, and increased only after evaluation of the effects on renal function and lipid levels at this dose. Based on these findings, the use of Lipofen should be avoided in patients who have severe renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment: No pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted in patients having hepatic impairment.

Drug-Drug Interactions: In vitro studies using human liver microsomes indicate that fenofibrate and fenofibric acid are not inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP1A2. They are weak inhibitors of CYP2C8, CYP2C19 and CYP2A6, and mild to moderate inhibitors of CYP2C9 at therapeutic concentrations.

Table 2 describes the effects of co-administered drugs on fenofibric acid systemic exposure. Table 3 describes the effects of fenofibrate on co-administered drugs.

Table 2. Effects of Co-Administered Drugs on Fenofibric Acid Systemic Exposure from Fenofibrate Administration

1 TriCor (fenofibrate) oral tablet 2 TriCor (fenofibrate) oral micronized capsule

NON-CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis: Two dietary carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in rats with fenofibrate. In the first 24-month study, Wistar rats were dosed with fenofibrate at 10, 45 and 200 mg/kg/day, approximately 0.3, 1, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD), based on body surface are comparisons (mg/m 2 ). At a dose of 200 mg/kg/day (at 6 times MRHD), the incidence of liver carcinoma was significantly increased in both sexes. A statistically significant increase in pancreatic carcinomas was observed in males at 1 and 6 times the MRHD; an increase in pancreatic adenomas and benign testicular interstitial cell tumors was observed in males at 6 times the MRHD. In a second 24-month study in a different strain of rats (Sprague-Dawley), doses of 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD) produced significant increases in the incidence of pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes and increases in testicular interstitial cell tumors in males at 2 times the MRHD.

A 117-week carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats comparing three drugs: fenofibrate 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD), clofibrate (400 mg/kg; 2 times the human dose), and gemfibrozil (250 mg/kg; 2 times the human dose, based on mg/m 2 surface area). Fenofibrate increased pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes. Clofibrate increased hepatocellular carcinomas in males and hepatic neoplastic nodules in females. Gemfibrozil increased hepatic neoplastic nodules in males and females, while all three drugs increased testicular interstitial cell tumors in males.

In a 21-month study in CF-1 mice, fenofibrate 10, 45 and 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 1, and 3 times the MRHD on the basis of mg/m 2 surface area) significantly increased the liver carcinomas in both sexes at 3 times the MRHD. In a second 18 month study at 10, 60 and 200 mg/kg/day, fenofibrate significantly increased the liver carcinomas in male mice and liver adenomas in female mice at 3 times the MRHD.

Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated peroxisomal proliferation following fenofibrate administration to the rat. An adequate study to test for peroxisome proliferation in humans has not been done, but changes in peroxisome morphology and numbers have been observed in humans after treatment with other members of the fibrate class when liver biopsies were compared before and after treatment in the same individual.

Mutagenesis: Fenofibrate has been demonstrated to be devoid of mutagenic potential in the following tests: Ames, mouse lymphoma, chromosomal aberration and unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes.

Impairment of Fertility: In fertility studies rats were given oral dietary doses of fenofibrate, males received 61 days prior to mating and females 15 days prior to mating through weaning which resulted in no adverse effect on fertility at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD, based on mg/m 2 surface area comparisons).

Clinical Studies

Clinical trials have not been conducted with Lipofen.

Primary Hypercholesterolemia (Heterozygous Familial and Nonfamilial) and Mixed Dyslipidemia

The effects of fenofibrate at a dose equivalent to 150 mg per day of Lipofen were assessed from four randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group studies including patients with the following mean baseline lipid values: total-c 306.9 mg/dL; LDL-C 213.8 mg/dL; HDL-C 52.3 mg/dL; and triglycerides 191.0 mg/dL. Fenofibrate therapy lowered LDL-C, total-c, and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Fenofibrate therapy also lowered triglycerides and raised HDL-C (see Table 4 ).

Table 4. Mean Percent Change in Lipid Parameters at End of Treatment +

+ Duration of study treatment was 3 to 6 months. * p = <0.05 vs. Placebo

In a subset of the subjects, measurements of apo B were conducted. Fenofibrate treatment significantly reduced apo B from baseline to endpoint as compared with placebo (-25.1% vs. 2.4%, p<0.0001, n=213 and 143 respectively).

Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

The effects of fenofibrate on serum triglycerides were studied in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 147 hypertriglyceridemic patients. Patients were treated for eight weeks under protocols that differed only in that one entered patients with baseline TG levels of 500 to 1500 mg/dL, and the other TG levels of 350 to 500 mg/dL. In patients with hypertriglyceridemia and normal cholesterolemia with or without hyperchylomicronemia, treatment with fenofibrate at dosages equivalent to 150 mg Lipofen per day decreased primarily very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol. Treatment of some with elevated triglycerides often results in an increase of LDL-C (see Table 5 ).

Table 5. Effects in Patients With Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

* = P<0.05 vs. Placebo

The effect of Lipofen on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.

How Supplied/Storage and Handling

Lipofen ® (fenofibrate capsules, USP) is available in two strengths:

50 mg: Size 3 white opaque/white opaque gelatin capsule, imprinted in black ink with “50” between lines on the body, “G 246” on the cap and containing a white to almost white paste, available in bottles of 30 (NDC 66869-137-20) and 90 (NDC 66869-137-30).

150 mg: Size 1 white opaque/white opaque gelatin capsule, imprinted in green ink with “150” between lines on the body, “G 248” on the cap and containing a white to almost white paste, available in bottles of 30 (NDC 66869-147-20) and 90 (NDC 66869-147-30).

Store at 25°C; Excursions permitted to 15°C - 30°C (59°F - 86°F).[See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Keep out of the reach of children. Protect from moisture and light.

Patient Counseling Information

Patients should be advised:

of the potential benefits and risks of Lipofen.

not to use Lipofen if there is a known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate or fenofibric acid.

of medications that should not be taken in combination with Lipofen.

that if they are taking coumarin anticoagulants, Lipofen may increase their anti-coagulant effect, and increased monitoring may be necessary.

to inform their physician of all medications, supplements, and herbal preparations they are taking and any change in their medical condition.

to inform a physician prescribing a new medication, that they are taking Lipofen.

to continue to follow an appropriate lipid-modifying diet while taking Lipofen.

to take Lipofen once daily at the prescribed dose, swallowing each capsule whole.

to inform their physician of any muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness; onset of abdominal pain; or any other new symptoms.

to return to their physician's office for routine monitoring.

Product of Israel

Manufactured for: Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. Montgomery, AL 36117

Kowa Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.

Principal Display Panel – 50mg Bottle Label

(fenofibrate capsules, usp)

Accusol - Baxter Information Page, Orotre

Pharmaceutical Drug Information Service

Accusol

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Buy Biamotil - Ciprofloxacin - Online Without Prescriptions, Biamotil

Ciplox (Biamotil)

Ciplox is used to treat different types of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure.

Take Cipro exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Cipro with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day while you are taking this medicine. Cipro may be taken with or without food, but take it at the same time each day. Shake the oral suspension (liquid) for at least 15 seconds just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

When taking the Cipro oral liquid, swallow it without chewing the medicine beads you may notice in the liquid.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Do not take Cipro with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. You may eat or drink these products as part of a regular meal, but do not use them alone when taking Cipro. They could make the medication less effective.

Take Cipro for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Cipro will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store Cipro at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

If you missed a dose - take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Take exactly as prescribed by your Health Provider.

Store this medicine at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

You should not use Ciplox if you are taking tizanidine (Zanaflex), if you have a history of myasthenia gravis, or if you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar antibiotics such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

Before taking Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have a heart rhythm disorder, kidney or liver disease, joint problems, diabetes, muscle weakness or trouble breathing, a condition called pseudotumor cerebri, a history of seizures, a history of head injury or brain tumor, low levels of potassium in your blood, a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome, or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic.

Do not take Ciplox with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. Avoid taking antacids, vitamin or mineral supplements, sucralfate (Carafate), or didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets within 6 hours before or 2 hours after you take Ciplox. Ciprofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions.

You should NOT take Ciplox if:

you are also taking tizanidine (Zanaflex);

you have a history of myasthenia gravis; or

you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar medications such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin (Floxin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

To make sure you can safely take Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

heart rhythm disorder, especially if you take quinidine (Quin-G), disopyramide (Norpace), bretylium (Bretylol), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan SR), amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), or sotalol (Betapace);

a history of head injury or brain tumor;

a condition called pseudotumor cerebri (high pressure inside the skull that may cause headaches, vision loss, or other symptoms);

a history of allergic reaction to an antibiotic;

joint problems;

kidney or liver disease;

epilepsy or seizures;

diabetes;

muscle weakness or trouble breathing;

low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia); or

a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Ciplox will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using it. Ciprofloxacin passes into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Ciplox may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. These effects may be more likely to occur if you are over 60, if you take steroid medication, or if you have had a kidney, heart, or lung transplant. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions. Do not share Ciplox with another person (especially a child), even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Ciplox: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;

sudden pain, snapping or popping sound, bruising, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or loss of movement in any of your joints;

diarrhea that is watery or bloody;

confusion, hallucinations, depression, unusual thoughts or behavior;

seizure (convulsions);

severe headache, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes;

pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, fever, weakness;

urinating less than usual or not at all;

easy bruising or bleeding;

numbness, tingling, or unusual pain anywhere in your body;

the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild; or

severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects:

nausea, vomiting;

dizziness or drowsiness;

blurred vision;

feeling nervous, anxious, or agitated; or

sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

Customers who bought this product also bought

Misotrol, Misotrol

misoprostol

misoprostol

a synthetic prostaglandin E 1 analogue used to treat gastric irritation resulting from long-term therapy with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. It is also used in conjunction with mifepristone for termination of pregnancy in the first trimester. Administered orally.

misoprostol

Apo-Misoprostol (CA), Cytotec, Novo-Misoprostol (CA), PMS-Misoprostol (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Prostaglandin E 1 analog

Therapeutic class: Antiulcerative, cytoprotective agent

Pregnancy risk category X

FDA Box Warning

• In pregnant women, drug can cause abortion, premature birth, or birth defects. Uterine rupture has occurred when drug was given to pregnant women to induce labor or to induce abortion beyond week 8 of pregnancy.

• Don't give to pregnant women to reduce risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced ulcers.

• Advise patients of drug's abortifacient property and warn them not to give it to others.

• Don't use drug to reduce risk of NSAID-induced ulcers in women of childbearing potential unless patient is at high risk for complications from gastric ulcers linked to NSAIDs or at high risk for gastric ulcers. In such patients, drug may be prescribed if patient has had negative serum pregnancy test within 2 weeks before starting therapy; is able to comply with effective contraceptive measures; has received both oral and written warnings of drug's hazards, risk of possible contraception failure, and danger to other women of childbearing potential should drug be taken by mistake; and will begin drug only on second or third day of next normal menstrual period.

Action

Reduces gastric acid secretion and increases gastric mucus and bicarbonate production, creating a protective coating on gastric mucosa

Availability

Tablets: 100 mcg, 200 mcg

⊘ Indications and dosages

➣ To prevent gastric ulcers caused by NSAIDs

Adults: 200 mcg q. i.d. with food, with last daily dose given at bedtime. If intolerance occurs, decrease to 100 mcg q. i.d.

Off-label uses

• Duodenal ulcer • Pregnancy termination

Contraindications

• Prostaglandin hypersensitivity • Pregnancy

Precautions

Use cautiously in: • females of childbearing age • breastfeeding patients • children younger than age 18 (safety not established).

Administration

☞ Before starting therapy, make sure female patient understands dangers of taking drug while pregnant or breastfeeding. • Be aware that drug should not be used in females of childbearing age, except those who need NSAIDs and are at high risk for complications from NSAID-associated gastric ulcers. • For antiulcer use in females, start therapy on day 2 or 3 of normal menses.

Adverse reactions

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, flatulence

GU: miscarriage, menstrual disorders, postmenopausal bleeding

Interactions

Drug-drug. Magnesium-containing antacids: increased risk of diarrhea

Patient monitoring

• Assess GI status. Report significant adverse reactions. • Monitor menstrual pattern or postmenopausal bleeding. Report significant problems.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take with food. • Advise patient to report diarrhea, abdominal pain, and menstrual irregularities.

☞ Tell patient drug may cause spontaneous abortion. Stress importance of using reliable contraception. • Instruct female patient using drug for ulcer treatment to start therapy on second or third day of normal menses. • Caution patient not to take magnesium-containing antacids, which may worsen diarrhea. • As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

mi·so·pros·tol

A prostaglandin analogue used for prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcers; particularly useful in patients taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs; antiulcerative. A component of the mifepristone-regimen for early termination of pregnancy.

misoprostol

/mi·so·pro·stol/ ( mi″so-pros?tol ) a synthetic prostaglandin E analogue used to treat gastric irritation resulting from long-term therapy with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs ; also used in conjunction with mifepristone (q. v.) for termination of pregnancy.

misoprostol

(mī′sō-prŏs′tol′, - tōl′, - tŏl′)

An oral prostaglandin analog, C 22 H 38 O 5 . that stimulates the production of gastric mucus and is used to prevent and treat gastric ulcers, especially in patients using NSAIDs. It is also used to induce labor and in conjunction with the drug RU 486 to induce abortion in early pregnancy.

misoprostol

A synthetic PGE1 analogue administered vaginally with mifepristone (RU 486) as an abortifacient. It is also used to prevent NSAID-induced gastric ulcers and in patients with a history of GI bleeding. Misoprostol may be of use in reducing acute rejection of renal allografts, a phenomenon partially due to ischaemic damage of kidneys that occurs between the time of “harvesting” and re-establishment of the blood flow; misoprostol-treated group subjects suffered acute rejection one-half as often as the placebo group.

When compared to PGE2, misoprostol induces complete abortion (i. e. passage of foetus and placenta simultaneously) more often (43% vs 32% for PGE2), was more convenient (insertion of two 100-µg tablets at 12 hours vs insertion of 20 mg suppository every 3 hours, plus antidiarrhoeal, antiemetic and antipyretic medication required for PGE2 therapy), was associated with fewer side effects, including fever (11% vs 63%), vomiting (4% vs 33%) and diarrhoea (4% vs 30%), and is less expensive (USD $0.97 vs $315.30).

misoprostol

Obstetrics A synthetic PGE 1 analogue administered vaginally with mifepristone–RU 486 as an abortifacient, also used to manage peptic and duodenal ulcers. See Abortion. Gemeprost. Mifepristone. Sulprostone.

mi·so·pros·tol

1. Prostaglandin analogue used to prevent gastric and duodenal ulcers.

2. A component of the mifepristone-regimen for early termination of pregnancy.

misoprostol

A PROSTAGLANDIN drug used to treat peptic ulcers especially those caused by NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS. Brand names are Cytotec and Mifegyne. The drug is also formulated with DICLOFENAC under the brand name Arthrotec, and with NAPROXEN under the brand name Napratec, for the treatment of RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

mi·so·pros·tol

A prostaglandin analogue used to prevent gastric and duodenal ulcers; particularly useful in patients taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

misoprostol

(mī´sōprôs´til), n brand name: Cytotec; drug class: gastric mucosa protectant; action: a prostaglandin E 1 analog that inhibits gastric acid secretion; uses: prevention of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gastric ulcers.

misoprostol

a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E and inhibitor of gastric secretion; used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulceration, particularly those associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Link to this page:

Misotrol

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Pidezol 10 Mg Filmtabletta (20x), Pidezol

PIDEZOL 10 mg filmtabletta (20x) adatlap

Kiadhatosag: Orvosi venyhez kotott

1. MILYEN TIPUSU GYOGYSZER A PIDEZOL FILMTABLETTA ES MILYEN BETEGSEGEK ESETEN ALKALMAZHATO! A Pidezol filmtabletta hatoanyaga, a zolpidem, altato hatasu szer, ami alvaszavarok rovid tavu kezelesere szolgal. 2. TUDNIVALOK A PIDEZOL FILMTABLETTA SZEDESE ELOTT Ne szedje a Pidezol filmtablettat : - ha allergias (tulerzekeny) a keszitmeny hatoanyagara (zolpidem) vagy a Pidezol filmtabletta barmely egyeb osszetevojere, - ha immunologiai betegseg kovetkezteben kialakult izomgyengesege van (un. miasztenia gravisz), - ha Onnel alvas kozben legzeskimaradasok fordulnak elo , - heveny vagy idult legzesi elegtelensegben, - sulyos majkarosodasban, - 18 eves eletkor alatt, - terhesseg, szoptatas ideje alatt, - ha korabban alkohol - vagy drogfuggosege volt. A Pidezol filmtabletta fokozott elovigyazatossaggal alkalmazhato, ezert feltetlenul emlitse meg orvosanak, ha az alabbiak kozul valamelyik vonatkozik Onre: - enyhe vagy kozepes merteku legzesi elegtelensege van, - majkarosodasban szenved, - idoskoru (65 ev felett), - elmebetegsegben vagy depresszios betegsegekben szenved. A kezeles ideje alatt alkalmazott egyeb gyogyszerek: Feltetlenul tajekoztassa kezeloorvosat vagy gyogyszereszet a jelenleg vagy nemregiben szedett egyeb gyogyszereirol, beleertve a veny nelkul kaphato keszitmenyeket is. A Pidezol filmtabletta es egyes gyogyszerek befolyasolhatjak egymas hatasat, igy az adagolas megvaltoztatasara lehet szukseg. - Bizonyos kozponti idegrendszerre hato gyogyszerekkel (altatok, nyugtatok, neuroleptikumok, kabito fajdalomcsillapitok, epilepszia elleni szerek, fajdalomcsillapitok, nyugtato hatasu allergia ellenes gyogyszerek es egyes depresszio elleni keszitmenyek) egymas hatasat fokozhatjak (nyugtato hatas fokozodasa). Ezt egyuttes alkalmazaskor figyelembe kell venni. - Kabito fajdalomcsillapitokkal valo egyuttadaskor az euforia (korosan jo hangulat) fokozodhat, novelve a psziches fuggoseg kialakulasanak veszelyet. - Rifampicin (antibiotikum) csokkenti a Pidezol filmtabletta hatasat. - Ketokonazollal (gombaellenes gyogyszer) torteno egyuttes alkalmazasakor fokozodik a Pidezol filmtabletta nyugtato hatasa. A Pidezol filmtabletta egyideju bevetele bizonyos etelekkel vagy italokkal Alkalmazasanak ideje alatt alkoholt fogyasztani tilos! Az alkohol barmely altato mellekhatasait felerositheti. Terhesseg es szoptatas Terhesseg vagy szoptatas ideje alatt a Pidezol filmtabletta nem alkalmazhato. Mielott barmilyen gyogyszert elkezdene szedni, beszelje meg kezeloorvosaval vagy gyogyszereszevel. A keszitmeny hatasai a gepjarmuvezeteshez es gepek kezelesehez szukseges kepessegekre Hatasanak idotartama alatt gepjarmuvet vezetni, ill. baleseti veszellyel jaro munkat vegezni tilos. A jarmuvezeto kepesseget es a baleseti veszellyel jaro munka vegzeset befolyasolhatja, reggeli almossagot okozhat. A kockazat legkisebbre csokkentesenek erdekeben ajanlott teljes ejszakai alvast (7-8 ora) biztositani a gyogyszer bevetelet kovetoen. Fontos informaciok a Pidezol filmtabletta egyes osszetevoirol A Pidezol filmtabletta laktozt (tejcukrot) tartalmaz. Amennyiben kezeloorvosa korabban mar figyelmeztette Ont, hogy bizonyos cukrokra erzekeny, keresse fel orvosat, mielott elkezdi szedni ezt a gyogyszert. 3. HOGYAN KELL ALKALMAZNI A PIDEZOL FILMTABLETTAT? A Pidezol filmtablettat mindig az orvos altal elmondottaknak megfeleloen szedje. Amennyiben nem biztos az adagolast illetoen, kerdezze meg kezeloorvosat vagy gyogyszereszet. A keszitmeny szokasos adagja: Felnotteknek napi 1 tabletta kozvetlenul lefekves elott. Idos kor (65 ev felett), elesett allapot, majkarosodas eseten, valamint, ha egyidejuleg mas, idegrendszerre hato gyogyszert is szed, orvosa a szokasosnal kisebb adagot javasolhat (altalaban 1/2 tablettat). Az eloirt adagot keves folyadekkal kell bevenni. Ha 7-10 napos Pidezol kezelest kovetoen allapota nem javul, forduljon orvosahoz a tovabbi teendok megbeszelesere, az alvaszavar ugyanis szamos egyeb betegseg tunete lehet. Altatoszerrel valo kezeles a leheto legrovidebb legyen, altalaban 7-10 nap, de legfeljebb 4 het. Gyermekeknel (18 ev alatt) a Pidezol filmtabletta nem alkalmazhato. Ha az eloirtnal tobb Pidezol filmtablettat vett be: Ne vegye be az esedekes kovetkezo adagot, es haladektalanul forduljon orvosahoz a tovabbi teendok megbeszelesere! A tuladagolas tunetei: aluszekonysagtol a komaig terjedo ebersegi szint csokkenes alakulhat ki a bevett mennyiseggel aranyosan. Sulyosabb tunetek varhatok, ha egyidejuleg mas kozponti idegrendszerre hato gyogyszert is bevett a beteg. Ha elfelejtette bevenni a Pidezol filmtablettat Ne vegyen be ketszeres adagot a kihagyott tabletta potlasara, folytassa a kezelest az eloirt modon es adaggal. A gyogyszer bevetelet kovetoen ajanlott teljes ejszakai alvast (7-8 ora) biztositani. Ha ido elott abbahagyja a Pidezol filmtabletta szedeset A tartosan nagy adagban alkalmazott Pidezol kezeles hirtelen megszakitasa - kulonosen arra hajlamos (korabban alkohol vagy drogfuggo) egyenekben - megvonasi tuneteket okozhat, ill. a korabbi alvasi panaszok atmenetileg felerosodhetnek. Ezert a Pidezol kezeles megszakitasa elott - minden esetben - kerje ki orvosa tanacsat. Ha barmilyen tovabbi kerdese van a keszitmeny alkalmazasaval kapcsolatban, kerdezze meg orvosat vagy gyogyszereszet. 4. LEHETSEGES MELLEKHATASOK Mint minden gyogyszer, igy a Pidezol filmtabletta is okozhat mellekhatasokat, melyek azonban nem mindenkinel jelentkeznek. Ha barmely mellekhatas sulyossa valik, vagy a betegtajekoztatoban felsorolt mellekhatasokon kivul egyeb tunetet eszlel, kerjuk, ertesitse orvosat vagy gyogyszereszet. A Pidezol mellekhatasai kulonosen egyes idegrendszeri hatasok tekinteteben az adag nagysagatol fuggenek, es enyhebbek, ha a gyogyszerbevetel kozvetlenul lefekves elott tortenik. Idosekben gyakrabban fordulnak elo. Ha az eloirt adagban es ideig alkalmazzak, a hozzaszokas, ill. a kezeles befejezesekor jelentkezo megvonasi tunet kialakulasanak veszelye csekely. Gyakori mellekhatasok (100 betegbol 1-10 beteg tapasztalhatja): Idegrendszeri es psziches tunetek, mint aluszekonysag, fejfajas, szedules, az almatlansag sulyosbodasa, a gyogyszer bevetelet kovetoen jelentkezo memoriazavar, hallucinaciok, izgatottsag, remalmok. Faradtsag es emesztesi panaszok, mint hasmenes, hanyinger, hanyas es hasi fajdalom. Nem gyakori mellekhatasok (100 betegbol kevesebb, mint egy beteg tapasztalhatja): zavartsag, ingerlekenyseg es kettoslatas. Az alabbi nemkivanatos reakciok elofordulasi gyakorisaganak megallapitasara nem all rendelkezesre elegendo adat: Idegrendszeri es psziches tunetek, mint a csokkent tudati ebersegi szint, a szexualis vagy valtozasa. Izomgyengeseg, jaraszavarok, eleses (foleg idos betegeknel (65 ev felett), es azokban az esetekben, amikor a beteg nem az eloiras szerint alkalmazta a Pidezol filmtablettat) fordulhat elo. Jelentkezhet kiutes, vizenyo, viszketes, csalankiutes, fokozott verejtekezes, es a majenzim-szintek megemelkedeset is megfigyeltek. Elofordulhat un. paradox reakcio . amelynek a tunetei a kovetkezok lehetnek: nyugtalansag, az alvaszavar sulyosbodasa, izgatottsag, ingerlekenyseg, agresszivitas, erzekcsalodas, duhonges, remalmok, hallucinaciok, pszichozis, nem megfelelo viselkedes. Amennyiben ilyen nem szokvanyos reakcio lepne fel, a keszitmeny szedeset azonnal abba kell hagyni. Az altatoszerek hasznalata fuggoseghez vezethet, kulonosen, ha hosszu ideig, nagy adagban alkalmazzak.(Javasolt adagban es idotartamban a fuggoseg kialakulasanak veszelye minimalis). Ezert az altatoszerrel valo kezelesnek a leheto legrovidebbnek kell lennie, idotartama maximum negy hetig terjedhet. Ha megis fuggoseg alakulna ki, a kezeles megszakitasa megvonasi tuneteket idezhet elo, mint fejfajas, szorongas, feszultseg, nyugtalansag, zavartsag es ingerlekenyseg. Sulyos esetben elidegenedes vagy elszemelytelenedes erzese, hallucinaciok, vegtagzsibbadas, hang - es fenyerzekenyseg, epilepszias rohamok jelentkezhetnek Ezek elkerulese erdekeben a Pidezol kezeles fokozatos leepitese javasolt. 5. HOGYAN KELL A PIDEZOL FILMTABLETTAT TAROLNI? Legfeljebb 25° C-on tarolando A fenytol valo vedelem erdekeben az eredeti csomagolasban tarolando. A gyogyszer gyermekektol elzarva tartando. A keszitmeny gyartasi szamat, gyartasi es lejarati idejet a dobozon talalja. A dobozon feltuntetett lejarati ido utan ne szedje a Pidezol filmtablettat. A lejarati ido a megadott honap utolso napjara vonatkozik. Ne szedje a Pidezol filmtablettat, ha a bomlas lathato jeleit (pl. elszinezodes) eszleli. A gyogyszereket nem szabad a szennyvizzel vagy a haztartasi hulladekkal egyutt megsemmisiteni. Kerdezze meg gyogyszereszert, hogy szuksegtelenne valt gyogyszereit mikent semmisitse meg. Ezek az intezkedesek elosegitik a kornyezet vedelmet. 6. TOVABBI INFORMACIOK Mit tartalmaz a Pidezol filmtabletta A keszitmeny hatoanyaga : 10,0 mg zolpidem-tartarat filmtablettankent. Egyeb osszetevok: Tablettamag: vizmentes kolloid szilicium-dioxid, magnezium-sztearat, karboximetil-kemenyito-natrium, mikrokristalyos celluloz, laktoz-monohidrat (57,0 mg). Bevonat: Opadry Y-1-7000: titan-dioxid (E 171), hipromelloz, makrogol 400, Ariavit indigokarmin (E 132). Milyen a Pidezol filmtabletta kulleme es mit tartalmaz a csomagola s Kullem :vilagoskek, hosszukas, enyhen bikonvex filmbevonatu tabletta, egyik oldalan "E551" jelzessel, masik oldalan felezovonallal. Toresi felulete feher szinu. A torovonal menten a tabletta egyenlo adagokra oszthato. Csomagolas . 10 db vagy 20 db filmtabletta feher, atlatszatlan PVC/PVDC/Al buborekfoliaban es dobozban.

Hasonlo termekek

Advice Issued On Antidepressant Use, Gerozac

Advice issued on antidepressant use

by Fergal Bowers

While certain antidepressant medicines are not licensed for children in Ireland, doctors here can prescribe them for patients under their care if it is deemed right, according to the regulatory authority, the Irish Medicines Board.

The IMB was commenting in response to the decision of the British government to ban the prescribing of SSRIs (a class of antidepressant drugs) for children because there is evidence that some of these medicines may cause people under 18 years of age to become suicidal.

The IMB said that SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are not recommended for use in the treatment of major depressive disorder in children in Ireland as the risks of treatment with certain SSRIs are considered to outweigh the benefits of treatment in this condition.

?We recommend strongly that patients taking SSRIs do not suddenly discontinue use of the drug, because of the risk of withdrawal effects. Any changes must take place under medical supervision?, Dr Joan Gilvarry of the IMB advised.

Some medicines such as sertraline (Lustral) and fluvoxamine (Faverin) are licensed for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents as the balance of risk versus benefit has been shown to be positive in this condition.

The IMB said that it would continue to monitor the quality, safety and efficacy of SSRIs and initiate any further regulatory action deemed necessary.

Comments

Ken(tormek) - 17/12/2003 09:21

Came of Cypramil recently - its a type of SSRI - I found it very difficult when I came off the drug eventhough I did so very gradually. I think it would have been much worse to go from full dosage to no dosage overnight. My advice is to do it very gradually and take regular exercise to counter the effects of coming off the drug. It worked for me.

Anonymous - 17/12/2003 15:10

I suffer from atrial fibrillation for which I take cordorone/amodorone and started Cipramil 2 months ago. My heart has become more irregular with more skipped beats, bangs etc. Anyone else experience the same?

Anonymous - 18/12/2003 13:03

i was put on Gerozac ( Fluoxetine - Prozac ) when i was 16, i took this SSRI for 3 months and then tried to kill myself by taking an overdose of painkillers, i was sent to a psychiatric hospital where the doctors took me off the medication straight away, but never gave me any real reason. i think that it was the anti-depressants that made me try to kill myself; well i hope it was anyway.

Anonymous - 19/12/2003 20:00

Having been on both an SSRI(Paroxetine) and an SNRI(Venlafaxine) I think the reason these can cause suicidal tendencies is that their anti-anxiety effect can reduce or remove the normal fear of death, making it seem like an easier option if depression breaks through - fluctuating hormonal levels in teens could cause depression which is normally controlled by the drug to manifest on occasion. This combined with the shorter long term outlook of younger people could make suicide seem the only possible release.

Anonymous - 22/12/2003 22:51

Re: Cipramil. I have just come off this drug and so far have been fine. I did come off it slowly however over a 3-4 month period. I too had a lot of irregular heartbeats while on it.

Anonymous - 23/12/2003 09:17

Anon posted on 22/12/03 Could you please tell me - Did you have an irregular heartbeat before going on Cipramil?

Anonymous - 05/01/2004 22:53

I am currently taking Lustral and have been for the past five years. I have heard of people attending doctors suffering from Despression for up to twenty years I would love to know when I will be back to normal. I'm going along nicely and then some catastrophe strikes and I feel like I go back to square one. I wonder what have other sufferers found. Anon

Anonymous - 06/01/2004 21:33

Re: Cypramil. I didn't have an irregular heartbeat prior to taking this medication and think it is a possible side effect. I have had difficult days since coming off it and have wondered if I did the right thing, but on balance I think I did. However, it isn't wise to come off medication without talking to your doctor first. Also it is quite useful to do some research on the internet, as some doctors don't seem aware of the side effects of the drugs they prescribe.

Anonymous - 07/01/2004 12:23

Cypramil. i was on this for several months and felt great. however after going off them it was back to normal again. here i am again wondering if i should try something new or try without medication.

Ken(tormek) - 07/01/2004 13:44

To the last comment before this one - I really do recommend taking regualr exercise - nothing else worked forme - I was just like you - back to square one after coming off Cypramil, but I decided to try exercising and I must say it has paid off for me. Also I notice that when I overindulge in alcohol that it has bad side-effects for me so I try to keep that in check a bit.

Anonymous - 06/04/2004 00:20

I have been prescribed Seroxat. After taking the first tablet I had 48 hours of acute nausea, a tightening of the throat and difficulty swallowing, breathlessness, and when I closed my eyes I could see psychedelic images of bunches of flowers and brightly coloured snakes. I have been afraid to take a second tablet. Any one else have these kind of problems?

Anonymous - 06/04/2004 20:23

Seroxat has featured in the press and on TV and it has now been recognised to have bad side effects for some people, and can in some cases make matters worse. I suggest you go back to your doctor and ask for a different brand of medication. However, they all appear to have side effects!

Grace(WZZ13889) - 21/05/2004 16:34

Do antideppressants make people prone to metal difficulties. What measures has the Health bodies put in place to counteract this kind of health tragedy. Are young people of this categories encouraged to attend positive speaking working groups and share challenges with an aim of fordging a solution to the underlying cause.

miriam(winifred) - 12/03/2005 19:22

Has anyone tried Rhodiola Root Extract for anxiety and stress?

jd - 13/03/2006 19:15

I've just been prescribed Gerozac today and i'd like to hear about any negative or positive outcomes of taking this as i'm worried about taking medication in the first place.

Gemma - 10/05/2006 19:52

I've been prescribed gerozac & would like comments on the side effects & the benefits. I have an anxiety complex

beautiful - 12/05/2006 20:20

Has anybody taken the antidepressant Zispin and did it have a beneficial effect

comingdown - 11/11/2008 02:21

Has anybody suffered weird withdrawl symptoms from Lexapro? I have been on between 10-20mg for the last 4years, 2years on 10 and the last 2years on 20mg. I'm weaning myself slowly off them for the last 2 months 5mgs in stages and I'm now down to 5mgs every 2 days. I feel awful for the last 2 weeks. I've got this whoosing feeling every time I turn my head (similar to flu like symptoms). I'm getting very snappy at times and my heart is beating wildly constantly. Is this normal with withdrawl from Lexapro and if so how long can I expect it to last??

Dee M - 12/05/2009 15:23

Is anybody currently on Gerozac, I have recently started taking it and have experienced the forewarned nausea, I am just concerned about any other side-effects there may be as I am unable to find much info about it, any comments would be much appreciated.

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Biogesic Oral Drug Information On Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, And User Reviews On Rxlist, Biog

Biogesic oral

Biogesic oral Uses

This combination product contains 2 medications, acetaminophen and an antihistamine. Acetaminophen helps to reduce fever and/or mild to moderate pain (such as headache, backache, aches/pains due to muscle strain, cold, or flu). The antihistamine in this product may cause drowsiness, and therefore it can also be used as a nighttime sleep aid. Antihistamines can also be used to help relieve allergy or cold symptoms such as watery eyes, itchy eyes/nose/throat, runny nose, and sneezing.

Cough-and-cold products have not been shown to be safe or effective in children younger than 6 years. Therefore, do not use this product to treat cold symptoms in children younger than 6 years unless specifically directed by the doctor. Some products (such as long-acting tablets/capsules) are not recommended for use in children younger than 12 years. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details about using your product safely.

These products do not cure or shorten the length of the common cold and may cause serious side effects. To decrease the risk for serious side effects, carefully follow all dosage directions. Do not use this product to make a child sleepy. Do not give other cough-and-cold medication that might contain the same or similar ingredients (see also Drug Interactions section). Ask the doctor or pharmacist about other ways to relieve cough and cold symptoms (such as drinking enough fluids, using a humidifier or saline nose drops/spray).

How to use Biogesic oral

See also Warning section.

If you are taking an over-the-counter product, read all directions on the product package before taking this medication. If you have any questions, consult your pharmacist. If your doctor has prescribed this medication, take it as directed.

Take this medication by mouth with or without food or as directed by your doctor. If stomach upset occurs, you may take this medication with food or milk.

If you are using the liquid form, carefully measure your prescribed dose using a medication-measuring device or spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose.

If you are taking extended-release capsules, swallow them whole. Do not crush or chew extended-release capsules or tablets. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, do not split extended-release tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing.

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Pain medications work best if they are used as the first signs of pain occur. If you wait until the symptoms have worsened, the medication may not work as well.

Do not take this product for pain more than 10 days (adults) or 5 days (children) unless directed by a doctor. Do not take this product for fever more than 3 days unless directed by your doctor. If your condition persists or worsens, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, seek immediate medical attention.

Biogesic oral Precautions

See also Warning section.

Before taking this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to acetaminophen or antihistamines; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: breathing problems (such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-COPD), glaucoma, heart disease, high blood pressure, liver disease, stomach/intestinal problems (such as blockage, constipation, ulcers), overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), urination problems (such as trouble urinating due to enlarged prostate, urinary retention).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy or cause blurred vision. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness or clear vision until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

Liquid products may contain alcohol, sugar, and/or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, alcohol dependence, liver disease, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.

Caution is advised when using this drug in children because they are more sensitive to the effects of antihistamines. In young children, this drug may cause agitation and excitement instead of drowsiness.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the effects of this drug, especially dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, constipation, or trouble urinating. Dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion can increase the risk of falling.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

This drug may pass into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Biogesic oral Interactions

See also Warning section.

If you are taking this medication under your doctor's direction, your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor or pharmacist first.

Before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of: antihistamines applied to the skin (such as diphenhydramine cream, ointment, spray), ketoconazole, MAO inhibitors (isocarboxazid, linezolid, methylene blue, moclobemide, phenelzine, procarbazine, rasagiline, selegiline, tranylcypromine).

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products that cause drowsiness, including alcohol, other antihistamines, drugs for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, and narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine).

Antihistamines are ingredients found in many nonprescription products and in some combination prescription medications. Check the labels on all your medicines (especially cough-and-cold products) because they may also contain an antihistamine. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

This medication may interfere with certain medical/laboratory tests (such as urine 5-HIAA, allergy skin tests), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

Biogesic oral Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, sweating, stomach/abdominal pain, extreme tiredness, agitation, confusion, flushing, hallucinations, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine, seizures. In children, excitement may occur first, and may be followed by: loss of coordination, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, seizures.

If your doctor has prescribed this medication, do not share it with others.

Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments.

Do not take this product for several days before allergy testing because test results can be affected.

If you are taking this product on a regular schedule and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Do not freeze liquid forms of this product. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised October 2015. Copyright(c) 2015 First Databank, Inc.

Anadvil Questions We Have Answers At Healthsofa, Anadvil

Side Effects

nausea / constipation / heartburn / dizziness / headache / vomiting / abdominal pain / drowsiness / insomnia / diarrhea / dyspepsia / dry eyes / rhinitis / flatulence / nervousness / hypertension / hypertension / arrhythmia / hematuria / cystitis / rash / tachycardia / urticaria / bronchospasm / alopecia / anaphylaxis / palpitation / fever / chest pain /

Pregnancy

Pregnancy and Anadvil Embryo and Anadvil Fetal Weaning and Anadvil Breastfeeding and Anadvil

Dosage

How to Properly Take Ibuprofen? What is the children dosage for Anadvil What is the adult dosage for Anadvil How often should Anadvil be taken? What is the dosage for Anadvil?

Usage

Storage

Interactions

Biological Half-life

How long does it take Anadvil to leave the system?

Nursing responsibilities for Anadvil

ATC CODE: C01EB16 ATC CODE: G02CC01 ATC CODE: M01AE01 ATC CODE: M01AE01 ATC CODE: M02AA13

Other medications containing Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is the active ingredient in Anadvil

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CH?NG CH? D?NH: M?n c?m v?i b?t c? thành ph?n nào c?a thu?c. Ch?ng ch? d?nh s? d?ng clarithromycin v?i b?t k? thu?c nào sau dây: cisaprid, pimozid và terfenadin, d?c bi?t trong tru?ng h?p m?c b?nh tim ho?c m?t cân b?ng di?n gi?i.

LI?U LU?NG VÀ CÁCH DÙNG: Cách dùng: Dùng u?ng, không ph? thu?c vào b?a an. Th?i gian dùng thu?c thu?ng kéo dài t? 7 – 14 ngày tùy thu?c lo?i và m?c d? nhi?m khu?n. Li?u lu?ng: V?i nhi?m trùng du?ng hô h?p, da và mô m?m: + Ngu?i l?n và tr? em > 12 tu?i, li?u thông thu?ng: 250 mg/l?n x 2 l?n/ngày, có th? tang lên. 500 mg/l?n x 2 l?n/ngày. + Tr? em < 12 tu?i, li?u thông thu?ng: 7,5 mg/kg th? tr?ng x 2 l?n/ngày, t?i da. 500 mg x 2 l?n/ngày. Ph?i h?p di?t tr? H. pylori: + Li?u thu?ng dùng cho ngu?i l?n, 500 mg/l?n x 3 l?n/ngày.

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