Pomegranate Fruit Facts, Promergan

POMEGRANATE

Punica granatum L.

Punicaceae

Common Names: Pomegranate, Granada (Spanish), Grenade (French).

Related Species: Punica proto-punica .

Origin: The pomegranate is native from Iran to the Himalayas in northern India and was cultivated and naturalized over the whole Mediterranean region since ancient times. It is widely cultivated throughout India and the drier parts of southeast Asia, Malaya, the East Indies and tropical Africa. The tree was introduced into California by Spanish settlers in 1769. In this country it is grown for its fruits mainly in the drier parts of California and Arizona.

Adaptation: Pomegranates prefer a semi-arid mild-temperate to subtropical climate and are naturally adapted to regions with cool winters and hot summers. A humid climate adversely affects the formation of fruit. The tree can be severely injured by temperatures below 12° F. In the U. S. pomegranates can be grown outside as far north as southern Utah and Washington, D. C. but seldom set fruit in these areas. The tree adapts well to container culture and will sometimes fruit in a greenhouse.

DESCRIPTION

Growth Habits: The pomegranate is a neat, rounded shrub or small tree that can grow to 20 or 30 ft. but more typically to 12 to 16 ft. in height. Dwarf varieties are also known. It is usually deciduous, but in certain areas the leaves will persist on the tree. The trunk is covered by a red-brown bark which later becomes gray. The branches are stiff, angular and often spiny. There is a strong tendency to sucker from the base. Pomegranates are also long-lived. There are specimens in Europe that are known to be over 200 years of age. The vigor of a pomegranate declines after about 15 years, however.

Foliage: The pomegranate has glossy, leathery leaves that are narrow and lance-shaped.

Flowers: The attractive scarlet, white or variegated flowers are over an inch across and have 5 to 8 crumpled petals and a red, fleshy, tubular calyx which persists on the fruit. The flowers may be solitary or grouped in twos and threes at the ends of the branches. The pomegranate is self-pollinated as well as cross-pollinated by insects. Cross-pollination increases the fruit set. Wind pollination is insignificant.

Fruit: The nearly round, 2-1/2 to 5 in. wide fruit is crowned at the base by the prominent calyx. The tough, leathery skin or rind is typically yellow overlaid with light or deep pink or rich red. The interior is separated by membranous walls and white, spongy, bitter tissue into compartments packed with sacs filled with sweetly acid, juicy, red, pink or whitish pulp or aril. In each sac there is one angular, soft or hard seed. High temperatures are essential during the fruiting period to get the best flavor. The pomegranate may begin to bear in 1 year after planting out, but 2-1/2 to 3 years is more common. Under suitable conditions the fruit should mature some 5 to 7 months after bloom.

CULTURE

Location: Pomegranates should be placed in the sunniest, warmest part of the yard or orchard for the best fruit, although they will grow and flower in part shade. The attractive foliage, flowers and fruits of the pomegranate, as well as its smallish size make it a excellent landscaping plant.

Soil: The pomegranate does best in well-drained ordinary soil, but also thrives on calcareous or acidic loam as well as rock strewn gravel.

Irrigation: Once established, pomegranates can take considerable drought, but for good fruit production they must be irrigated. To establish new plants they should be watered every 2 to 4 weeks during the dry season. The plants are tolerant of moderately saline water and soil conditions.

Fertilizing: In the West, the trees are given 2 to 4-ounce applications of ammonium sulfate or other nitrogen fertilizer the first two springs. After that very little fertilizer is needed, although the plants respond to an annual mulch of rotted manure or other compost.

Pruning: Plants should be cut back when they are about 2 ft. high. From this point allow 4 or 5 shoots to develop, which should be evenly distributed around the stem to keep the plant well balanced. These should start about 1 ft. from the ground, giving a short but well-defined trunk. Any shoots which appear above or below should be removed as should any suckers. Since the fruits are borne only at the tips of new growth, it is recommended that for the first 3 years the branches be judiciously shortened annually to encourage the maximum number of new shoots on all sides, prevent straggly development and achieve a strong well framed plant. After the 3rd year, only suckers and dead branches are removed.

Propagation: The pomegranate can be raised from seed but may not come true. Cuttings root easily and plants from them bear fruit after about 3 years. Twelve to 20 inches long cuttings should be taken in winter from mature, one-year old wood. The leaves should be removed and the cuttings treated with rooting hormone and inserted about two-thirds their length into the soil or into some other warm rooting medium. Plants can also be air-layered but grafting is seldom successful.

Pests and Diseases: Pomegranates are relatively free of most pests and diseases. Minor problems are leaf and fruit spot and foliar damage by white flies, thrips, mealybugs and scale insects. The roots are seldom bothered by gophers but deer will browse on the foliage.

Harvest: The fruits are ripe when they have developed a distinctive color and make a metallic sound when tapped. The fruits must be picked before over maturity when they tend to crack open, particularly when rained on. The pomegranate is equal to the apple in having a long storage life. It is best maintained at a temperature of 32° to 41° F. and can be kept for a period of 7 months within this temperature range and at 80 to 85% relative humidity without shrinking or spoiling. The fruits improve in storage, becoming juicier and more flavorful.

The fruit can be eaten out of hand by deeply scoring several times vertically and then breaking it apart. The clusters of juice sacs are then lifted out and eaten. The sacs also make an attractive garnish when sprinkled on various dishes. Pomegranate fruits are most often consumed as juice and can be juiced is several ways. The sacs can be removed and put through a basket press or the juice can be extracted by reaming the halved fruits on an ordinary orange juice squeezer. Another approach starts with warming the fruit slightly and rolling it between the hands to soften the interior. A hole is then cut in the stem end which is placed on a glass to let the juice run out, squeezing the fruit from time to time to get all the juice. The juice can be used in a variety of of ways: as a fresh juice, to make jellies, sorbets or cold or hot sauces as well as to flavor cakes, baked apples, etc. Pomegranate syrup is sold commercially as grenadine. The juice can also be made into a wine.

Commercial Potential: The primary commercial growing regions of the world are the Near East, India and surrounding countries and southern Europe. In California commercial cultivation is centered in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Consumer demand in this country is not great. More pomegranate fruits probably wind up as decorations in fruit bowls than are consumed.

CULTIVARS

Balegal Originated in San Diego, Calif. Selected by Paul H. Thomson. Large, roundish fruit, 3 inches in diameter. Somewhat larger than Fleshman. Skin pale pink, lighter then Fleshman. Flesh slightly darker than Fleshman, very sweet. Cloud From the Univ. of Calif. Davis pomegranate collection. Medium-sized fruit with a green-red color. Juice sweet and white. Crab From the Univ. of Calif. Davis pomegranate collection. Large fruit have red juice that is tart but with a rich flavor. A heavy bearing tree. Early Wonderful Large, deep-red, thin-skinned, delicious fruit. Ripens about 2 weeks ahead of Wonderful. Medium-sized bush with large, orange-red fertile flowers. Blooms late, very productive. Fleshman Originated in Fallbrook, Calif. Selected by Paul H. Thomson. Large, roundish fruit, about 3 inches in diameter, pink outside and in. Very sweet flavor, seeds relatively soft, quality very good. Francis Originated in Jamaica via Florida. Large, sweet, split-resistant fruit. Prolific producer. Granada Originated in Lindsay, Calif. Introduced in 1966. Bud mutation of Wonderful. Fruit resembles Wonderful, but displays a red crown while in the green state, darker red in color and less tart. Ripens one month earlier than Wonderful. Flowers also deeper red. Tree identical to Wonderful. Green Globe Originated in Camarillo, Calif. Selected by John Chater. Large, sweet, aromatic, green-skinned fruit. Excellent quality. Home From the Univ. of Calif. Davis pomegranate collection. The fruit is variable yellow-red in color, with light pink juice that is sweet and of rich flavor. Some bitterness. King From the Univ. of Calif. Davis pomegranate collection. Medium to large fruit, somewhat smaller than Balegal and Fleshman. Skin darker pink to red. Flavor very sweet. Has a tendency to split. Bush somewhat of a shy bearer. Phoenicia (Fenecia) Originated in Camarillo, Calif. Selected by John Chater. Large fruit, 4-5 inches in diameter, mottled red-green skin. Flavor sweet, seeds relatively hard. Sweet Fruit is lighter in color than Wonderful, remains slightly greenish with a red blush when ripe. Pink juice, flavor much sweeter than other cultivars. Excellent in fruit punch. Trees highly ornamental, bears at an early age, productive. Utah Sweet Very sweet, good quality fruit. Pink skin and pulp. Seeds notably softer than those of Wonderful and other standard cultivars. Attractive pinkish-orange flowers. Wonderful Originated in Florida. First propagated in California in 1896. Large, deep purple-red fruit. Rind medium thick, tough. Flesh deep crimson in color, juicy and of a delicious vinous flavor. Seeds not very hard. Better for juicing than for eating out of hand. Plant is vigorous and productive. Leading commercial variety in California.

FURTHER READING

Butterfield, Harry M. A History of Subtropical Fruits and Nuts in California. University of California, Agricultural Experiment Station. 1963.

Facciola, Stephen. Cornucopia: a Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, 1990. pp. 166-167.

Johns, Leslie and Violet Stevenson, Fruit for the Home and Garden. Angus and Robertson, 1985. pp. 215-218.

Morton, Julia F. Fruits of Warm Climates. Creative Resources Systems, Inc. 1987. pp. 352-355.

Popenoe, Wilson. Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Hafner Press. 1974. Facsimile of the 1920 edition. pp. 375-383.

See Index of CRFG Publications, 1969 - 1989 and annual indexes of Fruit Gardener for additional articles on the pomegranate. Here is the list of additional CRFG Fruit Facts. © Copyright 1997, California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc. Questions or comments? Contact us.

Cardizem - Heart Disease, Kaizem Cd

Heart Disease - Kaizem cd (Brand name: cardizem)

Cardizem is used for treating supraventricular tachycardia, a rhythm disturbance of the heart. It is also used for controlling heart rate response to other rhythm disturbances, specifically, atrial fibrillation and flutter. Cardizem is a calcium channel blocker. It works by slowing the electrical conduction in the heart, slowing heart rate, and/or normalizing heart rhythm.

Use Cardizem as directed by your doctor.

Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results from this medication.

Take Cardizem with a full glass of water. Swallow the pill whole. It is specially made to release medicine slowly in the body. Breaking or opening the pill would cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.

It is important to use Cardizem regularly to get the most benefit. Get your prescription refilled before you run out of medicine completely.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking Cardizem suddenly, your condition may become worse.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel fine.

If you miss a dose of Cardizem, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cardizem.

Store Cardizem at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep Cardizem out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Diltiazem.

Do NOT use Cardizem if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cardizem

you have sick sinus syndrome or have second - or third-degree heart block and do not have a pacemaker, or very low blood pressure

you have atrial fibrillation or flutter and a pre-excitation syndrome (extra conduction pathway in the heart), such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) or Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL)

you are receiving injectable beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol) or erythromycin.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cardizem. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have heart failure or have had a recent heart attack with lung congestion, heart block, low blood pressure, a very slow heart rate, or abnormal heart rhythm

if you have kidney or liver disease.

Some medicines may interact with Cardizem. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Cimetidine or protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir) because they may increase the actions and side effects of Cardizem

Rifampin because it may decrease the effectiveness of Cardizem

Amiodarone, cisapride, digoxin, erythromycin, protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir), quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants (eg, desipramine), theophylline, or general anesthetics because toxic effects on the heart may occur

Benzodiazepines (eg, midazolam), beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol), buspirone, carbamazepine, cilostazol, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), cyclosporine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (eg, atorvastatin), macrolide immunomodulators (eg, tacrolimus) because the risk of their side effects, some potentially life-threatening, may be increased by Cardizem.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Cardizem may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Cardizem may cause dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Cardizem with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Cardizem may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Cardizem may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Cardizem. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Cardizem before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Lab tests, including electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, and blood pressure monitoring, may be performed while you use Cardizem. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Cardizem with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Cardizem should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Cardizem while you are pregnant. Cardizem is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Cardizem.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; dizziness; facial flushing; headache; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); hallucinations; irregular heartbeat; swelling of the feet or hands; symptoms of liver problems (eg, yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, pale stools); tender, bleeding, or swollen gums.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Cardizem is used for treating supraventricular tachycardia, a rhythm disturbance of the heart. It is also used for controlling heart rate response to other rhythm disturbances, specifically, atrial fibrillation and flutter. Cardizem is a calcium channel blocker. It works by slowing the electrical conduction in the heart, slowing heart rate, and/or normalizing heart rhythm.

Use Cardizem as directed by your doctor.

Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results from this medication.

Take Cardizem with a full glass of water. Swallow the pill whole. It is specially made to release medicine slowly in the body. Breaking or opening the pill would cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.

It is important to use Cardizem regularly to get the most benefit. Get your prescription refilled before you run out of medicine completely.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking Cardizem suddenly, your condition may become worse.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel fine.

If you miss a dose of Cardizem, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cardizem.

Store Cardizem at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep Cardizem out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Diltiazem.

Do NOT use Cardizem if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cardizem

you have sick sinus syndrome or have second - or third-degree heart block and do not have a pacemaker, or very low blood pressure

you have atrial fibrillation or flutter and a pre-excitation syndrome (extra conduction pathway in the heart), such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) or Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL)

you are receiving injectable beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol) or erythromycin.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cardizem. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have heart failure or have had a recent heart attack with lung congestion, heart block, low blood pressure, a very slow heart rate, or abnormal heart rhythm

if you have kidney or liver disease.

Some medicines may interact with Cardizem. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Cimetidine or protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir) because they may increase the actions and side effects of Cardizem

Rifampin because it may decrease the effectiveness of Cardizem

Amiodarone, cisapride, digoxin, erythromycin, protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir), quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants (eg, desipramine), theophylline, or general anesthetics because toxic effects on the heart may occur

Benzodiazepines (eg, midazolam), beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol), buspirone, carbamazepine, cilostazol, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), cyclosporine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (eg, atorvastatin), macrolide immunomodulators (eg, tacrolimus) because the risk of their side effects, some potentially life-threatening, may be increased by Cardizem.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Cardizem may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Cardizem may cause dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Cardizem with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Cardizem may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Cardizem may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Cardizem. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Cardizem before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Lab tests, including electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, and blood pressure monitoring, may be performed while you use Cardizem. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Cardizem with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Cardizem should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Cardizem while you are pregnant. Cardizem is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Cardizem.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; dizziness; facial flushing; headache; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); hallucinations; irregular heartbeat; swelling of the feet or hands; symptoms of liver problems (eg, yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, pale stools); tender, bleeding, or swollen gums.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Deflam - Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents (Nsaids), Atc M01ae12, Defla

Deflam

Deflam Indication

Used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

Deflam Pharmacology

Oxaprozin is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Oxaprozin is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, dysmenorrhea, and to alleviate moderate pain.

Deflam Absorption

Oxaprozin is 95% absorbed after oral administration. Food may reduce the rate of absorption of oxaprozin, but the extent of absorption is unchanged. Antacids do not significantly affect the extent and rate of oxaprozin absorption.

Deflam side effects and Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD 50 = 1210 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD 50 = 172 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD 50 = 4470 mg/kg

Deflam Patient Information

Daypro, like other drugs of its class, can cause discomfort and, rarely, more serious side effects, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even fatal outcomes. Although serious gastrointestinal tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up.

Patients should report to their physicians the signs or symptoms of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding, skin rash, weight gain, or edema.

Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e. g. nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.

Patients should also be instructed to seek immediate emergency help in the case of an anaphylactoid reaction.

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, Daypro should be avoided because it will cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Deflam Organisms Affected

Humans and other mammals

Ulceran - Significado, Silabas, Sinonimos, Antonimos Y Rimas, Ulceran

ulceran

Informacion sobre ulceran

Es un verbo .

ulceran proviene del latin ulcerare .

Idiomas en los que se utiliza ulceran .

(pulsa el boton para escuchar su pronunciacion)

Separacion en silabas de ulceran

ul - ce - ran

Esta formada por 3 silabas y 7 letras.

ulceran es una palabra llana o grave . ya que su silaba tonica recae sobre la penultima silaba.

ulceran es una palabra trisilaba . ya que tiene tres silabas.

Sinonimos de ulceran

Con el significado de llagar :

Palabras que riman con ulceran

Atencion! Por rendimiento, solo se muestran las primeras 250 rimas de ulceran . Si necesitas buscar mas palabras que rimen con ulceran . prueba a realizar una busqueda mediante nuestro buscador de rimas .

Palabras que riman con ulceran de 2 silabas

Palabras que riman con ulceran de 3 silabas

Palabras que riman con ulceran de 4 silabas

Palabras que riman con ulceran de 5 silabas

Palabras que riman con ulceran de 6 silabas

Zerocid; Capsule, Corvin Pharmaceuticals, Zerocid

Zerocid - Capsule, Corvin Pharmaceuticals

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If you are pharmaceutical retailer or chemist then this place for you to increase your sales and get medicine enquiry from common person. You can find pharmaceutical dealers and stockiest list according to your city for any pharmaceutical company and its product.

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Dawabazar. in is a free content encyclopedia especially for pharmaceutical field. This website provides information about all manufacturing. marketing companies and their products, its compositions along with its dealers. retailers in India. This website also provides many findings on medicines, Pharma companies, Pharma dealers, Pharma retailers, active pharmaceutical ingredients, therapeutic index and pharmacological index which is useful for doctors. medical students and common person.

Hair Building Fibers - Thinning Hair Solutions, Topik

BUY ONE GET ONE 50% OFF HAIR BUILDING FIBERS

LABOR DAY SALE

Select Hair Building Fibers Discontinued Packaging. While supplies last.

While supplies last; Use Coupon Code BOGO50; Must purchase 2 hair fibers of same size and color for discount to apply; Offer period 9/1/2016 - 9/6/2016; Offer valid only for orders shipping to continental US and Canada only; No PO & APO Boxes; Free shipping valid on standard shipping in the continental US only; Can be redeemed at toppik. com or by calling 1-(800)-844-2536. Offer not valid where other Toppik products are sold.

FREE SHIPPING ON ALL ORDERS

FREE SHIPPING ON ALL ORDERS

Free same day shipping on ALL orders.

No minimum order. No promo code.

*Offer valid on standard shipping to the continental USA only. All orders placed prior to 12 noon EST Monday - Friday will ship same day. Orders placed after 12 noon EST Monday - Friday and on weekends will be shipped on the following business day (business day refers to Monday - Friday, excluding holidays).

SAVE $5 ON BROW BUILDING FIBERS

GET $5 OFF BROW BUILDING FIBERS with any Purchase of Hair Building Fibers (12g-55g)

Use code: BROW5OFF

Promo ends 6/26/2016; Must purchase minimum of one (1) 12g or larger size Hair Building Fibers product to use promo code; offer not valid on 3g Hair Building Fibers; enter code BROW5OFF at checkout; Valid only for orders shipping to US and Canada. Can be redeemed at Toppik. com or by calling 1-(800)-844-2536.

30-DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

30 DAY MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE

If you are not 100% satisfied with your product, you can return it for a full refund (less shipping and handling), no questions asked.

For details on processing a return, visit our FAQs page.

Toppik logo

BUY ONE GET ONE 50% OFF HAIR BUILDING FIBERS

LABOR DAY SALE

Select Hair Building Fibers Discontinued Packaging. While supplies last.

While supplies last; Use Coupon Code BOGO50; Must purchase 2 hair fibers of same size and color for discount to apply; Offer period 9/1/2016 - 9/6/2016; Offer valid only for orders shipping to continental US and Canada only; No PO & APO Boxes; Free shipping valid on standard shipping in the continental US only; Can be redeemed at toppik. com or by calling 1-(800)-844-2536. Offer not valid where other Toppik products are sold.

FREE SHIPPING ON ALL ORDERS

FREE SHIPPING ON ALL ORDERS

Free same day shipping on ALL orders.

No minimum order. No promo code.

*Offer valid on standard shipping to the continental USA only. All orders placed prior to 12 noon EST Monday - Friday will ship same day. Orders placed after 12 noon EST Monday - Friday and on weekends will be shipped on the following business day (business day refers to Monday - Friday, excluding holidays).

SAVE $5 ON BROW BUILDING FIBERS

GET $5 OFF BROW BUILDING FIBERS with any Purchase of Hair Building Fibers (12g-55g)

Use code: BROW5OFF

Promo ends 6/26/2016; Must purchase minimum of one (1) 12g or larger size Hair Building Fibers product to use promo code; offer not valid on 3g Hair Building Fibers; enter code BROW5OFF at checkout; Valid only for orders shipping to US and Canada. Can be redeemed at Toppik. com or by calling 1-(800)-844-2536.

30-DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE

30 DAY MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE

If you are not 100% satisfied with your product, you can return it for a full refund (less shipping and handling), no questions asked.

For details on processing a return, visit our FAQs page.

Acadimox (Tableta), Acadimox

Acadimox (tableta)

Lexoni me kujdes kete fleteudhezim para se te perdorni kete bar. Nese keni pyetje te tjera, ju lutemi drejtohuni tek mjeku ose farmacisti. Ky bar eshte pershkuar per ju personalisht prandaj nuk duhet t’ua jepni te tjereve. Ai mund te jete i demshem per ta edhe nese simptomat e tyre jane te njejta me tuajat.

Permbajtja e substancave aktive: Amoxicillin trihydrate, clavulanic acid Permbajtja e substancave ndihmese: Film tableta te mbeshtjellura me: Silice koloidal, stearat magnezi, natrium glikolate, celuloze microcristalline, hidroxipropil metilcelluloze, dioksid titaniumi, macrogol 4000, macrogol 6000, dimeticone. Pluhur per suspension oral: Dioksidit silici, arome limoni, shije luleshtrydhe, gome xanthan, saharoze.

1. CFARE ESHTE ACADIMOX DHE PER CFARE PERDORET Acadimox i takon grupit farmakoterapeutik te kombinimeve te penicillines, duke perfshire beta-laktamaze frenuesit.

Acadimox eshte baktericid kunder nje game te gjere te mikroorganizmave. Forma farmaceutike dhe permbajtja: Film tableta te mbeshtjellura, dhe nje film tablete permban Amoxicillin trihydrate ekuivalent me amoxicillin 875 mg dhe klavulanat kaliumi ekuivalent me acid klavulanik 125mg. Pluhur per suspension oral dhe nje qese permban Amoxicillin trihydrate ekuivalent me amoxicillin 875 mg dhe klavulanat kaliumi ekuivalent me acid klavulanik 125mg. Paketimi Film tableta te mbeshtjellura:vijne ne paketim prej 12 film tabletave te mbeshtjellura. Pluhur per suspension oral:vjen ne paketim prej 12 qeseve me pluhur per suspension oral.

SI VEPRON ACADIMOX Acadimox permban si perberes aktiv acid clavulanic dhe amoxicillin. Amoxicillin eshte nje antibiotik semisintetik me nje spekter te gjere te veprimtarise antimikrobiale ndaj shume mikroorganizmave Gram pozitive dhe Gram negative. Amoxicillin eshte e ndjeshme ndaj degradimit, megjithate, nga beta - lactamaze dhe per arsye te spektrit te veprimtarise Amoxicillin vetem nuk perfshin mikroorganizmat qe prodhojne keto enzime.

Acidi Clavulanic eshte nje-beta lidhje strukturore me penicilina, i cili posedon aftesine per te inaktivuar nje game te gjere beta - lactamet, enzimat gjenden zakonisht ne mikroorganizmat rezistent ndaj penicillines dhe cefalosporines.

KUR PERDORET ACADIMOX Acadimox perdoret per trajtimin e infeksioneve bakteriale te shkaktuara nga bakteret e ndjeshme te tilla si zakonisht gjenden ne:

infeksionet e traktit respirator dhe infeksionet otomastoide;

infeksionet e traktit uro-gjenitale;

Infeksionet e lekures dhe te indeve te buta;

infeksione gjinekologjike;

infeksionet e zorreve dhe te sistemit te temthit.

2. CFARE DUHET TE DINI PARA SE TE PERDORNI ACADIMOX Informoni mjekun nese vuani nga ndonje semundje kronike, crregullim metabolik, nese e dini qe jeni alergjik ose nese jeni duke marre barna te tjera.

KUR NUK DUHET TE PERDORNI ACADIMOX Acadimox nuk rekomandohet ne raste te: Pacienteve me nje histori te hipersensitivitetit ne beta-antibiotiket te tilla si penicilina dhe cephalosporinet. Verdhez e meparshme / mosfunksionim hepatik te lidhur me Amoxicillin / acid - clavulanic.

PERKUJDESJET Para fillimit te terapise me Acadimox, duhet te kryhet nje hetim i plote ne lidhje me reagimet e meparshme hipersensitive te penicillines, cephalosporines ose alergeneve te tjera. Ne pacientet e trajtuar me peniciline reagimet e raportuara jane hipersensitiviteti serioz dhe here pas here fatal (reagime anafilaktoide). Keto reagime jane raportuar kryesisht si rezultat i perdorimit te penicilines parenterale, shume rralle me perdorim oral. Shfaqja e ketyre reagimeve, megjithate, eshte me e shpeshte ne subjekte me nje histori te hipersensitivitetit ne penicilina.

Nuk mund te kalojne alergjite me penicilina dhe cefalosporine.

Ne rast te reaksionit alergjik ju duhet te nderpreni trajtimin dhe te perdoret terapi e pershtatshme (aminet, antihistaminet, kortikosteroidet) apo ne prani te anafilakses, trajtim te menjehershem me epinefrine dhe masa te tjera emergjente si te pershtatshme (mund te kerkohet trajtimi me oksigjen, steroid vena. per te siguruar qartesine e rrugeve te frymemarrjes, gjithashtu duke perdorur, kur eshte e nevojshme, intubimin). Ne duhet shmangur administrimin e Acadimox tek rastet me mononukleoze te dyshuar infektive, pasi ne kete gjendje perdorimi i Amoxicillines eshte i shoqeruar me shfaqjen e pucrrave morbilliform.

Perdorimi i zgjatur i penicillines, si dhe te antibiotikeve te tjere, mund te promovojne zhvillimin e organizmave jo-te ndjeshem, duke perfshire kerpudhat, qe kerkojne miratimin e masave te duhura terapeutike. Trajtimet e zgjatur jane te rekomanduara me monitorimin periodik te hematologjise dhe melcise dhe funksionin e veshkave. Rralle, ne pacientet e trajtuar me Acadimox eshte raportuar zgjatje e kohes se protrombines.

Prandaj, ne rastin e administrimit shoqerues me anticoagulante, ju duhet te kryeni monitorimin adekuat te ketij parametri. Acadimox duhet te perdoret me kujdes ne pacientet me disfunksion hepatik.

Ne pacientet me demtim te veshkave, doza duhet te jete e rregulluar per shkallen e demtimit te veshkave. Ne pacientet me prodhim urine te reduktuar, kristalluria eshte raportuar shume rralle, sidomos pas terapise parenterale. Gjate administrimit te Amoxicillin ne doza te larta, eshte e rekomandueshme qe te mbajme nje futje fluide dhe nje prodhim adekuat urine, me qellim te reduktimit te mundesine e nga kristalluria me amoxicillin. ACADIMOX 875 mg + 125 mg Pluhur per suspenzionv Oral permban saharoze, produkti duhet te aplikohet me kujdes ne pacientet me probleme te rralla te trasheguara te intolerances ne fruktoze, glukoze-me malabsorbim galaktoze ose mangesi sukroze-izomaltoze.

MARRJA E BARIT ACADIMOX ME USHQIM DHE PIJE Nuk ka te dhena per perdorimin e barit Acadimox me ushqim ose pije .

SHTATZENIA DHE USHQYERJA ME GJI Keshillohuni me mjekun ose farmacistin para se te filloni te merrni ndonje bar. Shtatzenia Studimet e riprodhimit te kryera ne kafshe (minj te cileve ju eshte dhene doza deri ne 10 here me te larta se ato te perdorur ne njerez) nuk kane treguar efekte teratogjenike pas administrimit te Acadimox. Ne rrjedhen e nje studimi te vetem ne grate me thyerje premature te parakohshme te membranave te fetusit (pPROM) eshte vene ne dukje se trajtimi profilaktik me Acadimox mund te shoqerohet me nje rrezik ne rritje te nekrotizues enterocolitis ne te porsalindur.

Si me te gjitha barnat, ju duhet te shmangni administrimin e Acadimox ne shtatzeni, pervec ne rastet e nevojes aktuale dhe nen mbikeqyrjen e drejtperdrejte te nje mjeku. Ushqim me gji Kujdes i keshilluar gjate laktacionit. Me perjashtime te mundshme, sensibilizimin e gjurmeve te amoxicillin ne qumeshtin e nenes eshte i njohur nuk ka efekte negative tek femija.

EFEKTET MBI AFTESINE PER TE DREJTUAR AUTOMJETIN DHE PER TE PERDORUR MAKINERI Nuk ka pasur efekt negativ ne aftesine per te drejtuar automjet apo per te perdorur makineri.

NE CFARE DUHET PATUR KUJDES NESE PERDORNI BARNA TE TJERA Informoni mjekun ose farmacistin nese jeni duke marre ose keni marre kohet e fundit barna te tjera, qofte edhe ato pa pershkrimin e mjekut. Te keni parasysh se keto informacione mund ti perkasin barnave te cilat me nuk i pini, si dhe barnat te cilat planifikoni ti merrni ne te ardhmen. Ne nuk e rekomandojme perdorimin shoqerues te probenecidit.

Probenecid zvogelon sekretimin renal me tuba te Amoxicillines: Ko-administrimi me Acadimox mund te shkaktoje nje rritje dhe nje kufizim ne nivelet e gjakut te Amoxicillin por jo te clavulanic acidit. Administrimi i njekohshem i allopurinol dhe amoxicillin mund te rrise gjasat e reaksioneve alergjike te lekures. Nuk ka te dhena qe jane ne dispozicion ne perdorimin shoqerues te allopurinol dhe acadimox.

Kjo eshte nje e njohur terapeutike e operimeve semisintetike ku efekti midis penicillines dhe aminoglikozideve. Acidi acetilsalicilik, phenylbutazone, apo barna te tjera anti-inflamator ne doza te larta, te administruara njekohesisht me penicilina, rrisin nivelet e plazmes dhe e gjysme-jetes. Sikuse edhe antibiotiket e tjere me spekter te gjere, acadimox mund te reduktoje efektivitetin e kontraceptiveve oral per kete pacientet duhet te keshillohen.

3. SI PERDORET ACADIMOX Nese vereni se efekti i barit eshte shume i forte ose shume i dobet keshillohuni me mjekun ose farmacistin.

Te rriturit, duke perfshire te moshuarit: 1 tablete ose 1qeske 875 mg + 125 mg, dy here ne dite. Doza mund te rritet ne 1 tablete ose 1 qeske 875 mg + 125 mg, tri here ne dite, ne varesi nga lloji dhe shkalla e infeksionit.

Per femije qe peshojne mbi 40 kg duhet te perdoret i njejti orar, doza vlen edhe per te rriturit (shih me lart). deshtim renale. Per te rriturit dhe femijet me pastrim te kreatinines mbi 30 ml / min nuk kerkojne rregullime doze.

Formulimet acadimox nuk jane te pershtatshme per administrimin ne te rriturit dhe femijet me pastrim te kreatinines nen 30 ml / min.

Deshtim hepatik Te rriturit dhe femijet Aktualisht ka te dhena te pamjaftueshme per te sugjeruar orientimeve te nevojshme per dozimin. Administrimi me kujdes, monitorimi i funksionit tuaj te melcise ne intervale te rregullta Metoda e administrates Per te permiresuar thithjen dhe tolerancen gastrointestinale te ACADIMOX, keshillohet te administrohet menjehere para ngrenies. Aty ku eshte e nevojshme, ju mund te filloni trajtim me nje injeksion me formulimin e amoxicillin dhe acid clavulanic, dhe pastaj te vazhdoje me acadimox.

Kohezgjatja e trajtimit duhet te krijohen ne lidhje me evolucionin e formave infektive.

Si me ndonje trajtim tjeter antibiotik, nderpritet administrata me heret se 48 ore pasi pacientit i eshte bere sherim klinik. Nese trajtimi duhet te zgjatet pertej 14 diteve, ajo eshte e pershtatshme nen mbikeqyrje mjekesore.

Ne fillim te femijerise produkti duhet te administrohet ne raste te nevojes aktuale te mbikeqyrjes se drejtperdrejte mjekesore . Qeskat Permbajtja e qeskes duhet te shkrihet ne nje gote te vogel te ujit para se te administrohet Tabletat Per te lehtesuar gelltitjen, tableta mund te ndahet, por duhet te merret menjehere.

NESE PERDORNI ACADIMOX ME SHUME SE SA DUHET Nese keni marre nje mbidoze, keshillohuni menjehere me mjekun ose farmacistin ! Simptomat dhe shenjat Ju mund te vezhgoni ndryshimet ne simptome gastrointestinale dhe ekuilibrin e lengjeve dhe elektroliteve.

Eshte vezhguar nga Amoxicillin kristalluria, ne disa raste coj ne deshtim te veshkave.

Trajtimi mund te jete simptomatik, me vemendje ne rivendosjen e hidro-energjise elektrike. Acadimox mund te hiqet nga qarkullimi me hemodialize. Femijet

Nje studim i ardhshem i 51 pacienteve pediatrik i kryer ne nje qender anti-helm ka treguar se mbidoza e me pak se 250 mg / kg Amoxicillin nuk jane te shoqeruara me simptoma te rendesishme klinike dhe nuk kerkojne zbrazje gastrike. Abuzimi dhe varesia

Nuk ka patur asnje abuzim te raportuar apo varesi e barit.

NESE HARONI TE MERRNI ACADIMOX Kurre mos merrni doze te dyfishuar per te zevendesuar dozen e harruar. Mos perdorni nje doze te dyfishte per te zevendesuar nje doze te harruar.

EFEKTET E NDERPRERJES SE TRAJTIMIT ME ACADIMOX Nese keni ndonje pyetje te metejshme ne perdorimin e ketij produkti, pyesni mjekun apo farmacistin tuaj.

4. EFEKTET ANESORE TE MUNDSHME Si te gjitha barnat e tjera, edhe Acadimox mund te shkaktoje efekte anesore. Per te percaktuar frekuenca e efekteve anesore, nga te perbashket ne shume te rralla, jane perdorur te dhena nga studime te gjera klinike. Frekuencave te caktuara per te gjitha efektet e tjera anesore (ose atyre te ndodhura <1 / 10.000) ishin te vendosur kryesisht duke perdorur te dhena pas marketingut dhe qe i referohen me frekuencen e raportimit ne vend se te frekuences aktuale. Konventa e meposhtme ka qene perdorur per klasifikimin e frekuencave. shume e zakonshme:> 1 / 10 perbashket:> 1 / 100 dhe <1 / 10 pazakonte:> 1 / 10000 dhe <1 / 100 te rralla: 1/10000and <1 / 1000 shume te rralla <1 / 10000 Infeksionet dhe infestationet Perbashket Candidiaza mukokutaneous Gjakut dhe sistemit limfatik Rralla Leukopenia (perfshire neutropenia) dhe trombocitopenia e kthyeshme Shume te rralla Agranulocitoze dhe anemi hemolitike e kthyeshme. Zgjatja e kohes se gjakderdhjes dhe prothrombin, purpura, eosinophilia Sistemi imunitar Shume rralle Edeme angioneurotike, anafilaksa, sindromi serum semundjes-si, vasculitis hipersensitivitet C’rregullime te sistemit nervor qendror Pazakonte Marramendje, dhimbje koke Shume te rralla Hiperactivitet kthyeshem dhe kriza. Konvulsionet mund te ndodhin ne pacientet me funksion te demtuar veshkave ose te pacientet e trajtuar me doza te larta te barit. C’rregullime te tretjes Te rritur Shume te zakonshme Diarre Te perbashketa Te perzier, te vjella Femijet Te perbashket Diarre, te perzier, te vjella Gjithe popullsine Te perzier eshte me se shpeshti lidhur me doza me te larta orale Nese reagimet gastrointestinal jane te dukshme, ato mund te reduktohen nese administrohet ACADIMOX menjehere para ngrenies. Pazakonte Dispepsi Shume te rralla Kolit i shoqeruar – antibiotik (duke perfshire kolit pseudomembranor dhe kolit hemoragjik). Rralle eshte raportuar ne femijet nje variant me ngjyra ne siperfaqen e dhembeve. Higjiena e mire orale mund te ndihmoje ne parandalimin e ketij ndryshimi, te cilat zakonisht mund te hiqet nga brusha. Shkelqimi Hepato-biliar(temth) Pazakonshme Rritje e moderuar ne nivelet e ALT, AST dhe / ose ALT jane verejtur ne pacientet qe trajtohen me antibiotik te klases se beta-antibiotikeve, por rendesia e tyre eshte e panjohur. Shume te rralla Hepatiti dhe verdheza cholestatic. Keto ngjarje jane raportuar me te tjere Penicilina dhe cefalosporine. Ngjarjet e melcise jane raportuar kryesisht tek pacientet meshkuj dhe ne pacientet e moshuar dhe mund te jene te lidhur me trajtimin e zgjatur. Femijet Keto ngjarje jane raportuar shume rralle te femijet. Gjithe popullsine Shenjat dhe simptomet zakonisht shfaqen gjate apo menjehere pas trajtimit, por ne disa raste mund te shfaqet pas javeve te fundit te trajtimit. Keto jane zakonisht te kthyeshem. Ngjarjet e melcise mund te jene serioze dhe vetem ne rrethana jashtezakonisht te rralla u raportuan viktima. Keto raste kane ndodhur kryesisht ne pacientet me semundje te renda themelore ose marrjen e barnave shoqerues te njohur te mundshem per te nxitur efektet hepatik. C’rregullime te lekures dhe te indeve te nenlekures Pazakonte skuqje te lekures, kruarje, urtikarie Rralla eriteme multiforme Shume te rralla Stevens-Johnson Sindromi, necrolize toksike epidermik, pezmatim shtresor i lekures, pucra akute te pergjithshme, lija. Trajtimi duhet te nderpritet nese reagimet e mbindjeshmerise duken si dermatologjike. Incidenca e reagimeve te lekures mund te jete me e larte te pacientet me mononukleoze infektive ose leukemi limfatikeVeshkave dhe rrugeve urinare Shume te rralla Krystalluria nefrit intersticiale Nese vereni ndonje nga efektet anesore te renditura me siper ose ndonje efekt anesor qe nuk permendet ne kete fleteudhezim, ju lutemi informoni mjekun ose farmacistin .

5. RUAJTJA DHE AFATI I PERDORIMIT RUAJTJA Mbajeni larg femijeve dhe syve! Te ruhet ne paketim origjinal qe te mbroje produktin nga drita dhe lageshtia ne nje temperature jo me teper se 25 ° C.

AFATI I PERDORIMIT Bari nuk duhet perdorur pas kalimit te afatit te perdorimit te shenuar ne paketim. Mos perdorni Acadimox pas dates se skadimit e cila eshte shenuar ne paketim.

MENYRA E DHENIES SE BARIT Bari merret me pershkrim te mjekut.

MASAT E VECANTA PER ASGJESIMIN E BARIT TE PAPERDORUR OSE BARIT TE MBETUR Bari i paperdorur shkaterrohet sipas rregullave ne fuqi. Bari nuk duhet te hidhet nepermjet ujerave te zeza apo mbeturinave shtepiake. Pyetni farmacistin tuaj si te shkaterrohen barnat qe me nuk nevojiten. Keto masa do te ndihmojne ne mbrojtjen e mjedisit.

Sulfatrim - Fda Prescribing Information, Side Effects And Uses, Sulphatrim

Sulfatrim

Sulfatrim TM (Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Oral Suspension, USP)

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension and other antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Sulfatrim Description

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial combination product containing 200 mg sulfamethoxazole and 40 mg trimethoprim per 5 mL for oral administration.

Sulfamethoxazole is N 1 -(5-methyl-3-isoxazolyl)sulfanilamide; the molecular formula is C 10 H 11 N 3 O 3 S. It is an almost white, odorless, tasteless compound with a molecular weight of 253.28 and the following structural formula is:

Trimethoprim is 2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5- trimethoxybenzyl) pyrimidine; the molecular formula is C 14 H 18 N 4 O 3. It is a white to light yellow, odorless, bitter compound with a molecular weight of 290.3 and. It has the following structural formula is:

INACTIVE INGREDIENTS: alcohol (less than 0. 5%), carboxymethylcellulose sodium, citric acid, FD&C Red #40, FD&C Yellow #6, cherry flavor, methylparaben, microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, propylparaben, purified water, saccharin sodium, simethicone emulsion, sucrose.

Sulfatrim - Clinical Pharmacology

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim exist in the blood as unbound, protein-bound, and metabolized forms; sulfamethoxazole also exists as the conjugated form. The metabolism of sulfamethoxazole occurs predominantly by N4-acetylation, although the glucuronide conjugate has been identified. The principal metabolites of trimethoprim are the 1- and 3-oxides and the 3’- and 4’-hydroxy derivatives. The free forms of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considered to be the therapeutically active forms. Approximately 70% of sulfamethoxazole and 44% of trimethoprim are bound to plasma proteins. The presence of 10 mg percent sulfamethoxazole in plasma decreases the protein binding of trimethoprim by an insignificant degree; trimethoprim does not influence the protein binding of sulfamethoxazole.

Peak blood levels for the individual components occur 1 to 4 hours after oral administration. The mean serum half-lives of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are 10 and 8 to 10 hours, respectively. However, patients with severely impaired renal function exhibit an increase in the half-lives of both components, requiring dosage regimen adjustment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section). Detectable amounts of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are present in the blood 24 hours after drug administration. During administration of 800 mg sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg trimethoprim b. i.d. the mean steady-state plasma concentration of trimethoprim was 1.72 μg/mL. The steady-state mean plasma levels of free and total sulfamethoxazole were 57.4 μg/mL and 68.0 μg/mL, respectively. These steady-state levels were achieved after three days of drug administration.1 Excretion of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is primarily by the kidneys through both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Urine concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are considerably higher than are the concentrations in the blood. The average percentage of the dose recovered in urine from 0 to 72 hours after a single oral dose of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is 84.5% for total sulfonamide and 66.8% for free trimethoprim. Thirty percent of the total sulfonamide is excreted as free sulfamethoxazole, with the remaining as N 4 - acetylated metabolite.2 When administered together as sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, neither sulfamethoxazole nor trimethoprim affects the urinary excretion pattern of the other.

Both sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim distribute to sputum, vaginal fluid and middle ear fluid; trimethoprim also distributes to bronchial secretions, and both pass the placental barrier and are excreted in human milk.

Geriatric Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole 800 mg and trimethoprim 160 mg were studied in 6 geriatric subjects (mean age: 78.6 years) and 6 young healthy subjects (mean age: 29.3 years) using a non-U. S. approved formulation. Pharmacokinetic values for sulfamethoxazole in geriatric subjects were similar to those observed in young adult subjects. The mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was significantly lowered in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects (19 mL/h/kg vs. 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was an average 19% lower in geriatric subjects compared with young adult subjects.3

Microbiology

Sulfamethoxazole inhibits bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the required enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase. Thus, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim blocks two consecutive steps in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins essential to many bacteria.

In vitro studies have shown that bacterial resistance develops more slowly with both sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim in combination than with either sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim alone.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim have been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms:

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms:

Escherichia coli (including susceptible enterotoxigenic strains implicated in traveler's diarrhea)

c. This quality control range is applicable only to Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by broth microdilution procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM).4

d. This quality control range is applicable to tests performed by the broth microdilution method only using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2% to 5% lysed horse blood.4

Diffusion Techniques:

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure5 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 1.25/23.75 μg of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 1.25/23.75 mcg of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:

For testing either Enterobacteriaceae or Haemophilus influenzae e :

Zone Diameter (mm)

* Mueller-Hinton agar should be checked for excessive levels of thymidine or thymine. To determine whether Mueller-Hinton medium has sufficiently low levels of thymidine and thymine, an Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 or ATCC 33186) may be tested with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim disks. A zone of inhibition ≥20 mm that is essentially free of fine colonies indicates a sufficiently low level of thymidine and thymine.

g. This quality control range is applicable only to Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by a disk diffusion procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM).5

h. This quality control range is applicable only to tests performed by disk diffusion using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood when incubated in 5% CO2.5

Indications and Usage for Sulfatrim

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension and other antibacterial drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to empiric selection of therapy.

Urinary Tract Infections

For the treatment of urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. It is recommended that initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections be treated with a single effective antibacterial agent rather than the combination.

Acute Otitis Media

For the treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of other antimicrobial agents. To date, there are limited data on the safety of repeated use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pediatric patients under two years of age. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is not indicated for prophylactic or prolonged administration in otitis media at any age.

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults

For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent.

Shigellosis

For the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei when antibacterial therapy is indicated.

P neumocystis Carinii Pneumonia

For the treatment of documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in individuals who are immunosuppressed and considered to be at an increased risk of developing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

Travelers' Diarrhea in Adults

For the treatment of travelers' diarrhea due to susceptible strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Contraindications

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides, in patients with a history of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides, and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is also contraindicated in pregnant patients and nursing mothers, because sulfonamides pass the placenta and are excreted in the milk and may cause kernicterus. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

Warnings

FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS.

SULFONAMIDES, INCLUDING SULFONAMIDE-CONTAINING PRODUCTS SUCH AS SULFAMETHOXAZOLE/TRIMETHOPRIM, SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AT THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF SKIN RASH OR ANY SIGN OF ADVERSE REACTION. In rare instances, a skin rash may be followed by a more severe reaction, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hepatic necrosis and serious blood disorders (see PRECAUTIONS ). Clinical signs, such as rash, sore throat, fever, arthralgia, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious reactions.

Cough, shortness of breath, and pulmonary infiltrates are hypersensitivity reactions of the respiratory tract that have been reported in association with sulfonamide treatment.

Thrombocytopenia

Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-induced thrombocytopenia may be an immune-mediated disorder. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that are fatal or life threatening have been reported. Thrombocytopenia usually resolves within a week upon discontinuation of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

The sulfonamides should not be used for the treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal infections. In an established infection, they will not eradicate the streptococcus and, therefore, will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile .

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antiobiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile. and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Precautions

General

Prescribing sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension should be given with caution to patients with impaired renal or hepatic function, to those with possible folate deficiency (e. g. the elderly, chronic alcoholics, patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy, patients with malabsorption syndrome, and patients in malnutrition states) and to those with severe allergies or bronchial asthma. In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient individuals, hemolysis may occur. This reaction is frequently dose-related (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

Use in the Elderly

Cases of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are seen rarely, usually occurring after a few days of therapy. Patients with renal dysfunction, liver disease, malnutrition or those receiving high doses of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are particularly at risk.

Hematological changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients or in patients with preexisting folic acid deficiency or kidney failure. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy.

Trimethoprim has been noted to impair phenylalanine metabolism, but this is of no significance in phenylketonuric patients on appropriate dietary restriction.

As with all drugs containing sulfonamides, caution is advisable in patients with porphyria or thyroid dysfunction.

Use in the Treatment of and Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

AIDS patients may not tolerate or respond to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in the same manner as non-AIDS patients. The incidence of side effects, particularly rash, fever, leukopenia and elevated aminotransferase (transaminase) values, with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy in AIDS patients who are being treated for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia has been reported to be greatly increased compared with the incidence normally associated with the use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in non-AIDS patients. The incidence of hyperkalemia appears to be increased in AIDS patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Adverse effects are generally less severe in patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim for prophylaxis. A history of mild intolerance to sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension in AIDS patients does not appear to predict intolerance of subsequent secondary prophylaxis.6 However, if a patient develops skin rash or any sign of adverse reaction, therapy with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be reevaluated (see WARNINGS ).

High dosage of trimethoprim, as used in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, induces a progressive but reversible increase of serum potassium concentrations in a substantial number of patients. Even treatment with recommended doses may cause hyperkalemia when trimethoprim is administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency, or if drugs known to induce hyperkalemia are given concomitantly. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients.

During treatment, adequate fluid intake and urinary output should be ensured to prevent crystalluria. Patients who are "slow acetylators" may be more prone to idiosyncratic reactions to sulfonamides.

Information for patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e. g. the common cold). When sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension or other antibaceterial drugs in the future.

Patients should be instructed to maintain an adequate fluid intake in order to prevent crystalluria and stone formation.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with and without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Laboratory tests

Complete blood counts should be done frequently in patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim; if a significant reduction in the count of any formed blood element is noted, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be discontinued. Urinalyses with careful microscopic examination and renal function tests should be performed during therapy, particularly for those patients with impaired renal function.

Drug Interactions

In elderly patients concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported.

It has been reported that sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may prolong the prothrombin time in patients who are receiving the anticoagulant warfarin. This interaction should be kept in mind when sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is given to patients already on anticoagulant therapy, and the coagulation time should be reassessed.

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may inhibit the hepatic metabolism of phenytoin. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, given at a common clinical dosage, increased the phenytoin half-life by 39% and decreased the phenytoin metabolic clearance rate by 27%. When administering these drugs concurrently, one should be alert for possible excessive phenytoin effect.

Sulfonamides can also displace methotrexate from plasma protein binding sites and can compete with the renal transport of methotrexate, thus increasing free methotrexate concentrations.

There have been reports of marked but reversible nephrotoxicity with coadministration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored. Increased sulfamethoxazole blood levels may occur in patients who are also receiving indomethacin.

Occasional reports suggest that patients receiving pyrimethamine as malaria prophylaxis in doses exceeding 25 mg weekly may develop megaloblastic anemia if sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is prescribed.

The efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants can decrease when coadministered with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Like other sulfonamide-containing drugs, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim potentiates the effect of oral hypoglycemics.

In the literature, a single case of toxic delirium has been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and amantadine.

In the literature, three cases of hyperkalemia in elderly patients have been reported after concomitant intake of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor.7,8

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, specifically the trimethoprim component, can interfere with a serum methotrexate assay as determined by the competitive binding protein technique (CBPA) when a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is used as the binding protein. No interference occurs, however, if methotrexate is measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA).

The presence of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may also interfere with the Jaffé alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine, resulting in overestimations of about 10% in the range of normal values.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential have not been conducted with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Bacterial mutagenic studies have not been performed with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in combination. Trimethoprim was demonstrated to be nonmutagenic in the Ames assay. No chromosomal damage was observed in human leukocytes cultured in vitro with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim alone or in combination; the concentrations used exceeded blood levels of these compounds following therapy with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Observations of leukocytes obtained from patients treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim revealed no chromosomal abnormalities.

Impairment of Fertility

No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance were observed in rats given oral dosages as high as 350 mg/kg/day sulfamethoxazole plus 70 mg/kg/day trimethoprim.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C. In rats, oral doses of 533 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg produced teratologic effects manifested mainly as cleft palates.

The highest dose which did not cause cleft palates in rats was 512 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole or 192 mg/kg trimethoprim when administered separately. In two studies in rats, no teratology was observed when 512 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole was used in combination with 128 mg/kg of trimethoprim. In one study, however, cleft palates were observed in one litter out of 9 when 355 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole was used in combination with 88 mg/kg of trimethoprim.

In some rabbit studies, an overall increase in fetal loss (dead and resorbed and malformed conceptuses) was associated with doses of trimethoprim 6 times the human therapeutic dose.

While there are no large, well-controlled studies on the use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pregnant women, Brumfitt and Pursell,9 in a retrospective study, reported the outcome of 186 pregnancies during which the mother received either placebo or sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The incidence of congenital abnormalities was 4.5% (3 of 66) in those who received placebo and 3.3% (4 of 120) in those receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. There were no abnormalities in the 10 children whose mothers received the drug during the first trimester. In a separate survey, Brumfitt and Pursell also found no congenital abnormalities in 35 children whose mothers had received oral sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim at the time of conception or shortly thereafter.

Because sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may interfere with folic acid metabolism, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing mothers

Pediatric use

Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is not recommended for infants younger than 2 months of age (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE and CONTRAINDICATIONS section).

Geriatric use

Clinical studies of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

There may be an increased risk of severe adverse reactions in elderly patients, particularly when complicating conditions exist, e. g. impaired kidney and/or liver function, possible folate deficiency, or concomitant use of other drugs. Severe skin reactions, generalized bone marrow suppression (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS sections), a specific decrease in platelets (with or without purpura), and hyperkalemia are the most frequently reported severe adverse reactions in elderly patients. In those concurrently receiving certain diuretics, primarily thiazides, an increased incidence of thrombocytopenia with purpura has been reported. Increased digoxin blood levels can occur with concomitant sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy, especially in elderly patients. Serum digoxin levels should be monitored. Hematological changes indicative of folic acid deficiency may occur in elderly patients. These effects are reversible by folinic acid therapy. Appropriate dosage adjustments should be made for patients with impaired kidney function and duration of use should be as short as possible to minimize risks of undesired reactions (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections). The trimethoprim component of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim may cause hyperkalemia when administered to patients with underlying disorders of potassium metabolism, with renal insufficiency or when given concomitantly with drugs known to induce hyperkalemia, such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Close monitoring of serum potassium is warranted in these patients. Discontinuation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim treatment is recommended to help lower potassium serum levels.

Pharmacokinetics parameters for sulfamethoxazole were similar for geriatric subjects and younger adult subjects. The mean maximum serum trimethoprim concentration was higher and mean renal clearance of trimethoprim was lower in geriatric subjects compared with younger subjects (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Geriatric Pharmacokinetics ).

Adverse Reactions

The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (such as rash and urticaria). FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS (SEE WARNINGS SECTION).

Hematologic

Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, methemoglobinemia, eosinophilia.

Allergic Reactions

Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, angioedema, drug fever, chills, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, serum sickness-like syndrome, generalized allergic reactions, generalized skin eruptions, photosensitivity, conjunctival and scleral injection, pruritus, urticaria and rash. In addition, periarteritis nodosa and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported.

Gastrointestinal

Hepatitis (including cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis) elevation of serum transaminase and bilirubin, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, pancreatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia.

Genitourinary

Renal failure, interstitial nephritis, BUN and serum creatinine elevation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria, crystalluria and nephrotoxicity in association with cyclosporine.

Metabolic and Nutritional

Neurologic

Aseptic meningitis, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, headache.

Psychiatric

Hallucinations, depression, apathy, nervousness.

Endocrine

The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides) and oral hypoglycemic agents. Cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents. Diuresis and hypoglycemia have occurred rarely in patients receiving sulfonamides.

Musculoskeletal

Arthralgia and myalgia. Isolated cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, mainly in AIDS patients.

Respiratory

Cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates (see WARNINGS ).

Miscellaneous

Weakness, fatigue, insomnia.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

Σ Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura Σ Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Overdosage

Acute

The amount of a single dose of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim that is either associated with symptoms of overdosage or is likely to be life-threatening has not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage reported with sulfonamides include anorexia, colic, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, drowsiness and unconsciousness. Pyrexia, hematuria and crystalluria may be noted. Blood dyscrasias and jaundice are potential late manifestations of overdosage.

Signs of acute overdosage with trimethoprim include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, mental depression, confusion and bone marrow depression.

General principles of treatment include the institution of gastric lavage or emesis, forcing oral fluids, and the administration of intravenous fluids if urine output is low and renal function is normal. Acidification of the urine will increase renal elimination of trimethoprim. The patient should be monitored with blood counts and appropriate blood chemistries, including electrolytes. If a significant blood dyscrasia or jaundice occurs, specific therapy should be instituted for these complications. Peritoneal dialysis is not effective and hemodialysis is only moderately effective in eliminating sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim.

Chronic

Use of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim at high doses and/or for extended periods of time may cause bone marrow depression manifested as thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and/or megaloblastic anemia. If signs of bone marrow depression occur, the patient should be given leucovorin 5 to 15 mg daily until normal hematopoiesis is restored.

Sulfatrim Dosage and Administration

Not recommended for use in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age.

Urinary Tract Infections and Shigellosis in Adults and Pediatric Patients, and Acute Otitis Media in Children

The usual adult dosage in the treatment of urinary tract infections is four teaspoonfuls (20mL) Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension every 12 hours for 10 to 14 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis.

The recommended dose for children with urinary tract infections or acute otitis media is 40 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 8 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours, given in two divided doses every 12 hours for 10 days. An identical daily dosage is used for 5 days in the treatment of shigellosis. The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage:

Children 2 months of age or older:

For the lower limit dose (75 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole and 15 mg/kg trimethoprim per 24 hours) administer 75% of the dose in the above table.

Prophylaxis

The recommended dosage for prophylaxis in adults is four teaspoonfuls (20 mL) of the oral suspension daily.11

For children, the recommended dose is 750 mg/m 2 /day sulfamethoxazole with 150 mg/m 2 /day trimethoprim given orally in equally divided doses twice a day, on 3 consecutive days per week. The total daily dose should not exceed 1600 mg sulfamethoxazole and 320 mg trimethoprim.12 The following table is a guideline for the attainment of this dosage in children:

Body Surface Area

Dose - every 12 hours

Travelers’ Diarrhea in Adults

For the treatment of travelers' diarrhea, the usual adult dosage is four teaspoonfuls (20 mL) of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim oral suspension every 12 hours for 5 days.

How is Sulfatrim Supplied

Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim Oral Suspension USP, containing 200 mg sulfamethoxazole and 40 mg trimethoprim per teaspoonful (5 mL), is a cherry flavored suspension available in (473 mL) bottles.

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light.

SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact STI Pharma, LLC at 1-888-301-9680 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www. fda. gov/medwatch.

REFERENCES

Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Co-Trimoxazole in Man after Single and Repeated Doses. J Clin Pharmacol. Feb-Mar 1974; 14:112–117.

Kaplan SA, et al. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole in Man. J Infect Dis. Nov 1973; 128 (Suppl): S547–S555.

Varoquaux O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination in the elderly. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985;20:575–581.

Rudoy RC, Nelson JD, Haltalin KC. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. May 1974;5:439–443.

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically ; Approved Standard – Fourth Edition. NCCLS Document M7–A4, Vol.17, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 1997.

Hardy DW, et al. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or aerosolized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 1842–1848.

Marinella Mark A. 1999. Trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia: An analysis of reported cases. Gerontol. 45:209–212.

Margassery, S. and B. Bastani. 2002. Life threatening hyperkalemia and acidosis secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment. J. Nephrol. 14:410–414.

Brumfitt W, Pursell R. Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Bacteriuria in Women. J Infect Dis. Nov 1973; 128 (Suppl):S657–S663.

Masur H. Prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 1853–1880.

Recommendations for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for adults and adolescents infected with human immunodeficiency virus. MMWR. 1992; 41(RR-4):1–11.

CDC Guidelines for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia for children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. MMWR. 1991; 40(RR-2):1–13.

Langhorne, PA 19047

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

SULFAMETHOXAZOLE AND TRIMETHOPRIM ORAL SUSPENSION, USP

200 mg/40 mg per 5 mL

Each teaspoonful (5 mL) contains:

Sulfamethoxazole. 200 mg

Trimethoprim. 40 mg

USUAL DOSAGE: See package insert for dosage and full prescribing information. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP. Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light.

SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING.

16 fl oz (473 mL)

Langhorne, PA 19047

Doxazosin Medlineplus Drug Information, Doksazosyna

Doxazosin

Why is this medication prescribed?

Doxazosin is used in men to treat the symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH), which include difficulty urinating (hesitation, dribbling, weak stream, and incomplete bladder emptying), painful urination, and urinary frequency and urgency. It is also used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Doxazosin is in a class of medications called alpha-blockers. It relieves the symptoms of BPH by relaxing the muscles of the bladder and prostate. It lowers blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.

High blood pressure is a common condition and when not treated, can cause damage to the brain, heart, blood vessels, kidneys and other parts of the body. Damage to these organs may cause heart disease, a heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, loss of vision, and other problems. In addition to taking medication, making lifestyle changes will also help to control your blood pressure. These changes include eating a diet that is low in fat and salt, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising at least 30 minutes most days, not smoking, and using alcohol in moderation.

How should this medicine be used?

Doxazosin comes as a tablet and an extended-release tablet to take by mouth. The doxazosin tablet is usually taken with or without food once a day in the morning or in the evening. Doxazosin extended-release tablet is usually taken once a day with breakfast. Takedoxazosin around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take doxazosin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Swallow the extended-release tablets whole; do not split, chew, or crush them.

Your doctor will start you on a low dose of doxazosin and gradually increase your dose, not more than once every 1 to 2 weeks. If you stop taking doxazosin for a few days or longer, call your doctor. Your doctor will have to start you again on the lowest dose of doxazosin and gradually increase your dose.

Doxazosin controls high blood pressure and the symptoms of BPH but does not cure them. It may take a few weeks before you feel the full benefit of doxazosin. Continue to take doxazosin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking doxazosin without talking to your doctor.

Other uses for this medicine

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before taking doxazosin,

tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to doxazosin, prazosin (Minipress), terazosin, any other medications, or any ingredients in doxazosin tablets or extended-release tablets. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients..

tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: antihistamines; clarithromycin (Biaxin, in Prevpac); ipratropium (Atrovent, in Combivent); itraconazole (Onmel, Sporanox); ketoconazole (Nizoral); medications for erectile dysfunction (ED) such as sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra), tadalafil (Adcirca, Cialis), or vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn); medications for high blood pressure; medications for HIV/AIDS including atazanavir (Reyataz), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra), or saquinavir (Invirase); medications for irritable bowel disease, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, ulcers, or urinary problems; nefazodone; telithromycin (Ketek); and voriconazole (Vfend). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.

tell your doctor if you have angina (chest pain); low blood pressure; if you have ever had low blood pressure after taking a medication; or if you have or have ever had prostate cancer, or liver disease. If you are taking the extended-release tablet, tell you doctor if you have constipation, short bowel syndrome (a condition where more than half of the small intestine has been removed by surgery or damaged by disease), or narrowing or a blockage of the intestines.

tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking doxazosin, call your doctor.

talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking doxazosin if you are 65 years of age or older. Older adults should not usually take doxazosin because it is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat the same conditions.

if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking doxazosin. If you need to have eye surgery at any time during or after your treatment, be sure to tell your doctor that you are taking or have taken doxazosin.

you should know that doxazosin may make you drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive a car, operate machinery, or perform dangerous tasks for 24 hours after the first time you take doxazosin or after your dose is increased.

you should know that doxazosin may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up too quickly from a lying position. This is more common when you first start taking doxazosin, when your dose is increased, or if your treatment has been stopped for more than a few days. To avoid this problem, get out of bed slowly, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up. If you experience these symptoms, sit or lie down. If these symptoms do not improve, call your doctor.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Follow your doctor's directions for your meals, including advice for a reduced salt (sodium) diet.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. Check with your doctor if you have missed two or more doses.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Doxazosin may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms or those listed in the SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS section are severe or do not go away:

headache

tiredness

swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs

shortness of breath

weight gain

muscle or joint pain or weakness

abnormal vision

runny nose

decreased sexual ability

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical treatment:

rapid, pounding, or irregular heartbeat

chest pain

shortness of breath

hives

painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours

Doxazosin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

In case of emergency/overdose

In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.

Symptoms of overdose may include:

What other information should I know?

If you are taking doxazosin extended-release tablets, you may notice something that looks like a tablet in your stool. This is just the empty tablet shell, and this does not mean that you did not get your complete dose of medication.

Keep all appointments with your doctor. If you are taking doxazosin to control high blood pressure, your blood pressure should be checked regularly to determine your response to doxazosin.

Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Brand names

Last Revised - 03/15/2015

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. Disclaimer

AHFS ® Patient Medication Information. © Copyright, 2016. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland. All Rights Reserved. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized by ASHP.

Co-Enac Hexal Price Compare, Co-Enac Hexal

Co-enac hexal

Step 1: Read drug prescription

Co-Enac Hexal Description: Vaseretic is a combination of Co-Enac Hexal and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and is used for treating high blood pressure (hypertension). It is in a class of drugs called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. ACE is an enzyme in the body that causes the formation of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II causes the muscles surrounding the arteries in the body to contract, thereby narrowing the arteries and elevating the blood pressure. ACE inhibitors such as Co-Enac Hexal (Vasotec) lower blood pressure by preventing the formation of angiotensin II thereby relaxing the arteries. Used for: Vaseretic is used for treating high blood pressure.

Step 3: Select the most affordable brand or generic drugs

Simvacard 20 Mg - Prospect Si Pret, Simvacard

Simvacard 20 mg

1.CE ESTE SIMVACARD SI PENTRU CE ESTE UTILIZAT?

Ce contine acest medicament? Simvacard 10 Un comprimat filmat contine simvastatina 10 mg si excipienti: nucleu: lactoza anhidra, celuloza microcristalina, amidon pregelatinizat, butilhidroxianisol, stearat de magneziu, talc; film: hidroxipropilceluloza, metilhidroxipropilceluloza, talc, dioxid de titan (E 171). Simvacard 20 Un comprimat filmat contine simvastatina 20 mg si excipienti: nucleu: lactoza anhidra, celuloza microcristalina, amidon pregelatinizat, butilhidroxianisol, stearat de magneziu, talc; film: hidroxipropilceluloza, metilhidroxipropilceluloza, talc, dioxid de titan (E 171). Simvacard 40 Un comprimat filmat contine simvastatina 40 mg si excipienti: nucleu: lactoza anhidra, celuloza microcristalina, amidon pregelatinizat, butilhidroxianisol, stearat de magneziu, talc; film: hidroxipropilceluloza, metilhidroxipropilceluloza, talc, dioxid de titan (E 171).

Grupa farmacoterapeutica: medicamente hipolipemiante, hipocolesterolemiante, hipotrigliceridemiante, inhibitoare ale HMG-CoA reductazei.

Simvacard modifica echilibrul dintre utilizarea si productia colesterolului la nivel tisular. In principal, reduce sinteza de colesterol in ficat (cea mai importanta sursa de colesterol din organism) si creste eliminarea colesterolului din circulatie la nivel hepatic. Simvacard scade semnificativ concentratia LDL colesterolului si a compusilor lipidici numiti trigliceride si creste concentratia HDL colesterolului, care se considera ca inlatura colesterolul de la nivelul vaselor. Prin asocierea Simvacard cu o dieta corespunzatoare, puteti echilibra aportul de colesterol, respectiv productia de colesterol in organismul dumneavoastra.

Indicatii terapeutice Simvacard este utilizat pentru scaderea concentratiilor plasmatice ale colesterolului si trigliceridelor. Concentratiile plasmatice crescute ale colesterolului pot duce la aparitia bolii cardiace ischemice, prin favorizarea aparitiei aterosclerozei coronariene (scleroza si obstructia arterelor care vascularizeaza cordul). Ateroscleroza coronara poate determina dureri precordiale (numite angina pectorala) si infarct miocardic. Simvacard este recomandat pacientilor cu aceste afectiuni pentru prelungirea vietii, reducerea riscului de aparitie a infarctului miocardic sau accidentelor vasculare cerebrale, reducerea riscului de a suferi interventii chirurgicale la nivelul coronarelor, intarzierea progresiei aterosclerozei la nivel coronarian si incetinirea dezvoltarii unor noi placi aterosclerotice. 2. CE TREBUIE CUNOSCUT INAINTE DE A UTILIZA SIMVACARD Cand nu trebuie sa utilizati Simvacard? Simvacard este contraindicat in caz de: - hipersensibilitate la simvastatina, alte statine sau la oricare dintre excipientii produsului; - boli hepatice active; cresteri persistente inexplicabile ale transaminazelor serice, porfirie; - sarcina si alaptare (vezi pct. Sarcina si alaptarea).

Ce precautii speciale trebuie luate la utilizarea Simvacard? Medicul dumneavoastra trebuie sa fie informat cu privire la toate problemele de sanatate pe care le aveti sau pe care le-ati avut, inclusiv alergii de orice tip, consum de cantitati mari de alcool etilic sau daca ati avut boli hepatice in antecedente. La copii sub 18 ani, nu se recomanda utilizarea Simvacard, deoarece nu au fost demonstrate siguranta si eficacitatea produsului la aceasta grupa de varsta.

Ce trebuie cunoscut atunci cand se utilizeaza Simvacard in asociere cu alte medicamente? Medicul dumneavoastra trebuie informat despre toate medicamentele pe care le utilizati in prezent sau pe care intentionati sa le utilizati, inclusiv cele care se elibereaza fara prescriptie medicala. Este deosebit de important ca medicul dumneavoastra sa stie daca utilizati ciclosporina (medicament imunosupresor), anticoagulante (medicamente care inhiba coagularea sangelui), cum sunt warfarina, fenprocumon, acenocumarol, medicamente antimicotice (medicamente impotriva bolilor produse de fungi, de exemplu itraconazol sau ketoconazol), derivati ai acidului fibric (bezafibrat, fenofibrat si gemfibrozil), antibiotice cum sunt eritromicina sau claritromicina, inhibitori ai proteazei HIV (de exemplu indinavir, ritonavir si sequinavir), antidepresive (nefazodona) sau niacina (acid nicotinic) in doze mai mari de 1g pe zi. Intervalul de timp dintre administrarea statinei si niacinei este de 1 ora inainte si 4 ore dupa administrarea statinei. In cazul in care vi se prescriu alte medicamente, spuneti medicului dumneavoastra ca folositi Simvacard.

Se poate utiliza Simvacard in timpul sarcinii si alaptarii? Este contraindicata utilizarea Simvacard in timpul sarcinii si alaptarii. Femeile de varsta fertila trebuie sa utilizeze Simvacard doar daca este foarte putin probabil sa apara sarcina. In cazul in care apare sarcina in timpul utilizarii medicamentului, intrerupeti tratamentul si adresati-va medicul dumneavoastra.

In general, in timpul sarcinii si alaptarii cereti sfatul medicului inainte de a utiliza orice medicament.

Capacitatea de a conduce vehicule sau de a folosi utilaje Simvacard nu influenteaza negativ capacitatea de a conduce vehicule sau de a folosi utilaje.

Ce trebuie cunoscut in caz de supradozaj cu Simvacard? In caz de supradozaj sau in cazul ingestiei accidentale a comprimatelor filmate de catre un copil, adresati-va medicului dumneavoastra sau la cel mai apropiat spital. 3.DOZE SI MOD DE ADMINISTRARE Cum trebuie sa utilizati Simvacard? Doza de Simvacard trebuie stabilita de catre medicul dumneavoastra. Doza initiala recomandata este de 10-20 mg simvastatina zilnic, administrata in priza unica, seara. Medicul dumneavoastra va poate creste doza pana la 80 mg simvastatina pe zi, administrata in priza unica, seara. Medicul dumneavoastra va poate prescrie doze mai mici, mai ales daca utilizati concomitent ciclosporina sau daca aveti afectiuni renale. Continuati tratamentul cu Simvacard pana cand medicul dumneavoastra va recomanda intreruperea acestuia. Concentratia colesterolului poate creste din nou dupa terminarea tratamentului. Utilizati medicamentul respectand recomandarilor medicului. Totusi, daca uitati sa luati o doza, nu utilizati ulterior o doza dubla pentru a compensa doza omisa. Continuati tratamentul respectand schema terapeutica recomandata de catre medicul dumneavoastra. 4. REACTII ADVERSE Simvacard este in general bine tolerat. Reactiile adverse sunt in general moderate si de durata scurta. Cele mai frecvente reactii adverse sunt tulburarile digestive. Reactii adverse mai putin frecvente sunt astenia si cefaleea. Reactii adverse mai rare sunt durerile, sensibilitatea si slabiciunea musculara. Manifestarile musculare pot fi grave. De aceea, daca simtiti dureri musculare, sensibilitatea si slabiciunea musculara adresati-va imediat medicului dumneavoastra. Alte reactii adverse rare sunt afectiunile hepatice (de exemplu icter sau hepatita), hipersensibilitatea la utilizarea medicamentului si reactii alergice cu o mare varietate de manifestari, inclusiv dureri articulare, febra sau dispnee. Adresati-va medicului dumneavoastra, in cazul aparitiei uneia dintre manifestarile descrise mai sus. Pastrare A nu se utiliza dupa data de expirare inscrisa pe ambalaj. Nu sunt necesare conditii speciale de pastrare. A nu se lasa la indemana copiilor. Ambalaj Simvacard 10 Cutie cu 2 blistere a cate 14 comprimate. Simvacard 20 Cutie cu 2 blistere a cate 14 comprimate Cutie cu 6 blistere a cate 14 comprimate. Simvacard 40 Cutie cu 2 blistere a cate 14 comprimate.

Observatii

Acest medicament se elibereaza pe baza de prescriptie medicala.

NOTA: Fotografia prezentata are caracter informativ si poate contine accesorii ce nu sunt incluse in pachetul standard al produsului sau pot exista diferente intre aceasta si produsul din magazin. Specificatiile tehnice sunt informative, pot fi schimbate fara instiintare prealabila si nu constituie obligativitate contractuala. Ne straduim sa oferim informatii cat mai exacte. Cu toate acestea este posibil ca unele specificatii sa le fi omis, sa nu ne fie cunoscute sau pot contine erori de operare. Va stam oricand la dispozitie pentru eventuale clarificari.

Sunt 0 review-uri scrise

Central Phoenix Eye Care - 13 Photos & 121 Reviews - Optometrists - 5727 N 7th St, Phoenix, Az - Pho

Central Phoenix Eye Care

I've been going to this practice for eye care for over 10 years. The staff and team have been consistently welcoming and helpful in all aspects of eye care. The keep a trendy showcase of frames and plenty of contacts for your preference or choice. The testing equipment is always clean and well maintained as well as the exam rooms.

I've used two different insurance plans at this facility, I won't go to any other Optometrist for my eye care.

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I have so many positive things to say about this practice, I don't know where to start!

First, as a first-time contact lens wearer, it took so many lens trials to get my prescription right. Perhaps upwards of 8 or 10 over the course of 4 - 5 months! At each visit, Dr. Mastores greeted me in her friendly manner and assured me that this is normal, determined to help find the perfect Rx. We finally got it and I couldn't be happier. It needs to be mentioned that Dr. Mastores never charged me for these followup lens trial visits, and each time my Rx changed, I was able to return the unused contacts and receive credit for contacts in the correct Rx. The staff is completely professional and never treated me like a nuisance, even though I felt like I was! I am a doctor myself and have never been to such a friendly and relaxed doctor. Dr. Mastores clearly loves what she does and it is such a pleasure to be treated by her. She is the kind of person you want to hang out with all day.

Second, in the meantime, my glasses Rx changed! The practice has an amazing policy for refractive changes and I was able to get my lenses corrected without any fuss. Incredible.

Third, they have an annual sale where designer frames are 50% off! That's right, even Ray Bans! I love, love love their frame selection and their opticians are so friendly and knowledgeable, no matter whom you speak with.

Finally, and this is embarrassing, I scratched my eye on New Years eve and didn't know what to do. I called the after hours line and Dr. Frank called me back immediately. He was incredibly reassuring and helpful, and stated that if my symptoms didn't improve in 12 hours, he would meet me at the office on New Years Day. It ended up being nothing, but just being able to reach someone so quickly on a holiday was outstanding.

So, in case it's not obvious, this is the best optometry practice to go to in Phoenix. I recommend them to everyone!

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I have been a patient here for 5 years and counting and love it. I see Dr. Mastores and she is so sweet. This place is amazing and I have referred several friends. Everyone here, including the employees at the front desk are so genuinely nice, professional, and helpful. I really couldn't ask for more because the customer service is excellent and I've never had any issues. They really care about their customers. I had to bring my 2.5 year old daughter to my appointment and the eye technician I had - Jennifer - was so accommodating to her, which I really appreciated.

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I'm a new patient but have been treated from the beginning like a long valued client. Everyone on staff that I have met have been outgoing and friendly.

I am 65 with a history of eye surgeries making me a real challenge to correct my near and far vision whether for contacts or glasses. Dr. Mastores enthusiastically took up the challenge to fit me with multi-focus RGP contacts saying she would not give up until we'd succeeded. We are still working through the process but I have every reason to believe that she'll get us there.

Over the years I have worked with many excellent eye care professionals but I have never worked with any whom I would recommend over Dr. Mastores and Central Phoenix Eye Care.

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I Highly recommended this place for all of your eyecare. All the staff was very friendly and greeted me with a smile. Amy was very helpful and patience in showing me how to put in my contacts. "Thanks Amy" I previously wore glasses and wanted to switch to contacts. Dr Benjamin Usleman was awesome! He was very friendly and professional. He answer all of my questions and concerns about switching to contacts. He gave me samples to try out for 2 weeks to see if I like. So far they are awesome! If you're looking for an eye doctor, I recommend you give this place a try. You won't be disappointed!

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In searching for a new eye center in central phoenix, I decided on Central Phoenix based on the yelp reviews and I was so happy I did. The staff is friendly and knowledgeable, they have the most up to date equipment and since they don't work on commission, you don't get expensive eye glasses pushed on you. I wear progressive lenses, and the best part is that I love, love. love my new lenses. By far the most accurate prescription I have had, and I have worn progressives for several years.

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Great staff, friendly and knowledgable Doctor, excellent selection of frames and what looks like the latest eye care technology on site.

I ended up arriving 10 minutes late because I had difficulty finding the location (note, it's in an office building, no signage from the main street) and the staff was very accommodating, got me started within a few minutes. Thank god you no longer have to use the thing that puffs air into you eyes. That alone was brilliant!

I like that I was provided new patient forms online but I believe all their online information and steps require a bit more clarity. For example, I didn't realize I would receive those forms online and downloaded the PDFs from their site to print and fill out. I also think there should be an option to book on the site (I didn't see anywhere) and download to your calendar. Those are minor things though!

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I had a very thorough and pleasant experience here! Dr. Uselman was great! Not only is he experienced (has 7+ years under his belt), but he takes the time to listen and answer any questions you have. He also has a sense of humor - I always like it when my doctors show that they're human and have a personality :) the front desk staff was also awesome (you know that can make or break a practice). Ordered new glasses with the help of a very knowledgeable lady, who was able to help me find the perfect fit in less than 5 minutes!

Very impressed with this place and look forward to coming here when my annual visits are needed!

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In my 50 years of wearing glasses, one of the very best I have found!! Absolutely best frame selection and reasonable prices for what you are getting. Never any question about helping with adjustments and work very hard to get it right the first time and have no problem if you need more help!

The best part is they are willing to explain to you what you are getting, need or are curious about. Now that is not something you will find everywhere!

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I chose this office because I needed to find somewhere that accepted my Insurance and it was close to my home. I have worn glasses for many years and was thinking about getting contacts. Boy did I luck out with this choice. Heather greeted me and took me back to a very clean and well laid out office and for some background on me. She was very helpful and personable and made me feel totally at ease. Dr. Usleman was VERY knowledgeable and informative and explained in great detail the differences between different contacts and why some were recommended over others. He listened to MY concerns and what I wanted the contacts for and made two great recommendations for me. I was shown how to put them in and take them out by another very sweet girl (I think her name was Amy) and left with TWO different trial contact options. I will try them out for a week or so and then go back for a follow up to decide which I want to go with. All in all a great experience. I have already referred a friend.

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I remember walking out of my eye exam thinking 'Wow I had a lovely visit!'. How crazy is that thought coming after an optometrist appointment. Dr. Mastores was so friendly and informative (and bonus, she gave me lots of samples). She explained all the images they took of my eyes and the eye assistants and admin staff were also very personable. I'd recommend Central Phoenix Eye in a heartbeat.

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From the business

If you're looking for a friendly office for all of your eye care needs, you've found it in Central Phoenix Eye Care! Our friendly staff will assist you throughout your visit with …

Specialties

If you're looking for a friendly office for all of your eye care needs, you've found it in Central Phoenix Eye Care!

Our friendly staff will assist you throughout your visit with us. We provide comprehensive, on-time eye care while offering you the most current optical frames, contact lenses, and surgical referrals for your vision correction. We welcome walk-in prescriptions and adjustments.

We are dedicated to providing you and your family with the best in eye health care, including:

*Comprehensive Eye Examinations *Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Diseases *Vision Correction with Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses

A routine eye care visit is essential to ensuring your eyes are healthy and your vision is the best it can be. We utilize our skills and the latest in technology to determine visual acuity (how clearly you see) and to look for signs of eye diseases. Many eye diseases, like glaucoma, have no noticeable symptoms until they have progressed to a point where vision loss can occur.

History

Established in 1985.

Eye examinations have changed over the years, and we have tried to keep pace with technology without losing the human touch. Our facility utilizes up-to-date instruments without overwhelming you with gadgets. We will use technology (automated refractor, automated visual fields analyzer, computer assisted photography) when it helps us give you the best eye care.

You will never be rushed through a visit; the necessary time will be taken to properly access the health of your eyes and your visual system.

Meet the Business Owner

Co-Amoxiclav 625mg Tablets, Anbicyn

CO-AMOXICLAV 625MG TABLETS

Transcript

Patient Information Leaflet

Co-Amoxiclav 375mg and 625mg Tablets What you should know about this medicine. Please read this leaflet carefully before you start to take these tablets. If there is something you don’t understand, or if you have any other questions remember to ask your pharmacist or doctor. Keep this leaflet, you may want to read it again.

The name of this medicine is Co-amoxiclav Tablets. These tablets are available in two strengths. Co-amoxiclav Tablets 375mg are pale yellow, biconvex tablets embossed 375 on one side. The tablets contain two active ingredients, 250mg of amoxicillin (as trihydrate) and 125mg clavulanic acid (as potassium clavulanate). (These ingredients together are known as Co-amoxiclav).

Co-amoxiclav Tablets 625mg are pale yellow, oblong, biconvex tablets embossed 625 on one side. The tablets contain 500mg of amoxicillin (as trihydrate) and 125mg clavulanic acid (as potassium clavulanate). Both strengths of tablets also contain microcrystalline cellulose, quinoline yellow (E104), titanium dioxide (E171), crospovidone, Povidone K25, colloidal silicon dioxide, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol 6000, methylhydroxypropylcellulose, saccharin sodium, vanilla flavour and magnesium stearate. Co-amoxiclav Tablets 375mg and Co-amoxiclav Tablets 625mg are available as packs of 21 tablets.

How does this medicine work? Amoxicillin is an antibiotic. Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. When amoxicillin is combined with clavulanic acid it is effective against a wider range of bacteria than when used alone.

Product Licence Holder: Athlone Pharmaceuticals Limited, Ballymurray, Co. Roscommon, Ireland Manufactured by: Cimex AG, Birsweg 2, CH-4253 Liesburg, Switzerland.

Distributed by: Sovereign Medical, Sovereign House, Miles Gray Road, Basildon, Essex SS14 3FR.

Why am I taking Co-amoxiclav Tablets? They are used to treat respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, tonsillitis and middle ear infections; infections of the kidneys, abdomen and lower urinary tract including cystitis; and skin and tissue infections.

Make sure that it is safe for you to take these tablets Sometimes it may not be suitable. You should check with your doctor if: you are sensitive or allergic to Co-amoxiclav Tablets or any of the ingredients, or to penicillin or other antibiotics you have ever developed serious liver problems when taking an antibiotic, you are pregnant, trying to become pregnant, or breast-feeding, you have liver or kidney problems, you have glandular fever, you are on a low potassium diet. Some drugs will inteefere with the action of Co-amoxiclav. Tell your doctor if you are taking any of these medicines other antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, erythromycin, sulfonamides, or tetracyclines, warfarin or other drugs to prevent blood clotting. The effect of drugs to thin the blood such as warfarin may be increased by Co-amoxiclav. If this happens there could be a risk of excessive bleeding. Allopurinol or probenecid for gout and related conditions.

Co-amoxiclav Tablets 375mg and 625mg contain 24.6mg potassium and so may be harmful to people who need to be on a low potassium diet. Co-amoxiclav Tablets do not interact with oral contraceptives and you should use other methods of contraception whilst taking these tablets.

You should always let your doctor know what other medicines you are taking, including any that have been prescribed by your doctor or you have bought.

Taking your medicine Take at regular intervals. Complete the prescribed course unless otherwise directed. You should always take these tablets as prescribed by your doctor. The instructions are usually on the pharmacist’s label. If you’re not sure about anything please ask your doctor or pharmacist. For infections: Dosage for adults (including the elderly) and children over 12: The usual dose is 375mg three times a day, preferably every 8 hours, for a maximum of 14 days. For more severe infections: One 625mg tablet three times a day. For dental infections: The usual dose is 375mg three times a day, preferably every 8 hours, for 5 days. The dose for people with severe liver or kidney problems may be less than these doses. The doctor will have decided what dose you need. These tablets are not suitable for children under 12 or weighing less than 40kg. Do not take more tablets than the doctor told you to take. Take the tablets for as long as the doctor told you to. Do not stop taking them because you feel better. If you are still unwell after finishing the course of tablets go and see your doctor. Swallow the tablets with a drink at the beginning of a meal. Do not break or chew the tablets. If you forget to take a tablet take one as soon as you remember, then carry on with the next dose. Try to wait about 4 hours before taking the next dose, and do not take two doses within about one hour or so. Never double-up on the dose to make up for the one you have missed. If you take too many tablets tell your doctor or the nearest hospital casualty department straight away. Let people know what you have taken. Are there any side-effects? Most people do not have any problems when they take these tablets, but nearly all medicines can cause side-effects in some people. Co-amoxiclav Tablets can sometimes cause stomach problems such as nausea (feeling sick), vomiting, indigestion or diarrhoea. These symptoms are usually mild and can be reduced by taking the tablets at the beginning of a meal. Very rarely, some people experience hyperactivity, dizziness, headache and convulsions. These symptoms are reversible. There have been rare reports of tooth discolouration. This can usually be removed by brushing. Some people may get thrush (a yeast infection of the vagina or mouth) when they take these tablets. You can get treatments for thrush from your pharmacist or doctor. If you notice anything else which you don’t understand ask your doctor or pharmacist’s advice. Some people can be allergic to antibiotics and can develop a rash. This can range in severity from a mid itchy rash to a rarer more serious condition which may cause ulceration of the mouth, lips and skin. Inflammation of the kidney can also occur rarely. In very rare cases, allergic reactions can include difficulty in breathing, fainting or swelling of the face and throat. Stop taking the tablets and tell your doctor if you develop any of these symptoms.

See your doctor immediately if you develop any of the following either while you are taking Coamoxiclav Tablets or in the weeks after finishing the treatment. Severe or prolonged diarrhoea with bleeding Darker urine or paler faeces Your skin or eyes becoming yellow Fever, bruising or bleeding. Co-amoxiclav Tablets can sometimes affect blood cell counts. Make sure that your doctor knows that you are taking these tablets if you are having blood tests. How to keep your tablets Keep all medicines in a safe place away from children. Do not store above 25oC. Store in the original package in order to protect from moisture. Keep the container tightly closed. Do not take the tablets after the date shown on the pack. REMEMBER this medicine was prescribed for you. You should not give it to anyone else even if you think their symptoms are similar. It may harm them.

Source: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Astharoshe Asran - Trinity Blood Wiki, As?Ran

Astharoshe Asran

Astharoshe Asran, Duchess of Kiev and Viscountess of Odessa . is a Methuselah of the New Human Empire. Although she initially has a very low opinion of Terrans of the outside world, it changes after the events of the series.

Contents

Appearance Edit

Photo of a young Astharoshe with red hair.

Astharoshe is tall, standing over 180 centimeters, with amber eyes and long ivory hair with a red tuft across the forehead, although her hair was depicted as blonde in the anime. [1] In her youth, Astharoshe had red hair, but the grief from the loss of her best friend caused it to bleach and lose its true color. In the manga, her hair was cut short after Dietrich burned her in The Night Lords arc.

Her normal clothing within the Empire usually consists of a short blue dress with blue, white and gold or silver, armored breastplates, and high white boots. Like most of the boyar within the Empire, her clothing is usually richly embroidered with several star-moon insignias of the New Human Empire.

During Astharoshe'a mission in the out of the Empire, the Duchess is also shown in an elaborate red dress, as well as a black outfit consisting of a bodice, pants and coat. Her arcana in Thores' tarot cards is The Judgement .

Astharoshe has a spear named "Gae Bolg" (meaning "spear of mortal pain/death spear"), a lost technology. The spear uses ionized xenon gas to create a high-density, high-temperature plasma blade capable of cutting through anything.

Personality Edit

Astharoshe Asran is hot-headed, strong-willed has a short temper and gets easily irritated. Her anger easily intimidates others.

Despite initially hating Terrans outside the Empire, she later softens her view on them, including Abel.

Synopsis Edit

Novels Edit

Rage Against Moons I: From The Empire Edit

Astharoshe is sent on the orders of the Empress to a secret collaboration mission with Abel Nightroad to track down a murderer. Astharoshe finds Endre Kourza was the same Methuselah who murdered her best friend and caused her so much grief that her hair turned white.

Trinity Blood Apocrypha Edit

Astharoshe is sent on a second mission to the outside world.

Manga Edit

Empress of the Night/ The Night Lords Arc Edit

Astharoshe taking orders from Augusta Vradica.

Astharoshe first appears before the kneeled Empress. It has been three years after Astharoshe's mission to the outside world. The Empress says she expects a messnger from the Vatican soon and requests Astharoshe's to protect him. The Duchess agrees before realizing who it might be and becomes humorously furious.

Later on, Astharoshe finds Esther in her bathhouse. Embarrassed that she was caught commenting how surprising it was to find such a beautiful bath in the Empire, the nun stands up and tries to leave while profusely apologizing. Astharoshe pushes her back in and tells her she is a guest. The Duchess confirms the nun's name is Esther, and offers her deepest sympathies when told she is a collage of Abel's. Esther is amazed at Astha's beauty, knowing she herself is covered with scars and scrapes. Noticing Esther's star-shaped birthmark, Astharoshe inquires about whether her mother named her after that, to which Esther replies she doesn't know - she was left in front of a church as an infant, with nothing but a rosary and her name. Esther questions if the Duchess is helping them because to return a favor for Abel, which earns her a comically 'inhuman' enraged response from Astharoshe - he owed her, and more than just favors. The Duchess does recall the Empress personally asking for her help; perhaps knowing they would be in trouble. The two discuss how the Empress is rumored to be over eight-hundred years old, and that she would lead the Methuselah through eternity. It is for that reason that Astharoshe pledges to put her life on the line for them.

The three discuss what has happened at dinner. Ion is depressed after what he had to witness back at his mansion. Esther and Astharoshe try to convince the boy to eat, but he rejects the offer. Astharoshe becomes frustrated by this and yells at him for being inconsiderate towards her hospitality. Astharoshe questions how he could show such weakness in front of Terrans, and how the Duchess of Moldova raised him. Infuriated that his at the insult of his grandmother, which causes an amused Astharoshe to comment that the boy should use that energy to reflect on himself, rather than directing it at her. She points out he had not been considerate of a worried Esther. Embarrassed, the Count resolves to stop sulking and starts to eat. Astharoshe tells them that she is going to report to the Empress tomorrow about their safe arrival.

The next day, while Astharoshe and Abel are in the Dewan (court). Astharoshe teases Abel about his protectiveness of Esther when she spots her distant relative and romantic interest, Sulayman. Sulayman apologizes for not being present at the funeral of Astharoshe's mother a year ago, much to her embarrassment. The Duke informs them about the rumor of two 'outside' Terrans, a man and a woman who had broken into the Empire. He also warns Astharoshe that they might interrogate her as well, expert on 'outside' matters. Suleyman leaves, but not before asking if Astharoshe would have some time for him to discuss politics of the 'outside' world.

While the boyar (noble) Methuselah discuss murder of the Duchess of Moldova. Baybars accuses Ion Fortuna. but Suleyman steps up and defends the young Earl. The Duke of Tigris intervenes and informs Baybars that it is a heavy accusation to blame Ion for the murder of his own grandmother, and reminds Baybars that wrong accusations can lead to bad results. He words earns him the admiration from Astharoshe, but it goes to waste when Radu Barvon shows up, bearing witness to Ion' guilt.

Later on, Astharoshe and Abel fight off Radu, who was about to kill Ion. Radu escapes into the night while Ion tells to Astharoshe and Abel what Radu is planning - assassination of the Empress.

Astharoshe's late friend, Countess Len Yearnosh.

Everyone returns back to Astharoshe’s mansion to plan their next move. Abel is out trying to find Radu while Esther, Ion and Astharoshe talk. Astharoshe explains to Esther that the Island of Beloved Children she can see from the window is where all the boyar (nobles) have gathered to mourn the Duchess of Moldova. She elaborates that the Methuselah have no religion and don't believe in souls, but the funeral are held for the living. Astharoshe alludes to her own past as she explains long as they are alive, they have to keep on living, even if their hair turns white. Esther desolately notes that Ion cannot even be allowed to grieve.

Noticing Ion was acting strange, Esther approaches him. The boy simply asks for the whereabouts of Radu and declines to wait as per Astharoshe's suggestion. Esther is skeptical that Radu to appear tonight at his grandmother’s funeral, as there were so many nobles present. Ion argues that this is the only chance for Radu, as now he is certain where the Empress will be. Astharoshe’s steward shows up, apologizing for being unable to find Radu. Asthe thinks he might be somewhere they haven’t searched, and so she decides to go and see Suleyman. who was in charge of arranging the funeral. Astharoshe takes Abel with her and orders Ion and Esther to stay behind.

Astharoshe and Abel visit Suleyman to find out if he knows of the location of Radu. Astharoshe tells to the Duke of Tigris about what she has learned about the planned bombs, not knowing he was the culprit. The Duchess asks Suleyman where the Baron of Luxor is and Suleyman answers that Radu is escorting the Empress on the Island of Beloved Children. Suleyman quickly moves his attention to Abel, asking from him if he saw Ion with anyone else - like the redheaded girl - revealing that he knows them to be the "traitors". Using the Ring of Solomon . he attacks both Abel and Astharoshe. The Duchess demands an explanation from the Duke she respected to much, wanting to know what drove him to do such things, but Suleyman replies that she's too young to understand. He explains that the greatness of the Empress has driven him into this, and that he's discovered that she's is something "that doesn't belong this world ", much to Abel's sadness. Abel and Astharoshe escape by jumping through a window while Sulayman contemplates his hate and love for the Empress.

Abel and Astharoshe discuss how they can rescue Esther and Ion. The Duchess is still shocked that someone like the Duke of Tigris who had worked for over three hundred years under the Empress could betray her, and wonders what the future boyar will become. Abel asks her stoically if she trusts the Empress, to which she easily replies that she does. The priest points out that the she knows nothing of the Empress' true face, true voice or who really is, but Astharoshe sees nothing wrong with it and questions what Abel is trying to say. Abel says Sulayman found out about the Empress' true identity, implying that she is something shocking. but the Duchess does not understand the implication and asks Abel if he knows who she was. The priest pretends he doesn't know and guesses she might be a normal Terran, which earns him a punch from Astharoshe. The Duchess proclaims it doesn't matter who the Empress was, as her ancestors lived like this, and the Empress herself was a person who promotes equality and peace. She downplays any insinuation that people revere Augusta Vradica as a god and insists she is just someone to be admired, and those who disrupt the peace will be stopped. Suddenly, Astharoshe's Terran retainer bursts into the room with news that the Duchess of Moldova's tomb exploded while the Empress was paying her respects, killing her.

Astharoshe prepares to sacrifice herself.

Astharoshe and Abel sneak into the palace through the underground catacombs. Just as they seem to be overwhelmed, the Duchess leaps forth and offers herself to fight the autojager alone so that Abel can go to save Esther and Ion. Just as Astharoshe is about to be fatally attacked, however, Baybars and the Yenceri appear, saving them from Dietrich von Lohengrin 's Autojagers. allowing the two to pass safely into the palace.

Astharoshe kills Sulayman.

The whole Celestial Imperial Palace is in chaos at the news of Empress' death in the bombing of Mirka Fortuna's tomb. Suleyman nominates himself as a ruler-candidate, but Astharoshe appears and accuses Suleyman of treason. Astharoshe tries to summon the captured Esther and Ion as witnesses, but the Duke tells the Duchess that it is too late the two have killed each other. Astharoshe is shocked, but just then Ion and Esther stumble into the Starpalace. A stunned Suleyman tells the security to capture the escaped prisoners, but Empress Augusta Vladica appears and stops this, revealing that she is alive and well. Everyone is shocked as the the Empress explains that she was not present on the bombing and introduces her double, none other than the very much alive Duchess of Moldova. Augusta Vradica then reveals her true face as Seth - the very girl Suleyman thought he killed. Seth tells Suleyman that she is disappointed and had high hopes for him. Suleyman becomes angry and shoots her with his ring, but misses on purpose in the last second and is killed by Astharoshe.

Seth asks him why he missed on purpose, to which he replies, "is there a child in this world child who does not love his mother?" In his dying moments, Suleyman tells to Seth that he hates her, having served her for three-hundred years, because she had become an existence he couldn't understand. The Duke asks Seth where she came from and where they all are headed, who she is, but then corrects his himself and asks who Methuselah they themselves are. Seth tells Suleyman that if she could answer that, she would be much happier. She closes Suleyman's eyes for him after he dies.

Astharoshe and Esther appear to help Abel as he was about to lose the battle to Dietrich von Lohengrin in Radu's body. The Duchess charges at him but he easily overpowers her and burns her hair. Seth arrives and kills Radu for good.

One week later, Mirka gleefully explains to her grandson that they had known about the extremists for a long time, but had no evidence to trap them. Ion clarifies whether she meant she had used her own grandson as bait, to which the Duchess replies she did, and then asks if anything is wrong. Ion is comically vexed at all of this, but instantly backs down when Mirka questions if he was unhappy about her plan. Mirka hugs him and says he just missed an opportunity to let her tease him. Baybars explains to Astharoshe that that was how the Duchess expresses her love, before commenting Astharoshe's new short hair. Esther interrupts and informs them that she is about to take her leave, and just as the other Methuselah bid farewell to her, Astharoshe notices Ion's sadness. Ion had forgotten that time flowed differently because Esther was a Terran, and worries that he may never see her again. The boy is about to say something but stops himself because of his doubts, but then at that moment, the Duchess encourages the Count to tell her how he feels. He runs to her just as he is about to leave, and knowing he will need to become stronger, tells her that he will see her one day for sure. Esther smiles back at him and leaves.

Anime Edit

Astharoshe makes her first appearance while carrying out an imperial order to locate a wanted criminal in the human world Endre Kourza. the same person who killed her implied former lover, Count Ren Janosh. Her impulsive attitude caused her to give chase through the city streets, in the process killing a number of Terran civilians and causing widespread damage to the area. Because of this, Cardinal Sforza considers asking Astharoshe to leave, because the lives lost have caused more trouble for the Vatican than the opportunity presented to work together with the Empire in pursuit of a common goal. With a little encouragement from Abel. Astharoshe receives a second chance to catch the killer, which she does successfully. This experience helped Astharoshe to understand better how things work outside of the Empire, which makes Astharoshe one of the few Methuselah to understand human politics, customs, and traditions by experience.

After Ion Fortuna's return to the Empire and the subsequent set-up to frame him for his grandmother's murder, Abel, Esther, and Ion take shelter in Astharoshe's mansion. In anticipation of their arrival, she had been charged by the Empress with taking in the Vatican envoys and making sure they stay safe. In the process of helping the Vatican agents, Asran becomes involved in the larger plot to assassinate the Empress, working with Abel Nightroad to prevent this event from occurring and ultimately slaying Suleyman, who orchestrated the assassination plot, after he moves to assassinate the Empress personally.

Gallery Edit

Inflamax Forte - For Inflammation (42 Count), Inflamax

Inflamax Forte - For Inflammation (42 count)

Inflamax Forte may be beneficial for Arthritis (Osteo), Asthma, Bronchitis, Carpal Tunnel, Diverticulosis, Edema (Simple), Fibromyalgia, Gastritis, Hemorrhoids, Inflammation, Joint Pain, Lymphedema, Psoriasis,

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Inflamax Forte - For Inflammation (42 count)

Inflamax Forte may be beneficial for Arthritis (Osteo), Asthma, Bronchitis, Carpal Tunnel, Diverticulosis, Edema (Simple), Fibromyalgia, Gastritis, Hemorrhoids, Inflammation, Joint Pain, Lymphedema, Psoriasis,

Vitamineral's Inflamax Forte provides increased levels of the pure proanthocyanidin quercetin a phytochemical that helps to inhibit enzymes that produce histamine. It also includes proteolytic enzymes to help digest the proteins in food as well as extra B6 for support when edema is present. Inflamax Forte is effective for support in both localized and systemic inflammatory states.

Niacin - Niacin is used for high cholesterol. It is also used along with other treatments for circulation problems

Vitamin B6 - also called pyridoxine helps the body make several neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another

White willow bark - known to help with pain, inflammation, or fever

White willow extract

Boswellia Serrata extract

Other ingredients: calcium carbonate, cellulose, maltodextrin, vegetable stearin, magnesium stearate, silica

Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad Good

Enter the code in the box below:

There are no additional images for this product.

Magnus - Elder Scrolls, Magnus

Magnus

Contents

Creation of Mundus Edit

During the Dawn Era. he, along with several other et'Ada, were convinced by Lorkhan to create the mortal plane, Mundus. Magnus was said to have been the architect of Mundus, as he created the schematics and diagrams needed to construct it. [1] [2] [3]

As Mundus was forming, it became evident that many of the et'Ada would be required to sacrifice much of their power in order for the mortal plane to be created. He realized his mistake and decided to terminate the project. The et'Ada convened at the Adamantine Tower at an event known as the Convention and decided to punish Lorkhan for his trickery. [3] [OOG 1]

Soon after, Magnus fled to Aetherius in the last of Mundus' birth-pains. In his departure, he tore a hole through Oblivion, which became Nirn 's sun, itself known as Magnus. [2] [3] [1] [4] Soon after many other et'Ada followed him; they became known as the Magna Ge and left smaller holes in the sky, which became the stars. [OOG 2] One of the many theories explaining the origins of magic is that magicka is what remains of Magnus on the world. [1]

Legacy Edit

In the eras that followed, many Altmer and Bosmer worshipped him as a god, and he became a part of their respective pantheons. [2] The Ayleids. masters of the arcane arts, worshipped him as the god of Sight, Light, and Insight and were known to dedicate temples in his name. [5] The Khajiit worship him as Magrus.

Cyrodiilic legends say he can inhabit the bodies of powerful mages, and lend them his power. He is also associated with Zurin Arctus. the Underking and is sometimes represented by an astrolabe, a telescope, or, more commonly, a staff. [2]

Artifacts Edit

He supposedly created and used the Staff of Magnus, one of the older artifacts of Tamriel. Legend tells that it's the only artifact capable of containing his immense power. [6] In time, the Staff will abandon the mage who wields it before he becomes too powerful and upsets the mystical balance it is sworn to protect. [7]

Another artifact attributed to him is the Eye of Magnus. an ancient relic of immense power that was found buried under the Nordic city of Saarthal in the Merethic Era. [8] [9]

In Cyrodiil there is a magical stone of unknown origin, located southeast of Bravil. It is known as the Magnus Stone by the populace and is said to grant a powerful blessing that bolsters the magical abilities of certain individuals. [10] [11]

References

Notice . The following are out-of-game references. They are not found in any in-game books, but can still be considered part of The Elder Scrolls lore and are included for completeness.

Deities of Tamrielic races

Sarotex Retard, Sarotex

Sarotex Retard

Tricyklisk antidepressivum med angstdempende og sedativ effekt. Depotkapslene er en spesiell formulering av amitriptylin med retardert absorpsjon. Gir jevnere blodkonsentrasjonskurver med eliminering av toppkonsentrasjoner og reduserer derved de doseavhengige bivirkningene. Gir bedre sovn hele natten og hindrer morgendepresjon. Gis i 2 / ? dose av vanlig amitriptylin.

DEPOTKAPSLER 25 mg og 50 mg: Hver kapsel inneh. Amitriptylin. hydrochlorid. aeqv. amitriptylin. 25 mg, resp. 50 mg. Fargestoff: Jernoksider (E 172), titandioksid (E 171).

Individuell. Depresjoner: Voksne: Initialt 25-50 mg 2-4 timer for sengetid. Etter 2-3 dager okes ev. dosen til 50-100 mg i enkelte tilfeller opp til 150 mg 2-4 timer for sengetid. Ved lettere tilfeller, f. eks. depressive neuroser gis laveste dose. Etter inntradt effekt bor dosen reduseres til laveste dose som opprettholder symptomlindringen, vanligvis 25-100 mg om kvelden. Vedlikeholdsterapien bor fortsette 4-6 maneder eller sa lenge som depresjonen erfaringsmessig ville ha vart uten behandling. Eldre: Initialt: 25 mg 2-4 timer for sengetid. Etter 2-3 dager okning til 50 mg 2-4 timer for sengetid, i enkelte tilfeller ytterligere okning til 100 mg. For ovrig som angitt ovenfor. Kroniske smerter: Behandlingen startes vanligvis med Sarotex tabletter 10 mg og okes etter individuelle behov; se dosering for Kroniske smerter i doseringsavsnittet for Sarotex «Lundbeck». I vedlikeholdsbehandlingen kan man fortsette med Sarotex Retard. Vedlikeholdsdosen vil normalt v?re 25-50 mg 2-4 timer for sengetid. Om nodvendig kan dosen okes opp til 75 mg. Tricyklisk antidepressivum. Se Sarotex «Lundbeck».

Forholdsregler, negative reaksjoner og kontraindikasjoner

Cefdinir Medlineplus Drug Information, Kefnir

Cefdinir

Cefdinir is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as bronchitis (infection of the airway tubes leading to the lungs); pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ears, sinuses, throat, and tonsils. Cefdinir is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.

Antibiotics such as cefdinir will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

How should this medicine be used?

Cefdinir comes as a capsule and suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. It is usually taken with or without food every 12 or 24 hours for 5 to 10 days, depending on the condition being treated. Take cefdinir at around the same times every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take cefdinir exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Shake the suspension well before each use to mix the medication evenly.

You should begin to feel better during the first few days of treatment with cefdinir. If your symptoms do not improve or get worse, call your doctor.

Continue to take cefdinir even if you feel better. If you stop taking cefdinir too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

Other uses for this medicine

This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before taking cefdinir,

tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to cefdinir or any other cephalosporin antibiotic such as cefaclor. cefadroxil cefazolin (Ancef, Kefzol), cefditoren (Spectracef), cefepime (Maxipime), cefixime (Suprax), cefotaxime (Claforan), cefotetan, cefoxitin (Mefoxin), cefpodoxime, cefprozil, ceftaroline (Teflaro), ceftazidime (Fortaz, Tazicef, in Avycaz), ceftibuten (Cedax), ceftriaxone (Rocephin), cefuroxime (Zinacef) or cephalexin (Keflex); penicillin antibiotics; or any other medications. Also tell your doctor if you are allergic to any of the ingredients in cefdinir capsules, or suspension. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.

tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention probenecid ( Probalan). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.

if you are taking antacids containing magnesium or aluminum, iron supplements, or multivitamins that contain iron, take them 2 hours before or 2 hours after cefdinir.

tell your doctor if you have or have ever had gastrointestinal disease (GI; affecting the stomach or intestines), especially colitis (condition that causes swelling in the lining of the colon [large intestine]). or kidney disease.

tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking cefdinir, call your doctor.

If you have diabetes, you should know that cefdinir suspension solution contains sucrose (sugar).

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Talk to your doctor about eating foods that have had iron added to them, such as iron fortified breakfast cereal, while taking this medication. However, babies may be fed iron fortified infant formula while they are taking this medication.

Synalotic - Pills Blog, Synalotic

Description

Ciplox is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called fluoroquinolones. It is used to fight bacteria in the body.

Active Ingredient: Ciprofloxacin

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Fasting glucose, for example, can be used to diagnose diabetes, and the presence of liver enzymes in the blood can indicate liver disease. This is not a complete list of possible side effects. A scar that is at an angle to the normal tension lines of the skin. Before using this medication, women of childbearing age should talk with their doctor(s) about the benefits and risks (such as miscarriage).

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It is not a cure for this condition, but it is usually used with other treatments to manage this problem. I recognized that I could die from this. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

However, only a small number of these chemicals have ever been incorporated in human breast cancer studies, partly because there have been no reliable techniques through which to measure exposure. Each year, about 372,000 women aged 65 and older have a heart attack. They only included trials that described adverse events and where the number of patients who discontinued treatment because of adverse events were reported.

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You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345. However, whether the vaccine will be effective against a strain of the virus that can be easily passed from person to person is the great unknown that has kept researchers hard at work. These are usually left in the body after the bone fuses together.

Chewable tablets or liquid products may contain aspartame. Solvents including methylene chloride and other halogenated organic solvents - often found in industrial degreasers, speciality cleaners and spot removers - were found to be other breast cancer-causing chemicals.

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In those cases, the test was able to predict their risk with 90 percent certainty. Do not store in the bathroom. If you become pregnant or think you may be pregnant, tell your doctor immediately. Or, a trained person may use tongs to push the needle back into the container.

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In the great animal protein debate, another series of studies recently suggested that consuming too much protein in middle age is "as bad as smoking" and recommended consuming low protein levels for a long and healthy life.

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This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. When you flex your knee, you may feel a grinding sensation below the kneecap. Though it is very unlikely to occur, this medication can also be habit-forming and may result in abnormal drug-seeking behavior (addiction).

For instance, in 2013, Medical News Today reported that prostate cancer researchers were arguing for more watchful waiting to manage the disease, rather than moving straight to aggressive treatment or surgery. The proposed regulation followed studies assessing the thirdhand smoke risk of e-cigarettes and reports of lung damage linked to e-cigarettes.

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A product that may interact with this drug is: lithium.

Pedro Salinas - Marketing Manager Paediatric - Adult

Pedro Salinas Marketing Manager Paediatric & Adult/Travelers Franchises

Responsible for Paediatric and Adult/Travellers Vaccines Franchises.

With similar functional responsibilitites as described for the Senior Brand & Customer Manager Gardasil & Adult position but for both Paediatric & Adult Franchises.

With special asignment to the strategic aspects of the products in charge.

2 Product Managers (1 per Franchise) + 2 Marketing Assistants on direct report. Reporting to the General Manager of the Company.

Jun 2011 - Jun 2012

Senior Brand & Customer Manager

Design, development and implementation of Gardasil's IPA (Integrated Plan of Action), first vaccine to protect against cervix cancer and other diseases related with the human papilloma virus (HPV), and the rest of the Adult Vaccines Franchise.

Elaboration, planning and implementation of the Gardasil's strategy for each of its customer groups: Decission Makers and Payors (Central & Regional levels), Influencers (KOLs, Scientific Societies & others), Prescriptors (Gynecologists, Paediatricians, Oncologists, General Practitioners, Public Health Specialists, Dermatologists, among others), Advisors (Nurses/Midwives & Pharmacists), Patients (Associations and other groups), Key Accounting (Big Corporations & Companies, Healthcare Insurance Companies, Hospitals, Local Administration), Media (Health & Lay public Media, Internet & Mobile Channels), Partners (in/out the Pharma Industry).

Multichannel coordination of Gardasil activities for each customer group.

Leader & Cooordinator of Gardasil POR (Product Operational Review Group).

Responsible for the Forecast and Promotional Budget of the Adult Vaccines Franchise Sales as well as the Franchise figures for the 5YP and Business Review presentations.

Nov 2011 - Jun 2012

Member of the Ambition 2014 International Group

Gardasil Ambition 2014 is a special group of 10 people from across the SPMSD organization which has - under the direct supervision of the President of the Company - the specific objective of defining global strategies and programs aiming to recover the confidence on HPV vaccination in Europe and achieve Gardasil coming back to sales growth in 2014.

It is a cross-functional supra-national team with only 2 Marketing people, being myself on of them. I was specificly in charge of the HPV vaccination coverage improvement programs and their subsequent roll-out to the subsidiaries.

Oct 2005 - Jun 2011

Marketing Manager Paediatric Vaccines

Marketing responsible for the Paediatric Vaccines Franchise.

With similar functional responsibilitites as described for the Senior Brand & Customer Manager Gardasil & Adult position but for the Paediatric Franchise.

2007 Best Product Galien Prize Winner for RotaTeq.

1 Product Manager under direct report plus 1 Marketing Assistant.

Reporting to the General Manager. Memeber of the Direction Board of the Company in Spain.

Nov 2005 - May 2006

Member of the RotaTeq Task Force International Group

Multi-task international group created on occasion of the RotaTeq (vaccine against rotavirus gastroentheritis in children) launch in Europe.

Under the supervision of the MSD-USA (RotaTeq owner) delegate in SPMSD for the vaccine and coordinated by the SPMSD RotaTeq International Marketing Manager, the RotaTeq Tas Force was integrated as well by the following people: 1 Marcket Access, 1 Supply Chain, 1 Legal, 1 Medical Affairs and 1 Marketing (me, as it happens).

Objectives: Prepare the whole organization in Europe for the RotaTeq launch, align in each country the launch operations in MSD with the SPMSD local launch activities, shape the market in Europe for the new concepts in RV vaccines represented in RotaTeq, catch-up in sales as soon as posible with the GSK's product launched 6 months earlier.

Apr 2004 - Nov 2005

International Product Manager Astellas Pharma - Yamanouchi Pharma

European Marketing Coordinator in the “Umbrella Project”, an international working group for the alignment of the respective Dermatology Business Units in the merging process between Yamanouchi and Fujisawa companies.

The team was led by the European Director of the "Umbrella Project" and coordinated by 2 International Product Managers, 1 by company. I was the one appointed by Yamanouchi.

My specific rol into the team was to prompt and collect ideas from the Derma Product Managers across the Yamanouchi European subsidiaries on how to make topical corticoids and topical immunomodulators - theoretically rivals in the market and coming each of them from a different company - promotionally compatible, to estimate their viability and then to present them to the "Umbrella Project Group" for discussion and eventually submition to the Japanese Merging Board.

Mar 2005 - Oct 2005

Product Group Marketing Manager

Marketing Responsible for the Dermotology, ENT, Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Primary Care (GP & Paeditrics) Therapeutic Areas and Specialities.

Responsible for Protopic, first topic immunimodulator for the the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

Reporting to the General Manager of the Company.

Sep 1998 - Mar 2004

Creation, development, implementation and monitoring of the digital presence for brands and businesses (B2B, B2C and B2B2C): Website building and optimization Search engine optimization (SEO & SEM - PPc campaigns) Content strategy Social Media presence and integration management Affiliation and E-.mail marketing Offline-online aligment and optimization and Omnichannel approach Customer relationship Inbound + outbound tools aligment and optiimization Customer engagement Customer fidelization/retention and advocates building Online identity/personality and sentiment management Mobile marketing management

Experience by product registration status

Ethics/reimbursed products: Lactisona, Vasonase, Protopic, Synalar Rectal, Synalotic and other brands into the Synalar range, Protopic, Neblik, Gelidina, Cutanit, Benoxygel, Isotrex, Isotrex Eritromicina, Eridosis among others. EFP/OTC products: Dastosin, Zineryt, Solucel, Emolitar, Tarmec, Vitanol and others. Cosmetics: Spectroban, Sartol, Dermisona, Physiogel and others. Special status: Vaccines (Gardasil, RotaTeq, Varivax and other 30+ different brands). Hospital use products: Oilatum, Biopsypunch, Curettes and other disposable products.

General Marketing Skills

Customer focused Results driven Business engaged Communication / Influence expert Creativity and Innovation Critical Thinking Excellent Planning, Organization and Execution skills

Clearly communicate strategies, risks and opportunities to all levels of the organization Evangelize brands to internal/external stakeholders Share best practices with marketing colleagues of other countries. Find creative ways to influence and motivate other people

Proactive business direction setting to internal and external stakeholders in a multicultural environment. Cross-functional leadership to deliver business results. Engagement of all internal and external resources necessary to drive strong business results. Excellent interpersonal personal relationship skills to both internal and external parties. Functional leadership – marketing thought leadership towards the market and coaching role to the organization. Inspirational, committed and motivational behaviour across all levels of the organization.

Customer Relationship strategy leading to create early success and achieve long term value. Marketing activity creation around customer-designed processes, customer-driven dynamic channels, customer interaction and engagement. Marketing Strategic Planning built around customer's needs and wants: Customer knowledgement management Segmentation Targeting Objectives definition per target audience Value proposition definition Tactics by audience segment & multichannel approach development Tactics execution and success level measurement

Business Management Leadership

Management of Annual Operating Plans, P&L’s and annual business strategies consistent with fact-based Business Plan building. Profit-maximization approach to Marketing and Brand Management. Brand lifecycle management with solid launch preparedness, strategic competitive grow and profit maximizing consolidation and decline and/or line extension. Quality forecasting of brand revenue, spending and profitability. Plans metric implementation to ensure the correct return of investment measurement and improve the marketing efectiveness. Effective mapping of internal and external stakeholders.

Oct 2012 - Nov 2013

My passion is building strong brands through customer focus, smart product development to tap into needs, and creative content leverage leading to achieve the business objectives.

I like the concept of Marketing Managers being like "swiss army knives", being able to wield a complete set of skills, from traditional strategic thinking and team working to more up-to-date netwotking management and creative flair.

Proactivity, leadership and excellent communication abilities are some of my personal and professional skills.

Other Training & Educational Courses

"Drug Discovery, Development and Commercialization", University of California, San Diego (USA, 2013)

"Competitive Stretegy", Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat (Munchen, Germany, 2013)

"Gamification", University of Pennsylvania (USA, 2013)

"Healthcare Innovation and Entrepreneurship", Duke University (USA, 2013)

"Experto en Marketing Farmaceutico", Instituto de Empresa (Madrid)

"Expert in Project Management", London Business School (Aix-les-Bains, France)

"Experto en Gerencia de Ventas. Gestion de equipos y territorios de ventas. Gestion de porfolio de clientes", Mercuri Internacional (Madrid)

"Brand Leadership Development. Strategic Sessions", Egon Zehnder International (London, UK - part of the "Umbrella Project")

"Pharma Brand Planning Course", C. E.L. for Pharma (Madrid)

"Curso de habilidades directivas y liderazgo. Gestion del cambio y direccion de equipos", IOR Consulting (Madrid

"Empowerment. Executive Skills Development Programme", Andere y Associados/Boston Group (Madrid)

"Direccion por objetivos. Coaching & Counselling", Mercuri International (Madrid)

Interest

Cherry fruits unintentional producer

Real Betis Balompie fanatic

Jazz music inconditional

Solitary jogger (well, in one of my 6 iPods company)

Dennis Lehane's novels avid reader

"Hora de aventuras (Adventure Time)" cartoon intrigued fan (under my children's advice)

MarketingProfs Pro member, HubSpot follower. and EyeForPharma experienced reader, of course

Twitter skilled but Facebook indifferent; Pinterest inconditional (3.000+ pins and growing)

Smurfs Village game (undeclared) addict (against my wife's advice)

Golf failure (sigh!)

and a lot of other things for which life is worth living.

Events Management: Tipico III (Workshop in Pediatric Vaccines)

Events are an important part in brand promotion. More than 6 "physical" events were regularly scheduled and carried out all over the year adressing different subjects around paeditric vaccines promotion, all of them fully owned by SPMSD. In this case, a leaflet of the Tipico III Workshop is presented here as a good example of how Health Authorities/Decission Makers (Conselleiria de Sanidade Xunta de Galicia), Local Public and Academic Authorities (City Council of Santiago de Compostela, University of S de C), Scientific Societies (Spanish Association of Paediatricians and others), top level KOLs and other groups of interest can be put together for a common purpose: to promote the need for children's vaccination. More than 150 top-potencial doctors form all over the country was annually gathered in Santiago to have the unique experience of listening in person to internacionally recognized speakers as USA CDC's Dr. Umed Parashar or vaccines guru Dr. Timo Vesikari from Finland.

Scientific Societies involvement: RV Consensus Document

A Consensus Document is one of the best ways to involve the Scientific Societies into the development of a new markets and the spreading of a disease awareness across their members. It undoubtedly was one of the reasons for the RotaTeq rapid physicians uptake. A draft of the document was ellaborated by a Panel of 10 Experts from differents subjects on the rotavirus field, submitted to the Scientific Societies and endorsed by 9 of them, most of them integrated into the AEP (Spanish Society of Paeditricians).

Internal engaggement: RotaTeq Launch Meeting

I have been responsible for the launch of a good handful of products all over my career in Pharma, so I have personally conducted their respective internal launch meetings. The one presented here - RotaTeq Launch Meeting - has undoubtedly been the most special one to date because of the high level of internal envolvement and commitment with the product strategy which led to the RotaTeq success story.

Gardasil 2012 MKT Plan

Gardasil 2012 Marketing Plan (only the Plan's structure, no data inlcuded)

Large clinical studies: Rotascore #1: Burden in families

Rotascore was the 1st and largest study in Spain about the burden and consequences of rotavirus disease, involving 31 study centres and 3500+ children all aorund the country. The document displayed is the pdf #1 of three posters extracted from the study resaults (#2 Indirect costs of RV disease, #3 Health resources on RV disease). The final paper was published in 2009.

Helping doctors educate parents

Another one of the elements of the "RV Winter Campaign". In thi case, a leaflet to help doctors communicate to parents about the most relevant topics on RV vaccination.

DTC Campaigns: RV disease awareness campaign to parents

This campaign, in cooperation with the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (AEP), was aimed to help parents to make decissions in relation to rotavirus vaccination. It was carried out for 7 consecutive years with different elements and different layout for each of the yeasr. It was generically called "Rotavirus Winter Campaign" and is still "alive".

Rotavirus disease awareness kit for Pharmacists

Pharmacists play a substantial rol in parents' (patient) buyer behaviour and final brand election in relation to vaccines and OTC products even though they come with a doctor prescription. This is part of a campaign with the aim to increase disease awareness and brand recognition amid pharmacists.

OTC products: Acne treatment for Pharmacists

Beside usual prescribers (Dermatologists), Pharmacists engagement are crucial for OTC products, acne treatment products in this case. This is the title slide of a presentation to pharmacists personally ellaborated and carried out on the acne treatment topic.

2007 Galien Prize Winner for RotaTeq

KOLs Engagement: Opinion Leadership Training Course

KOLs engagement is a must in current pharma marketing either for market building/development, or therapy advocacy or disease awareness leveraging purposes. The training course presented here was part of a more comprehensive plan adressing the 10 most influencial leaders in the pediatric vaccines field in Spain and had the specific objective of training them in adquiring communication skills to the community about health public matters throughout a variety of channels (TV, radio, the Internet, papers, etc.).

Integrated Plan of Action for Gardasil 2013 (First Draft).

Educational Programs: Virtual Vaccination Center

Online based application meant to help doctors make the rigth decissions around vaccines and solve the problems arisen from practices' daily routine.

Multichannel approach: Espacio RotaTeq

1st portal in Spanish fully devoted to the spread of paediatric vaccines awareness under a scientific point of view. It adresses both internal and external clients with a differentiated access way for each of them. In relation to internal clients, the portal is built for training and scientifical support of every stakeholders into the Company, with special relevance for the Sales Force Team. As for the external clients, the portal provides HCPs with news, scientifical support an continuing training opportunities around paediatric vaccines.

Synalotic diseases

Product description

Safety information

Side effects

Ciplox is used to treat different types of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure.

Take Cipro exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

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When taking the Cipro oral liquid, swallow it without chewing the medicine beads you may notice in the liquid.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Do not take Cipro with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. You may eat or drink these products as part of a regular meal, but do not use them alone when taking Cipro. They could make the medication less effective.

Take Cipro for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Cipro will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store Cipro at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

If you missed a dose - take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Take exactly as prescribed by your Health Provider.

Store this medicine at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

You should not use Ciplox if you are taking tizanidine (Zanaflex), if you have a history of myasthenia gravis, or if you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar antibiotics such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

Before taking Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have a heart rhythm disorder, kidney or liver disease, joint problems, diabetes, muscle weakness or trouble breathing, a condition called pseudotumor cerebri, a history of seizures, a history of head injury or brain tumor, low levels of potassium in your blood, a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome, or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic.

Do not take Ciplox with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. Avoid taking antacids, vitamin or mineral supplements, sucralfate (Carafate), or didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets within 6 hours before or 2 hours after you take Ciplox. Ciprofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions.

You should NOT take Ciplox if:

you are also taking tizanidine (Zanaflex);

you have a history of myasthenia gravis; or

you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar medications such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin (Floxin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

To make sure you can safely take Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

heart rhythm disorder, especially if you take quinidine (Quin-G), disopyramide (Norpace), bretylium (Bretylol), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan SR), amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), or sotalol (Betapace);

a history of head injury or brain tumor;

a condition called pseudotumor cerebri (high pressure inside the skull that may cause headaches, vision loss, or other symptoms);

a history of allergic reaction to an antibiotic;

joint problems;

kidney or liver disease;

epilepsy or seizures;

diabetes;

muscle weakness or trouble breathing;

low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia); or

a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Ciplox will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using it. Ciprofloxacin passes into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Ciplox may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. These effects may be more likely to occur if you are over 60, if you take steroid medication, or if you have had a kidney, heart, or lung transplant. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions. Do not share Ciplox with another person (especially a child), even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Ciplox: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;

sudden pain, snapping or popping sound, bruising, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or loss of movement in any of your joints;

diarrhea that is watery or bloody;

confusion, hallucinations, depression, unusual thoughts or behavior;

seizure (convulsions);

severe headache, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes;

pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, fever, weakness;

urinating less than usual or not at all;

easy bruising or bleeding;

numbness, tingling, or unusual pain anywhere in your body;

the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild; or

severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects:

nausea, vomiting;

dizziness or drowsiness;

blurred vision;

feeling nervous, anxious, or agitated; or

sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

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Ciplox (Synalotic) Delivery

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What Is Tizen, Tizem

This year, Samsung will sell (at least) two phones and a watch that don't run Android. Instead, they'll run something called Tizen. That's a major departure for such an important player in the smartphone game. But what is Tizen? And will you actually want to use it?

Tizen is a new(ish) operating system.

Tizen is a Linux-based open-source operating system (kind of like Android!) that wants to be the brains of every gadget you own. It's existed since 2012, but is finally starting to show up on actual gadgets you can buy.

. that works pretty much like Android.

Tizen isn't trying to reinvent smartphones from the bottom up. Like Android—or more specifically the Android Open Source Project (ASOP)—it's born out of good old fashioned Linux. On the surface, it even looks just like the kind of phone software you're used to. Especially if you've used a Samsung phone with TouchWiz. Even better, Tizen is supposed to have great battery life.

Just like Android (and every other mobile OS) it gets things done with apps. Instead of trying to get people to make new apps (like Microsoft does with Windows Phone), Tizen relies mostly HTML5 web apps. It has a few native defaults like calculators and alarms, but most of Tizen's optional apps will be web-based. That means that it's easy to make something work on Tizen and everywhere else at the same time. The downside? HTML5 apps aren't known for being too snappy.

. is backed by Samsung and Intel.

The reason Tizen looks so much like Android is because it's trying to steal Android users away. Tizen's two biggest backers are Samsung—which makes crazy money selling Android devices, but would love the freedom of being able to cut Google out of the loop—and Intel, whose chips are great at running things like full Windows, but not so much at Android.

It's an escape plan in case Samsung's relationship with Google ever gets too contentious, and potentially yet another operating system to choose from in an increasingly crowded field.

. runs on phones and wearables and pretty much anything.

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Rivamer Side Effects, Price, Pharmacology - Alternatives, Rivamer

RIVAMER

Package Capsule Qty/Strength/Unit 1.5 mg Price

Possible Side Effects of RIVAMER

Accidental trauma

Agitation

Anorexia

Asthenia

Confusion

Diarrhoea

Dizziness

Fatigue

Frequent urination

Gastrointestinal haemorrhage

Headache

Increased sweating

Insomnia

Nausea

Syncope

Urinary tract infection

Vomiting

Home Delivery for RIVAMER in Your City

Medicine India is just a publishing medium for medicine related information and does not provide services or sales of medicines including rivamer.

However, we do publish a comprehensive directory of Pharmacies, Chemists and Druggists in cities all over India. You can use this directory to find the medicine stores in your city (or area) that provide home delivery services for rivamer and other medicines and health products. Home delivery services for rivamer may be free or they may cost you depending on the pharmacy and the minimum order requirements. It would be best to get this clarified while placing the order.

Please be aware that you should take rivamer only if a doctor has recommended or prescribed it. Some or all pharmacies who provide a home delivery service for medicines might insist on a prescription for rivamer before they complete the sale. You can get this information while placing the order for rivamer with the pharmacy.

If the pharmacy that's willing to deliver medicines to your home doesn't have rivamer in stock, you can ask for one of the alternative medicines for rivamer. Alternatively, you can ask the pharmacist to recommend good options for the Rivastigmine generic medicine (which is what rivamer essentially is).

Recently Added Pharmacies

Important Links:

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare-Government of India Department of Health Research (DHR), Government of India Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM) Medicine Information Centre

Monoflocet, Monoflocet

Ofloxacin

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Buy Emixef (Cefixime) Without Prescription - Antibiotics, Sekispanon

Cefixime is used for treating attacks caused by certain bacterias. Cefixime can be a cephalosporin antibiotic. It functions by killing sensitive bacterias.

Make use of Cefixime as directed by your physician.

Take Cefixime orally with or without meals. If abdomen upset occurs, consider with food to lessen stomach irritation.

To get rid of your infection totally, continue using Cefixime for the entire program of treatment even though you feel much better in just a few days.

If you miss a dosage of Cefixime, take it as quickly as possible. If its almost time for the next dose, miss the missed dosage and get back to your regular dosing plan. Usually do not take 2 dosages at once.

Question your medical provider any questions you might have about how to make use of Cefixime.

Store Cefixime at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Cefixime out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Cefixime if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cefixime or even to other cephalosporins (eg, cephalexin)

you will be having a live typhoid vaccine.

Contact your physician or doctor right away if these connect with you.

Some medical ailments may connect to Cefixime. Tell your physician or pharmacist when you have any medical conditions, particularly if the following connect with you:

if you are pregnant, likely to get pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or non-prescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you possess allergies to medicines, foods, or other chemicals

if you experienced a severe allergic attack (eg, severe rash, hives, difficulty breathing, dizziness) to a penicillin (eg, amoxicillin) or beta-lactam antibiotic (eg, imipenem)

if you possess diarrhea, abdomen or bowel complications (eg, inflammation), bleeding or blood clotting complications, liver complications, or poor nourishment

if you have a brief history of kidney complications or you are on dialysis treatment.

Some medicines may connect to Cefixime. Tell your physician or pharmacist when you have any medical conditions, particularly if the following connect with you:

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or carbamazepine as the risk of their unwanted effects could be increased by Cefixime

Live typhoid vaccines because their effectiveness could be reduced by Cefixime.

Ask your medical provider if Cefixime might interact with other drugs that you take. Consult with your health treatment provider before you begin, stop, or modification the dosage of any medication.

Essential safety information:

Cefixime could cause dizziness. This impact may be worse invest the it with alcoholic beverages or certain medicines. Make use of Cefixime with caution. Usually do not travel or perform other feasible unsafe jobs until you understand how you respond to it.

Do not change dosage forms (eg, tablets, suspension) of Cefixime without speaking together with your doctor.

Mild diarrhea is normal with antibiotic use. Nevertheless, a more serious type of diarrhea (pseudomembranous colitis) may rarely occur. This might develop while you utilize the antibiotic or within almost a year after you stop deploying it. Get in touch with your doctor immediately if stomach discomfort or cramps, serious diarrhea, or bloody stools happen. Do not deal with diarrhea without 1st checking together with your doctor.

Cefixime only functions against bacteria; it generally does not deal with viral infections (eg, the normal cold).

End up being sure to make use of Cefixime for the entire program of treatment. If you dont, the medicine might not get rid of your infection totally. The bacteria may possibly also become less delicate to the or other medications. This may make the disease harder to treat later on.

Long-term or repeated usage of Cefixime may trigger another infection. Tell your physician if signs of another infection occur. Your medication might need to be transformed to take care of this.

Cefixime may decrease the amount of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream. Avoid activities that could cause bruising or damage. Tell your physician if you have uncommon bruising or bleeding. Inform your physician when you have dark, tarry, or bloody stools.

Do not get a live typhoid vaccine when you are acquiring Cefixime. It could not are well. Chat with your doctor in case you are scheduled to get a live typhoid vaccine.

Diabetes individuals - Cefixime could cause the outcomes of some recent tests for urine glucose or urine ketones to end up being wrong. Ask your physician before you modification your daily diet or the dosage of your diabetes medication.

Cefixime may hinder certain lab testing. Be sure your physician and lab staff know you are employing Cefixime.

Cefixime should be used in combination with extreme care in children younger six months; safety and performance in these children havent been confirmed.

Being pregnant and breast-feeding: In the event that you become pregnant, get in touch with your doctor. You will have to discuss the huge benefits and dangers of using Cefixime when you are pregnant. It isnt known if Cefixime is situated in breast milk. In case you are or will become breast-feeding when you use Cefixime, consult with your doctor or pharmacist. Discuss any feasible risks to your child.

All medicines may cause unwanted effects, but many folks have no, or small, side effects.

Check together with your doctor if these most common unwanted effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; gas; loose stools; nausea; stomach discomfort or upset.

Seek medical attention immediately if these severe unwanted effects occur:

Severe allergies (rash; hives; itching; problems breathing; tightness in the upper body; swelling of the mouth area, encounter, lips, or tongue; uncommon hoarseness); bloody stools; reduced urination; fever, chills, or sore throat; reddish colored, swollen, blistered, or peeling pores and skin; seizures; severe diarrhea; serious nausea / vomiting; severe stomach discomfort or cramping; uncommon bruising or bleeding; vaginal discharge or itching; white places in the mouth area; yellowing of your skin or eyes.

This isnt a complete set of all side effects that could occur. When you have queries about unwanted effects, contact your medical provider.

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Hydra-Zide Side Effects In Detail, Hydra-Zide

Hydra-Zide Side Effects

Note: This page contains information about the side effects of hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide. Some of the dosage forms included on this document may not apply to the brand name Hydra-Zide.

For the Consumer

Applies to hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide: oral capsule, oral tablet

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

Severity: Moderate

If any of the following side effects occur while taking hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide, check with your doctor or nurse as soon as possible:

Signs and symptoms of too much potassium loss

Dryness of mouth

increased thirst

irregular heartbeats

mood or mental changes

muscle cramps or pain

weak pulse

Signs and symptoms of too much sodium loss

Confusion

convulsions

decreased mental activity

irritability

muscle cramps

unusual tiredness or weakness

Less common:

Blisters on skin

chest pain

general feeling of discomfort or illness or weakness

joint pain

numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in hands or feet

skin rash or itching

sore throat and fever

swelling of the lymph glands

Rare

Lower back or side pain

severe stomach pain with nausea and vomiting

unusual bleeding or bruising

yellow eyes or skin

Minor Side Effects

Some of the side effects that can occur with hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common:

Diarrhea

fast or irregular heartbeat

headache

loss of appetite

nausea or vomiting

Less common:

Constipation

decreased sexual ability

dizziness or lightheadedness, especially when getting up from a lying or sitting position

increased sensitivity of skin to sunlight

redness or flushing of face

shortness of breath with exercise or work

stuffy nose

watering or irritated eyes

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide: oral capsule

Immunologic

Immunologic side effects including development of a lupus-like syndrome have been reported. This syndrome is more likely in patients who receive 400 mg or more of hydralazine per day, in female patients, or in patients who are slow acetylators. Of patients who receive less than 200 mg of hydralazine per day, 40% develop a positive ANA titer, and up to 6% develop a lupus-like syndrome. Of patients who receive 400 mg or more per day, 50% develop a positive ANA titer, and up to 14% develop a lupus-like syndrome.

The lupus syndrome may present as arthralgia (most common), myalgia, lethargy, malaise, a typical erythematous rash, weight loss, or dyspnea. The lupus syndrome may also be found incidentally in asymptomatic patients by urinalysis (proteinuria, hematuria), blood chemistry (elevated ESR, antinuclear antibody), or chest X-ray (interstitial lung disease, rare). Hypocomplementemia is an extremely rare finding in hydralazine-induced lupus.

Alternative therapy is recommended for patients who develop the clinical appearance of a lupus syndrome, sustained rises in the antinuclear antibody titer, or the presence of LE cells. The syndrome is reversible, but may take months to years to resolve. [Ref ]

Because up to 20% of patients who receive 400 mg or more of hydralazine per day develop a systemic lupus erythematosus syndrome, some experts recommend checking a patient's acetylator status before giving higher doses. Up to 70% of "resistant" patients are fast acetylators, in whom the dose can be relatively safely increased.

Data suggest that hydralazine lupus may represent a unique hypersensitivity reaction in which antibodies to native DNA occur. These antibodies are believed to account for the clinical similarities between hydralazine-induced lupus and systemic lupus erythematosus. [Ref ]

Cardiovascular

Provocation of ischemia in patients with compromised left ventricular systolic function may be due to the inability of hydralazine to decrease preload, or left ventricular filling pressures.

The mechanism of increased pulmonary hypertension in patients with PH or COPD is a decrease of systemic vascular resistance accompanied by an increase in cardiac output without a fall in the pulmonary vascular resistance. In case reports and small series of patients with PH or COPD, the use of hydralazine resulted in palpitations, chest tightness, unchanged pulmonary vascular resistance, increased pulmonary artery pressure, decreased systemic vascular resistance, and increased heart rate and cardiac output. For this reason, many experts recommend hemodynamic monitoring during hydralazine therapy if hydralazine must be used in such patients. [Ref ]

Cardiovascular side effects are related to hydralazine-induced peripheral vasodilation and HCTZ-induced decreased intravascular volume. Orthostatic hypotension, with or without reflex tachycardia, may occur resulting in syncope. This may be more likely in the elderly. Palpitations, flushing, edema, or chest pain are reported in less than 5% of patients. The use of hydralazine in patients with severe chronic heart failure is associated with ischemia, including episodes of myocardial infarction.

In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hydralazine may increase pulmonary artery hypertension, especially during periods of hypoxia. The use of hydralazine in these patients may, on rare occasions, result in profound hypotension, tachycardia, and even death.

Rare cases of bradycardia or cardiac tamponade (associated with hydralazine-induced lupus) have been reported. Hydralazine does not have a deleterious effect on the lipid profile. In fact, hydralazine has been shown to decrease total and LDL cholesterol. [Ref ]

Metabolic

Caution should be used in patients with hypercholesterolemia since HCTZ may increase total serum cholesterol by 11%, LDL lipoprotein cholesterol by 12%, and VLDL lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 50%.

Caution should also be used in diabetic patients since HCTZ may also reduce insulin secretion.

Hyperuricemia may be an important consideration in patients with a history of gout. Hypophosphatemia and low serum magnesium concentrations may occur but are usually clinically insignificant, except in malnourished patients. [Ref ]

Metabolic side effects are common, especially when doses greater than 50 mg per day of HCTZ are used. Mild hypokalemia (decrease of 0.5 mEq/L) occurs in up to 50% of patients, and may predispose some patients to significant cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular ectopy and complete AV heart block. Metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, and elevated serum uric acid levels are also relatively common. HCTZ may increase serum cholesterol. [Ref ]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects including peripheral neuropathy have been reported. Peripheral neuropathy is related to the dose hydralazine used and is more common in slow acetylators. The neuropathy usually first presents as paresthesias, numbness, and tingling in the extremities. Neuropathy is probably the result of pyridoxine deficiency, perhaps because the formation of a pyridoxal-hydralazine complex inactivates the coenzyme. This neuropathy can be treated by administration of pyridoxine. Headache or dizziness are reported in approximately 5% of patients. Rare cases of cerebrovascular insufficiency have been associated with HCTZ-induced plasma volume contraction. [Ref ]

A 61-year-old man with hypertension developed ataxia, numbness, and lower extremity weakness approximately six months after beginning hydralazine (up to 300 mg per day) and reserpine therapy. The neuropathy partially resolved after reduction of the hydralazine dosage to 60 mg daily. A complete evaluation revealed that this man was a slow acetylator of hydralazine. [Ref ]

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity reactions are rarely associated with either drug. Anaphylaxis associated with HCTZ has been reported. Syndromes consisting of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash, occur in less than 1% of patients. Rare cases of hepatitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and occupational asthma associated with hydralazine have been reported. Rare cases of acute pulmonary edema, interstitial cystitis, and interstitial nephritis associated with HCTZ have been reported. [Ref ]

A 44-year-old woman with hypertension and acute sinusitis developed acute renal failure, edema, and a generalized maculopapular erythematous rash during therapy with ampicillin, hydralazine, and HCTZ. A complete evaluation revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureters secondary to ureteral obstruction due to retroperitoneal fibrosis. Renal function returned to baseline after oral prednisone therapy. It is unclear whether this problem was due to one or more of her medications.

A 68-year-old man with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) developed dyspnea, chest tightness, a low grade fever, dizziness, sweating, vomiting associated with cyanosis, a mild leukocytosis, radiographic evidence of pulmonary edema, clinical evidence of hypovolemia, and respiratory acidosis. MI and infection were ruled out. The patient recovered after restoration of his intravascular volume with saline and albumin. The only precipitating factor per history was the ingestion of HCTZ, which the patient had taken without incident for two years. Rechallenge resulted in recurrent acute pulmonary edema. Other signs of hypersensitivity, such as rash and eosinophilia, were absent. [Ref ]

Hematologic

A 71-year-old man with hypertension developed anorexia, weight loss, petechia, and microcytic anemia during therapy with hydralazine and oxprenolol. Evaluation for iron deficiency, hemolysis, or marrow depression was negative. The patient was found to have fecal blood loss, anti-DNA antibodies, decreased complement levels, a normal upper GI series, and biopsy-proven vasculitis. The syndrome resolved within two weeks after discontinuation of hydralazine.

There are rare case reports of HCTZ-induced immune hemolytic anemia. The following illustrates a fatal case:

A 53-year-old man with hypertension developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and progressive anorexia and weakness associated with scleral icterus, anemia with spherocytosis, dark red urine with proteinuria, bilirubinuria, and hemoglobinuria, and elevated lactic dehydrogenase levels 18 months after beginning HCTZ and methyldopa. Haptoglobin was less than 50 mg per dl. Direct and indirect Coombs tests were positive. The patient died suddenly; autopsy revealed no obvious cause of death, left ventricular hypertrophy, and mild coronary atherosclerosis. [Ref ]

Hematologic abnormalities are associated with the hydralazine-induced lupus-like syndrome. Anemia may be caused by one of at least four hydralazine-associated problems including hemolysis, the formation of a circulating anticoagulant, thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis. Rare cases of leukopenia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and thrombocytopenia have been associated with either drug. [Ref ]

Dermatologic

Dermatologic manifestations of the hydralazine-induced lupus-like syndrome include cutaneous vasculitis. In addition, a rare, distinct entity with clinical and laboratory features indistinguishable from those of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus has been associated with HCTZ. Two cases of Sweet's syndrome (neutrophilic dermatosis) have been associated with hydralazine. Erythema annular centrifugum, acute eczematous dermatitis, morbilliform and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and phototoxic dermatitis have been associated with HCTZ. [Ref ]

A 65-year-old man with ischemic cardiomyopathy developed a pruritic, erythematous, generalized rash within two months after beginning hydralazine (200 mg per day) therapy. There were no clinical or laboratory signs of lupus. The rash persisted upon gradual withdrawal of the patient's other medications, but cleared only after discontinuation of hydralazine. Rechallenge resulted in a recurrent pruritic rash.

A 67-year-old white woman with hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia, depression, and hypertension developed facial erythema, headaches, tremors, confusion, and personality changes associated with a new positive ANA and anti-nRNP, and skin biopsy consistent with lupus erythematosus while taking HCTZ, levothyroxine, and amitriptyline. The eruption resolved upon discontinuation of HCTZ, but she later developed a higher ANA titer associated with symptomatic diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids. [Ref ]

Renal

Renal side effects are common in idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus; however, immune complex glomerulonephritis is rare in drug-induced lupus. Rare cases of rapidly progressive and focal glomerulonephritis associated with the hydralazine-induced lupus syndrome are often accompanied by anemia, a positive anti-DNA antibody titer, and a positive ANA titer. New or worsened renal insufficiency may occur due to HCTZ-induced intravascular volume depletion. Rare cases of interstitial nephritis have been reported. [Ref ]

In one study, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) was described in 4 of 444 patients, all of whom were men who were treated for 5 to 11 years with daily hydralazine doses of 100 to 250 mg. In three of the four cases, biopsy revealed a focal and segmental glomerular necrosis with crescents and positive immunofluorescence. The antinuclear antibody titer became positive in three. Renal function improved in all but one after the withdrawal of hydralazine and institution of corticosteroid therapy. A number of other cases of RPGN are reported. It appears to be far more common in patients who are slow acetylators.

Although HCTZ has been used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a case report in which the drug was believed to have caused this condition has been reported. [Ref ]

Respiratory

Respiratory side effects include nasal stuffiness, seen in approximately 3% of patients who are taking hydralazine. There are approximately 30 case reports of acute noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with HCTZ and rare cases of "hydralazine lung," associated with hydralazine-induced lupus. [Ref ]

A 48-year-old woman with hypertension developed dyspnea, hemoptysis, pleurisy, proteinuria, and hematuria one year after beginning hydralazine (150 mg per day), polythiazide, and atenolol therapy. Other associated findings included an elevated ESR, antinuclear factor, anti-DNA titer, a positive LE test, and radiographic findings of diffuse interstitial lung disease. Two weeks after stopping hydralazine, the signs and symptoms of lupus with pulmonary involvement disappeared. [Ref ]

Endocrine

A prospective study of 34 patients who received oral thiazide diuretics for 14 years without interruption revealed an increased mean fasting blood glucose level after treatment. Withdrawal of thiazide therapy for seven months in 10 of the patients resulted in average reductions of 10% in fasting blood glucose and 25% in the 2-hour glucose tolerance test value. A control group was not reported. [Ref ]

Endocrinologic problems associated with thiazide diuretics include glucose intolerance and a potentially deleterious effect on the lipid profile. This may be important in some patients with or who are at risk for diabetes or coronary artery disease. [Ref ]

Gastrointestinal

Gastrointestinal side effects are unusual, and include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There are rare cases of pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis associated with HCTZ. [Ref ]

Thiazide diuretics may increase serum cholesterol and triglycerides, resulting in increased risk of cholesterol gallstone formation. Reports of bowel strictures associated with thiazide ingestion have been reported in the 1960's, although these patients were on a combination HCTZ-potassium product. [Ref ]

Genitourinary

At least two cases of male impotence associated with hydralazine have been reported. The mechanism is unclear. There was no evidence of a neuropathy in either case. [Ref ]

Genitourinary side effects including Impotence is a rare complaint among male patients taking hydralazine. [Ref ]

Hepatic

A 59-year-old woman with hypertension and cholecystic gallbladder disease developed abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, painful hepatomegaly, elevated serum transaminases, direct hyperbilirubinemia, and liver biopsy findings of subacute hepatitis (with bridging necrosis) within two days after hydralazine was added to her medical regimen. The signs and symptoms of hepatitis resolved after all medications were withheld, but returned upon rechallenge with hydralazine. [Ref ]

Hepatic reactions are rare. Less than ten cases of hepatitis are associated with hydralazine, many of which are believed to be due to hypersensitivity. Histological findings include hepatocellular, cholestatic, mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic, and granulomatous patterns. [Ref ]

References

1. Hahn BH, Sharp GC, Irvin WS, et al "Immune responses to hydralazine and nuclear antigens in hydralazine-induced lupus erythematosus." Ann Intern Med 76 (1972): 365-74

2. Bjorck S, Svalander C, Westberg G "Hydralazine-associated glomerulonephritis." Acta Med Scand 218 (1985): 261-9

3. Lunde PK, Frislid K, Hansteen V "Disease and acetylation polymorphism." Clin Pharmacokinet 2 (1977): 182-97

4. Ramsey-Goldman R, Franz T, Solano FX, Medsger TA "Hydralazine induced lupus and sweet's syndrome: report and review of the literature." J Rheumatol 17 (1990): 682-4

5. Koch-Weser J "Hydralazine." N Engl J Med 295 (1976): 320-3

6. Ihle BU, Whitworth JA, Dowling JP, Kincaid-Smith P "Hydralazine and lupus nephritis." Clin Nephrol 22 (1984): 230-8

7. Beck ML, Cline JF, Hardman JT, Racela LS, Davis JW "Fatal intravascular immune hemolysis induced by hydrochlorothiazide." Am J Clin Pathol 81 (1984): 791-4

8. Fleming MG, Bergfeld WF, Tomecki KJ, et al "Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus." Int J Dermatol 28 (1989): 321-6

9. Shirey RS, Bartholomew J, Bell W, Pollack B, Kickler TS, Ness PM "Characterization of antibody and selection of alternative drug therapy in hydrochlorothiazide-induced immune hemolytic anemia." Transfusion 28 (1988): 70-2

10. Cameron HA, Ramsay LE "The lupus syndrome induced by hydralazine: a common complication with low dose treatment." Br Med J 289 (1984): 410-12

11. Brooks AP, Paulley JW "Cutaneous manifestations of hydrallazine toxicity." Br Med J 02/16/80 (1980): 482

12. Blumenkrantz N, Christiansen AH, Ullman S, Asboe-Hansen G "Hydralazine-induced lupoid syndrome." Acta Med Scand 195 (1974): 443-9

13. Shapiro KS, Pinn VW, Harrington JT, Levey AS "Immune complex glomerulonephritis in hydralazine-induced SLE." Am J Kidney Dis 3 (1984): 270-4

14. Bjornberg A, Gisslen H "Thiazides: A cause of necrotising vasculitis?" Lancet 2 (1965): 982-3

15. Freestone S, Ramsay LE "Transient monoclonal gammopathy in hydralazine-induced lupus erythematosus." Br Med J 285 (1982): 1536-7

16. Sequeira W, Polisky RB, Alrenga DP "Neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's Syndrome)." Am J Med 81 (1986): 558-60

17. Darwaza A, Lamey P-J, Connell JM "Hydrallazine-induced Sjogren's syndrome." Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 17 (1988): 92-3

18. Widgren B, Berglund G, Andersson OK "Side-effects in long-term treatment with hydralazine." Acta Med Scand 714 (1986): 193-6

19. Perry HM "Late toxicity to hydralazine resembling systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis." Am J Med 54 (1973): 58-72

20. Bernstein RM, Egerton-Vernon J, Webster J "Hydrallazine-induced cutaneous vasculitis." Br Med J 280 (1980): 156-7

21. Carey RM, Coleman M, Feder A "Pericardial tamponade: a major presenting manifestation of hydralazine-induced lupus syndrome." Am J Med 54 (1973): 84-7

22. Ludmerer KM, Kissane JM "Clinopathologic conference: renal failure, dyspnea and anemia in a 57 year old woman." Am J Med 71 (1981): 876-86

23. Sturman SG, Kumararatne D, Beevers DG "Fatal hydralazine-induced systemic lupus erythematosus." Lancet 12/03/88 (1988): 1304

24. Peacock A, Weatherall D "Hydralazine-induced necrotising vasculitis." Br Med J 282 (1981): 1121-2

25. Cush JJ, Goldings EA "Southwestern internal medicine conference: drug-induced lupus: clinical spectrum and pathogenesis." Am J Med Sci 290 (1985): 36-45

26. Finlay AY, Statham B, Knight AG "Hydrallazine-induced necrotising vasculitis." Br Med J 282 (1981): 1703-4

27. Innes A, Rennie JA, Cato GR "Drug-induced lupus caused by very-low-dose hydralazine." Br J Rheumatol 25 (1986): 225-31

28. Kincaid-Smith P, Whitworth JA "Hydralazine-associated glomerulonephritis." Lancet 2 (1983): 348

29. Timbrell JA, Facchini V, Harland SJ, Mansilla-Tinoco R "Hydralazine-induced lupus: is there a toxic metabolic pathway?" Eur J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1984): 555-9

30. Weinstein J "Hypocomplementemia in hydralazine-associated systemic lupus erythematosus." Am J Med 65 (1978): 553-6

31. Reed BR, Huff JC, Jones SK, Orton PW, Lee LA, Norris DA "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Ann Intern Med 103 (1985): 49-51

32. Bass BH "Hydralazine lung." Thorax 36 (1981): 695-6

33. Naparstek Y, Kopolovic J, Tur-Kaspa R, Rubinger D "Focal glumerulonephritis in the course of hydralazine-induced lupus syndrome." Arthritis Rheum 27 (1984): 822-5

34. Krishna GG, Narins RG "Hemodynamic consequences of diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 329-31

35. Danielson M, Kjellberg J, Ohman P, Wernersson B "Evaluation of once daily hydralazine in inadequately controlled hypertension." Acta Med Scand 214 (1983): 373-80

36. Miller AJ, Abrams DL, Kaplan BM "Persistent reversal of severe systemic hypertension after prolonged toxic reaction to hydralazine." Cardiology 60 (1975): 251-6

37. Mahabir RN, Laufer ST "Clinical evaluation of diuretics in congestive heart failure. A detailed study in four patients." Arch Intern Med 124 (1969): 1-7

38. Hammond TG, Mosesson MW "Fatal small-bowel necrosis and pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease." Arch Intern Med 149 (1989): 447-8

39. Wehner RJ, Romanauskas VS "An adverse reaction with hydralazine: a case study." AANA J June (1981): 274-5

40. Packer M, Greenberg B, Massie B, Dash H "Deleterious effects of hydralazine in patients with pulmonary hypertension." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 1326-31

41. Hollifield JW, Slaton PE "Thiazide diuretics, hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias." Acta Med Scand Suppl 647 (1981): 67-73

42. Lodeiro JG, Feinstein SJ, Lodeiro SB "Fetal premature atrial contractions associated with hydralazine." Am J Obstet Gynecol 160 (1989): 105-7

43. Holland OB, Kuhnert L, Pollard J, Padia M, Anderson RJ, Blomqvist G "Ventricular ectopic activity with diuretic therapy." Am J Hypertens 1 (1988): 380-5

44. Grunwald MH, Halevy S, Livni E "Allergic vasculitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide: confirmation by mast cell degranulation test." Isr J Med Sci 25 (1989): 572-4

45. Williams LL, Lopez LM, Thorman AD, et al "Plasma lipid profiles and antihypertensive agents: effects of lisinopril, enalapril, nitrendipine, hydralazine, and hydrochlorothiazide." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 22 (1988): 546-50

46. Mouallem M, Friedman E, Shemesh Y, Mayan H, Pauzner R, Farfel Z "Cardiac conduction defects associated with hyponatremia." Clin Cardiol 14 (1991): 165-8

47. Fagan TC, Sternleib C, Vlachakis N, et al "Efficacy and safety comparison of nitrendipine and hydralazine as antihypertensive monotherapy." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6 (1984): s1109-13

48. Packer M, Meller J, Medina N, et al "Provocation of myocardial ischemic events during initiation of vasodilator therapy for severe chronic heart failure." Am J Cardiol 48 (1981): 939-46

49. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73

50. Tuxen DV, Powles AC, Mathur PN, et al "Detrimental effects of hydralazine in patients with chronic air-flow obstruction and pulmonary hypertension." Am Rev Respir Dis 129 (1984): 388-95

51. Kronzon I, Cohen M, Winer HE "Adverse effect of hydralazine in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension." JAMA 247 (1982): 3112-4

52. Ragnarsson J, Hardarson T, Snorrason SP "Ventricular dysrhythmias in middle-aged hypertensive men treated either with a diuretic agent or a beta-blocker." Acta Med Scand 221 (1987): 143-8

53. Lins L-E, Berglund J, Eliasson K, Wernersson B "Efficacy and tolerability of hydralazine, in conventional and slow-release preparations, during long-term treatment of primary hypertension." Clin Ther 5 (1983): 251-9

54. Laslett LJ, DeMaria AN, Amsterdam EA, Mason DT "Hydralazine-induced tachycardia and sodium retention in heart failure: hemodynamic and symptomatic correlation by prazosin therapy." Arch Intern Med 138 (1978): 819-20

55. Keller CA, Shepard JW, Chun DS, et al "Effects of hydralazine on hemodynamics, ventilation, and gas exchange in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension." Am Rev Respir Dis 129 (1984): 606-11

56. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22

57. Aylward PE, Tonkin AM "Cardiac tamponade in hydrallazine-induced systemic lupus erythematosus." Aust N Z J Med 12 (1982): 546

58. Talseth T "Kinetics of hydralazine elimination." Clin Pharmacol Ther 21 (1977): 715-20

59. Seelig CB "Magnesium deficiency in two hypertensive patient groups." South Med J 83 (1990): 739-42

60. Rosenberg L, Shapiro S, Slone D, Kaufman DW, Miettinen OS, Stolley PD "Thiazides and acute cholecystitis." N Engl J Med 303 (1980): 546-8

61. Klimiuk PS, Davies M, Adams PH "Primary hyperparathyroidism and thiazide diuretics." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 80-3

62. Kuller L, Farrier N, Caggiula A, Borhani N, Dunkle S "Relationship of diuretic therapy and serum magnesium levels among participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial." Am J Epidemiol 122 (1985): 1045-59

63. Papademetriou V, Price M, Notargiacomo A, Gottdiener J, Fletcher RD, Freis ED "Effect of diuretic therapy on ventricular arrhythmias in hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy." Am Heart J 110 (1985): 595-9

64. Jones IG, Pickens PT "Diabetes mellitus following oral diuretics." Practitioner 199 (1967): 209-10

65. Kone B, Gimenez L, Watson AJ "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia." South Med J 79 (1986): 1456-7

66. Diamond MT "Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma associated with hydrochlorothiazide and pancreatitis." N Y State J Med 72 (1972): 1741-2

67. Benfield GF, Haffner C, Harris P, Stableforth DE "Dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage in patient on hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride/timolol combined drug ." Lancet 2 (1986): 341

68. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8

69. Berlin I "Prazosin, diuretics, and glucose intolerance." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 860

70. Murphy MB, Kohner E, Lewis PJ, Schumer B, Dollery CT "Glucose intolerance in hypertensive patients treated with diuretics: a fourteen-year follow-up." Lancet 2 (1982): 1293-5

71. Fager G, Berglund G, Bondjers G, Elmfeldt D, Lager I, Olofsson SO, Smith U, Wiklund O "Effects of anti-hypertensive therapy on serum lipoproteins. Treatment with metoprolol, propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide." Artery 11 (1983): 283-96

72. Polanska AI, Baron DN "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 175-6

73. Peters RW, Hamilton J, Hamilton BP "Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias associated with mild hypokalemia induced by low-dose diuretic therapy for hypertension." South Med J 82 (1989): 966-9,

74. Gould L, Reddy CV, Zen B, Singh BK "Life-threatening reaction to thiazides." N Y State J Med 80 (1980): 1975-6

75. Hakim R, Tolis G, Goltzman D, Meltzer S, Friedman R "Severe hypercalcemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide and calcium carbonate therapy." Can Med Assoc J 121 (1979): 591-4

76. Fichman MP, Vorherr H, Kleeman CR, Telfer N "Diuretic-induced hyponatremia." Ann Intern Med 75 (1971): 853-63

77. Pinnock CA "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 48

78. Bain PG, Egner W, Walker PR "Thiazide-induced dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage ." Lancet 2 (1986): 634

79. Bell DS "Insulin resistance. An often unrecognized problem accompanying chronic medical disorders." Postgrad Med 93 (1993): 99-103,

80. Duarte CG, Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Pace A "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia." N Engl J Med 284 (1971): 828-30

81. Tsujimoto G, Horai Y, Ishizaki T, Itoh K "Hydralazine-induced peripheral neuropathy seen in a Japanese slow acetylator patient." Br J Clin Pharmacol 11 (1981): 622-5

82. Schapel GJ "Skin rash and hydralazine." Med J Aust 141 (1984): 765-6

83. Hoss DM, Nierenberg DW "Severe shaking chills and fever following hydrochlorothiazide administration." Am J Med 85 (1988): 747

84. Grace AA, Morgan AD, Strickland NH "Hydrochlorothiazide causing unexplained pulmonary oedema." Br J Clin Pract 43 (1989): 79-81

85. Magil AB, Ballon HS, Cameron EC, Rae A "Acute interstitial nephritis associated with thiazide diuretics. Clinical and pathologic observations in three cases." Am J Med 69 (1980): 939-43

86. Prupas HM, Brown D "Acute idiosyncratic reaction to hydrochlorothiazide ingestion." West J Med 138 (1983): 101-2

87. Biron P, Dessureault J, Napke E "Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide [published erratum appears in Can Med Assoc J 1991 Sep 1;145(5):391]." Can Med Assoc J 145 (1991): 28-34

88. Klein MD "Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema following hydrochlorothiazide ingestion." Ann Emerg Med 16 (1987): 901-3

89. Alted E, Navarro M, Cantalapiedra JA, Alvarez JA, Blasco MA, Nunez A "Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema after oral ingestion of hydrochlorothiazide ." Intensive Care Med 13 (1987): 364-5

90. Waters VV "Hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide and ampicillin associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis: case report." J Urol 141 (1989): 936-7

91. Levay ID "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced pulmonary edema." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 18 (1984): 238-9

92. Magil AB "Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas." Hum Pathol 14 (1983): 36-41

93. Hoegholm A, Rasmussen SW, Kristensen KS "Pulmonary oedema with shock induced by hydrochlorothiazide: a rare side effect mimicking myocardial infarction." Br Heart J 63 (1990): 186

94. Beaudry C, Laplante L "Severe allergic pneumonitis from hydrochlorothiazide." Ann Intern Med 78 (1973): 251-3

95. Young EJ, Fainstein V, Musher DM "Drug-induced fever: cases seen in the evaluation of unexplained fever in a general hospital population." Rev Infect Dis 4 (1982): 69-77

96. Perrin B, Malo J-L, Cartier A, et al "Occupational asthma in a pharmaceutical worker exposed to hydralazine." Thorax 45 (1990): 980-1

97. Dorn MR, Walker BK "Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Chest 79 (1981): 482-3

98. Goette DK, Beatrice E "Erythema annulare centrifugum caused by hydrochlorothiazide-induced interstitial nephritis." Int J Dermatol 27 (1988): 129-30

99. Orenstein AA, Yakulis V, Eipe J, Costea N "Immune hemolysis due to hydralazine." Ann Intern Med 86 (1977): 450-1

100. Garratty G, Houston M, Petz LD, Webb M "Acute immune intravascular hemolysis due to hydrochlorothiazide." Am J Clin Pathol 76 (1981): 73-8

101. Macleod WN "Anaemia in the hydrallazine-induced lupus syndrome." Scott Med J 28 (1983): 181-2

102. Widerlov E, Karlman I, Storsater J "Hydralazine-induced neonatal thrombocytopenia." N Engl J Med 303 (1980): 1235

103. Eisner EV, Crowell EB "Hydrochlorothiazide-dependent thrombocytopenia due to IgM antibody." JAMA 215 (1971): 480-2

104. Robinson HN, Morison WL, Hood AF "Thiazide diuretic therapy and chronic photosensitivity." Arch Dermatol 121 (1985): 522-4

105. Diffey BL, Langtry J "Phototoxic potential of thiazide diuretics in normal subjects." Arch Dermatol 125 (1989): 1355-8

106. Parodi A, Romagnoli M, Rebora A "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like eruption caused by hydrochlorothiazide." Photodermatol 6 (1989): 100-2

107. Goodrich AL, Kohn SR "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced lupus erythematosus: a new variant?" J Am Acad Dermatol 28 (1993): 1001-2

108. Delevett AF, Recalde M "Diuretic-induced renal colic." JAMA 225 (1973): 992

109. Balizet L "Recurrent parathyroid adenoma. Association with prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 225 (1973): 1238-9

110. Dietz MW "Iatrogenic jejunal ulcer." Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 99 (1967): 136-8

111. Reinus FZ, Weinberger HA, Fischer WW "Medication-induced ulceration of the small bowel." Am J Surg 112 (1966): 97-101

112. Holland GW "Stenosing ulcers of the small bowel associated with thiazide and potassium therapy." N Z Med J 64 (1965): 383-5

113. Smith BL, Tedeschi A, Lane CD "Pancreatitis with a twist." Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 23 (1988): 150,

114. Wagner W, Longerbeam JK, Smith LL, Feikes HL "Drug-induced ulcers of the small bowel causing intestinal obstruction or perforation." Am Surg 33 (1967): 7-11

115. Campbell JR, Knapp RW "Small bowel ulceration associated with thiazide and potassium therapy: review of 13 cases." Ann Surg 163 (1966): 291-6

116. Keidan H "Impotence during antihypertensive treatment." Can Med Assoc J 114 (1976): 874

117. Forster HS "Hepatitis from hydralazine." N Engl J Med 303 (1980): 1362

118. Jori GP, Peschle C "Hydralazine disease associated with transient granulomas in the liver." Gastroenterology 64 (1973): 1163-7

119. Rice D, Burdick CO "Granulomatous hepatitis from hydralazine therapy." Arch Intern Med 143 (1983): 1077

120. Stewart GW, Peart WS, Boylston AW "Obstructive jaundice, pancytopenia and hydralazine." Lancet 05/30/81 (1981): 1207

121. Itoh S, Yamaba Y, Ichinoe A, Tsukada Y "Hydralazine-induced liver injury." Dig Dis Sci 25 (1980): 884-7

122. Myers JL, Augur NA "Hydralazine-induced cholangitis." Gastroenterology 87 (1984): 1185-8

123. Bartoli E, Massarelli G, Solinas A, et al "Acute hepatitis with bridging necrosis due to hydralazine intake." Arch Intern Med 139 (1979): 698-9

124. Barnett DB, Hudson SA, Golightly PW "Hydralazine-induced hepatitis." Br Med J 05/10/80 (1980): 1165-6

Not all side effects for Hydra-Zide may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here .

More about Hydra-Zide (hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide)

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Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. This information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill. knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate safety, effectiveness, or appropriateness for any given patient. Drugs. com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of materials provided. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

Drug Status

Availability Discontinued Discontinued

Pregnancy Category C Risk cannot be ruled out

CSA Schedule N Not a controlled drug

Approval History Calendar Drug history at FDA

WADA Class WADA Anti-Doping Classification

Hydra-Zide Rating

Hydra-Zide (hydralazine / hydrochlorothiazide) 50 mg / 50 mg

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Maxim Synonyms, Maxim Antonyms, Axim

maxim

Example Sentences for maxim

The poor Italian regained his caustic smile as he uttered that wise, villanous Italian maxim .

A famous researcher once invented—or discovered—this maxim in a dream.

It is a maxim with the Earees, and others of superior rank, never to intermarry with the Toutous, or others of inferior rank.

It is a maxim with me that no man was ever written out of reputation but by himself.

A proverb is a short, sententious saying, in the nature of a maxim . connoting a definite truth or suggestion by comparison.

It is a maxim in war that one bad general is better than two good ones.

It is a maxim of the common law—the perfection of human reason—that what is impossible the law requires of no man.

The inscription was from the Koran, and was a maxim adopted by the Khouan tribe.

Our prince reversed the maxim ; he strove to make our thoughts as much slaves as ourselves.

His first maxim was: "A man must never let anything on with these girls."

Altocor Side Effects In Detail, Atocor

Altocor Side Effects

For the Consumer

Applies to lovastatin: oral tablet, oral tablet extended release

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by lovastatin (the active ingredient contained in Altocor). In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

Major Side Effects

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking lovastatin:

Less common:

Bladder pain

bloody or cloudy urine

chest tightness

cough

dark-colored urine

difficult, burning, or painful urination

difficulty with moving

fever

frequent urge to urinate

headache

joint pain

lower back or side pain

muscle aching, cramps, spasms, or stiffness

muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness

pain or tenderness around the eyes and cheekbones

stuffy or runny nose

swollen joints

trouble with breathing

unusual tiredness or weakness

Minor Side Effects

Some of the side effects that can occur with lovastatin may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

Less common:

Acid or sour stomach

belching

bloated or full feeling

blurred vision

diarrhea

difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)

dizziness

excess air or gas in the stomach or intestines

heartburn

indigestion

lack or loss of strength

nausea

passing gas

rash

stomach discomfort, upset, or pain

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to lovastatin: oral tablet, oral tablet extended release

Hepatic

Persistent elevations in liver function tests to three times normal values have been reported in up to 2% of patients on lovastatin (the active ingredient contained in Altocor) in clinical trials. Overall, 1.5% of patients were withdrawn from study due to elevations in serum transaminases. While most patients remained asymptomatic with these elevations, cases of cholestatic jaundice and hepatitis have been reported.

Liver function tests should be closely monitored. Lovastatin should be discontinued in patients with persistent, significant elevations (three times the upper limit of normal) in liver function parameters. [Ref ]

Common (1% to 10%): Elevations in liver function tests Frequency not reported: Hepatitis (including chronic active hepatitis), cholestatic jaundice, fatty change in the liver, cirrhosis, fulminant hepatic necrosis [Ref ]

Gastrointestinal

Common (1% to 10%): Flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea Frequency not reported: Dyspepsia, heartburn, anorexia, vomiting Postmarketing reports: Abdominal discomfort [Ref ]

Gastrointestinal side effects are among the most common complaints in patients on lovastatin. These effects tend to be mild and transient in nature and will often dissipate with continued therapy. [Ref ]

Musculoskeletal

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been associated with rare cases of severe myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, accompanied by increases in creatine kinase, myoglobinuria, proteinuria, and renal failure. These conditions appear to be dose related, usually occurring with doses greater than 30 mg per day. The incidence and severity of myopathy may be increased by concomitant administration of lovastatin (the active ingredient contained in Altocor) with drugs that can cause myopathy when given alone, such as gemfibrozil and other fibrates, niacin, and potent inhibitors of CYP450 3A4 (i. e. cyclosporine, antifungal azoles, macrolide antibiotics, large amounts of grapefruit juice). Other variables associated with an increased risk of statin-induced myopathy include, advanced age, small body stature, female gender, renal and/or hepatic dysfunction, perioperative periods, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and alcoholism.

Milder forms of myotoxicity (i. e. myalgia) are commonly reported and occur in approximately 5% to 7% of patients taking a statin drug.

Patients should be instructed to report promptly symptoms of muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness. If such symptoms develop, creatine kinase should be measured, and if markedly elevated, lovastatin should be discontinued. The value of routine monitoring of creatine kinase is not known. In some studies up to 11% of patients experienced elevations in creatine kinase while on lovastatin. In most cases these elevations were mild, transient, and not associated with clinical symptoms.

Itraconazole used concomitantly with lovastatin has led to one reported case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a 63-year-old woman. Caution should be exercised when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and azole antifungals are prescribed concurrently.

Exposure to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is associated with a decreased risk of bone fractures in persons older than 50. [Ref ]

Frequency not reported: Elevations in creatine kinase, muscle cramps, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, arthralgia, myalgia, tendon rupture, dermatomyositis [Ref ]

Hematologic

Frequency not reported: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), leukopenia (These effects may be manifestations of a hypersensitivity reaction) [Ref ]

Nervous system

Common (1% to 10%): Headache, dizziness Frequency not reported: Cranial nerve dysfunction, tremor, vertigo, memory loss, drowsiness, weight loss, decline in cognitive function, paresthesias, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral nerve palsy Postmarketing reports: Asthenia, fatigue, malaise, hypoesthesia, insomnia [Ref ]

Renal

Frequency not reported: Acute renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis [Ref ]

Dermatologic

Frequency not reported: Rash, pruritus, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, photosensitivity, purpura, alopecia (These effects may be manifestations of a hypersensitivity reaction) [Ref ]

Endocrine

Frequency not reported: Hypospermia, gynecomastia, thyroid dysfunction, acid maltase deficiency (the genetic disorder also referred to as Pompe's Disease), pancreatitis [Ref ]

Hypersensitivity

Frequency not reported: Anaphylaxis, angioedema, lupus erythematous-like syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatic, dermatomyositis, vasculitis, purpura, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, positive ANA, ESR increase, eosinophilia, arthritis, arthralgia, urticaria, asthenia, photosensitivity, fever (including severe hyperthermia), chills, flushing, malaise, dyspnea, toxic epidermal necrolysis [Ref ]

Immunologic

Frequency not reported: Lupus-like syndrome with positive ANA and elevated ESR, polymyalgia rheumatica, vasculitis [Ref ]

Ocular

Frequency not reported: Progression of cataracts, ophthalmoplegia [Ref ]

Metabolic

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Hyperkalemia [Ref ]

Psychiatric

Frequency not reported: Decreased libido, anxiety, insomnia, depression, suicidal thoughts, delusions, paranoia, agitation, nightmares [Ref ]

Genitourinary

Halkin, et al report a case in which use of both lovastatin (the active ingredient contained in Altocor) and pravastatin on different occasions in the same patient led to reversible impotence. The impotence resolved within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. [Ref ]

Frequency not reported: Erectile dysfunction, impotence, testicular pain [Ref ]

Oncologic

Frequency not reported: Tumor growth, hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas. pulmonary adenomas (all in rodents) [Ref ]

Respiratory

Postmarketing reports: Interstitial lung disease

References

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11. East C, Alivizatos PA, Grundy SM, Jones PH, Farmer JA "Rhabdomyolysis in patients receiving lovastatin after cardiac transplantation." N Engl J Med 318 (1988): 47-8

12. Graham DJ, Staffa JA, Shatin D, et al. "Incidence of hospitalized rhabdomyolysis in patients treated with lipid-lowering drugs." JAMA 292 (2004): 2585-90

13. Omar MA, Wilson JP "FDA adverse event reports on statin-associated rhabdomyolysis." Ann Pharmacother 36 (2002): 288-95

14. Arora R, Liebo M, Maldonado F "Statin-induced myopathy: the two faces of Janus." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 11 (2006): 105-12

15. Sinzinger H, Wolfram R, Peskar BA "Muscular side effects of statins." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 40 (2002): 163-71

16. "Summaries for patients. Muscle abnormalities in four patients taking statins to treat unfavorable cholesterol levels." Ann Intern Med 137 (2002): I45

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20. Pierce LR, Wysowski DK, Gross TP "Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with lovastatin-gemfibrozil combination therapy." JAMA 264 (1990): 71-5

21. Mukhtar RY, Reckless JP "Statin-induced myositis: a commonly encountered or rare side effect?" Curr Opin Lipidol 16 (2005): 640-7

22. Fernandezzatarain G, Navarro V, Garcia H, Villatoro J, Calvo C "Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with lovastatin." Nephron 66 (1994): 483-4

23. Corpier CL, Jones PH, Suki WN, et al. "Rhabdomyolysis and renal injury with lovastatin use. Report of two cases in cardiac transplant recipients." JAMA 260 (1988): 239-41

24. Finsterer J, Zuntner G "Rhabdomyolysis from Simvastatin triggered by infection and muscle exertion." South Med J 98 (2005): 827-9

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27. Bennett WE, Drake AJ, Shakir KM "Reversible Myopathy after Statin Therapy in Patients with Normal Creatine Kinase Levels." Ann Intern Med 138 (2003): 436-437

28. Grundy SM "Can statins cause chronic low-grade myopathy?" Ann Intern Med 137 (2002): 617-8

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32. Robbins MJ, Iqbal A, Hershman R "Lovastatin-induced hemolytic anemia: not a class-specific reaction." Am J Med 99 (1995): 328-9

33. Jacobs MB "HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy and peripheral neuropathy." Ann Intern Med 120 (1994): 970

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35. Gaist D, Jeppesen U, Andersen M, Garcia Rodriguez LA, Hallas J, Sindrup SH "Statins and risk of polyneuropathy: a case-control study." Neurology 58 (2002): 1333-7

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37. Tobert JA "Lovastatin-associated sleep and mood disturbances." Am J Med 99 (1995): 108-9

38. Vgontzas AN, Kales A, Bixler EO, Manfredi RL, Tyson KL "Effects of lovastatin and pravastatin on sleep efficiency and sleep stages." Clin Pharmacol Ther 50 (1991): 730-7

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40. Muller T, Kuhn W, Pohlau D, Przuntek H "Parkinsonism unmasked by lovastatin." Ann Neurol 37 (1995): 685-6

41. Muldoon MF, Ryan CM, Sereika SM, Flory JD, Manuck SB "Randomized trial of the effects of simvastatin on cognitive functioning in hypercholesterolemic adults." Am J Med 117 (2004): 823-9

42. van Puijenbroek EP, Du Buf-Vereijken PW, Spooren PF, van Doormaal JJ "Possible increased risk of rhabdomyolysis during concomitant use of simvastatin and gemfibrozil." J Intern Med 240 (1996): 403-4

43. Vanpuijenbroek EP, Dubufvereijken PWG, Spooren PFMJ, Vandoormaal JJ "Possible increased risk of rhabdomyolysis during concomitant use of simvastatin and gemfibrozil." J Intern Med 240 (1996): 403-4

44. Alvarez JM, Rawdanowiz TJ, Goldstein J "Rhadbdomyolysis after coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient receiving simvastatin." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 116 (1998): 654-5

45. Hildebrand RD, Hepperlen TW "Lovastatin and hypospermia." Ann Intern Med 112 (1990): 549-50

46. Vonpohle WR "Recurrent hyperthermia due to lovastatin." West J Med 161 (1994): 427-8

47. Ahmad S "Lovastatin-induced lupus erythematosus." Arch Intern Med 151 (1991): 1667-8

48. Laties AM, Shear CL, Lippa EA, Gould AL, Taylor HR, Hurley DP, Stephenson WP, Keates EU, Tupy-Visich MA, Chremos AN "Expanded clinical evaluation of lovastatin (EXCEL) study results. II. Assessment of the human lens after 48 weeks of treatment with lovastatin." Am J Cardiol 67 (1991): 447-53

49. Edelman S, Witztum JL "Hyperkalemia during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor ." N Engl J Med 320 (1989): 1219-20

50. Gregoor PJ "Atorvastatin may cause nightmares." BMJ 332 (2006): 950

51. Rosenson RS, Goranson NL "Lovastatin-associated sleep and mood disturbances." Am J Med 95 (1993): 548-9

52. Morales K, Wittink M, Datto C, et al. "Simvastatin causes changes in affective processes in elderly volunteers." J Am Geriatr Soc 54 (2006): 70-6

53. Halkin A, Lossos IS, Mevorach D "HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-induced impotence." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 192

54. Linnebur SA, Hiatt WH "Probable Statin-Induced Testicular Pain (January)." Ann Pharmacother (2007):

55. Newman TB, Hulley SB "Carcinogenicity of lipid-lowering drugs." JAMA 275 (1996): 55-60

56. Bjerre LM, LeLorier J "Do statins cause cancer? A meta-analysis of large randomized clinical trials." Am J Med 110 (2001): 716-23

Not all side effects for Altocor may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here .

Rhinos Sr, Rhinos Sr

Browse » Home » » RHINOS SR

(tulisan ini sebenarnya pengen ngupas tentang obat jenis SR, tapi didahului sama curhatan dulu, jadi yang baca sabar ya..hehe)

Tiga hari kebelakang, saya terkena flu (lagi). Yeah, sebenarnya sih sudah bisa diduga akan terjangkiti virus itu kembali karena hari-hari sebelumnya kondisi daya tahan tubuh memang menurun. Dua-tiga pekan terakhir adalah hari-hari yang sering membawa saya kepada kondisi underpressure . Apalagi di satu pekan terakhir, semua meminta cepat, semua meminta tepat. Sementara tangan saya hanya dua. Partner kerja yang ada hanyalah sebatas kerja teknis, tak mampu untuk diajak melakukan pekerjaan yang berkaitan dengan konsep/ide. Padahal pekerjaan yang ada membutuhkan banyak ide kreatif. Sangat sangat membuat stress. Apalagi itu akhir bulan, masa dimana pundi-pundi rupiah juga dalam kondisi sekarat. Akhirnya hari Kamis, grastitis alias maag saya kambuh. Sakitnya minta ampun. Ulu hati kayak ditusuk pake pisau tajam, perut mual, kembung, kaki terasa pegal, dan kepala pusing. Padahal waktu itu juga lagi shaum. Dalam kondisi seperti itu, saya harus siaran malam, karena ada program khusus yang menghadirkan tamu dari luarkota. Kalau maag hebat, makanan tidak bisa langsung masuk. Beberapa kali makanan malah saya muntahkan. Baru pada hari Jumat siang, bisa makan normal. Itu juga langsung beraktivitas seperti biasa, dan waktu itu kalau nggak salah, saya sempat terkena kipas angin yang lumayan kenceng, karena saya punya alergi ya udah langsung deh kena flu.

Flu memang mudah menyerang dalam kondisi daya tahan tubuh lemah. Flu itu cukup menyebalkan, karena kita kemana-mana harus bawa-bawa tissue atau saputangan. Hidung saya yang bagus ini jadi sakit. hehe. Sampai hari Minggu saya tidak terlalu peduli pada flu. Aktivitas berjalan bahkan tambah full, hanya sempat tidur dua jam. Hari Sabtu, saya sudah “melek” dan beraktivitas dari jam 00.00. Sabtu pagi sudah disibukan untuk mencari darah A untuk kepentingan salah satu istri ustadz yang akan operasi caesar. Siangnya jemput adik di terminal dan menemaninya sampai sore. Ba’da maghrib sudah mulai acara Tasmi’ul Quran hingga pagi. Minggu paginya berangkat kondangan ke desa Kemranjen, Banyumas. Ternyata desa Kemranjen itu jauuuuuuuuuhhhh. Kami menyebutnya negeri antah berantah. Sekitar 1,5jam perjalanan, tapi medannya itu lho, naik turun cukup curam. Punggung ini pegal nggak karuan. Apalagi pas pulang sempat macet motornya nggak bisa diajak nanjak. Oh my…oh my. Siangnya, saya dapet tugas untuk jadi MC di acara SPNI (sekolah pra nikah islami). Itu juga sambil terkantuk-kantuk. Selesai ngemsi, nggak banyak waktu lagi, saya langsung beres-beres dan berangkat ke Tegal bersama adik. Di perjalanan ke Tegal, saya baru merasakan pusing yang hebat. Kepala terasa berat. Sopir bis yang ugal-ugalan membuat pelipis dan tulang mata sebelah kiri sempat terbentur. Arrrgh, pusingnya bahkan masih terasa hingga sekarang. Pas turun dari bis di daerah pasific, disambut hujan rintik-rintik, malah galau. Tiba-tiba saja teringat dengan seseorang. Duuuh. p engen nangis aja rasanya.

Setelah di rumah saya baru ngeh untuk segera mengobati flu ini. Sebenarnya obat flu itu simple. istirahat dan makan-minum cukup. Tapi saya jelas saat itu belum bisa bedrest. Sepanjang hari senin agenda padat, mulai bayar listrik, PAM, ketemu teman, dan sorenya harus sudah berangkat kembali ke Purwokerto. Sudah diminta berangkat hari selasa saja oleh orang rumah. Tapi sepertinya nggak bisa. Sepanjang hari saja sudah dapet banyak sms dari Purwokerto untuk urusan ini-itu. Tapi hari Senin itu juga saya sempatkan untuk beli obat. Obat flu yang manjur bagi saya adalah Rhinos SR. Nah, ini kita baru masuk ke inti cerita. hehe.

Rhinos SR itu berbentuk kapsul. Saya kemarin minum ini satu dan paginya langsung sembuh, nggak mampet lagi. Hebat kan??hehe.

Sebenarnya pengobatan flu memang harus sesuai jenis flunya. Karena kemarin flu saya termasuk flu alergi atau bahasa kerennya rintis alergika, makanya Rhinos ini pas banget. Tapi Rhinos juga bisa untuk salesma/pilek termasuk hidung tersumbat, bersin-bersin, rinore, pruritus, dan lakrimasi.

Rhinos ini termasuk jenis SR (Sustained Release) atau teknologi lepas lambat yang dalam bahasa sederhananya punya efek jangka panjang sehingga kita nggak perlu sering-sering minum obat. Masa kerjanya 12 jam, jadi sehari kita hanya perlu minum obat dua kali saja. Rhinos SR ini merupakan produk dari Dexa yang bekerjasama dengan GSK ( GlaxoSmithKline ) yang pusatnya ada di Inggris. Rhinos ini sudah diluncurkan dari tahun 2000 dan diklaim sudah mengusai 33% pangsa pasar untuk kelas terapi nasal.

Ok, sampai disini saya jadi berfikir. ujung-ujungnya semua ada pada kepentingan bisnis. Selain Rhinos SR, Dexa juga punya produk Glanos SR yang kata Ferry. managing director nya Dexa, obat ini ditargetkan akan meraih omzet 40-50miliar pertahun. Obat-obat yang bagus menjadi komoditi bisnis.

Saya memang cenderung untuk mengambil obat yang langsung kena sasaran. Dibanding beli obat warung yang harus 5-10 kali telan baru ngefek . Belum lagi di obat-obat sejenis itu biasanya mengandung paracetamol. Konon katanya paracetamol punya efek kurang bagus ke lambung. Sementara saya punya maag. Rempong beud dah! .

Rhinos SR memang termasuk obat mahal, tapi sepertinya lebih mahal Glanos. Kemarin saya beli di apotik KF Tegal, untuk satu kemasan Rhinos SR isi 10kapsul, saya harus membayar sekitar 52ribu rupiah. Untuk ukuran obat flu dan ukuran anak kos, itu termasuk mahal. hehe. Tapi kan, efektif, karena efeknya cepat, bisa buat persediaan.

Saya juga suka tampilan Rhinos. Kapsulnya itu transparan dan didalamnya serbuk warna-warni. Unyu-unyu deh. Hehe. Jadi suka makannya. Tadi saya googling, ternyata tidak ada penampakan gambarnya. Nanti saya foto aja deh sendiri.

Nah, kembali ke masalah obat tadi, saya jadi kepikiran. Produk obat itu sekarang bejibun, ribuan, jutaan, bahkan milyaran jenis obat ada di muka bumi. Lepas dari masalah, bahwa ya kita butuh obat, tapi rada nggrentes kalau tahu kepentingan bisnis yang ada di belakangnya. Obat-obat yang bagus itu harganya tidak ada yang murah. Entah sebenarnya apa kandungan yang ada didalam obat-obat murah. Yang harus dimakan berkali-kali. Bayangkan orang-orang yang harus sering minum obat, banyak kandungan kimia dalam tubuhnya. Itu juga belum pasti sembuh. Wah, saya sangat tidak suka dengan bisnis obat-obatan ini. Tapi saya jadi penasaran dan ingin tahu lebih jauh. hehe.

Oke, segitu saja dahulu. Apapun itu, sebelum saya tahu banyak, saya tetap berterimakasih kepada Rhinos yang telah membantu membuat tubuh saya fit lagi di pagi hari ini dan siap beraktivitas seperti biasa. Selamat hari Selasa. ^-^

3 Januari 2012, 8am.

Di meja kerja sudah ada tumpukan “deadline baru” lagi. Pesanan iklan dan produksi program dengan ketentuan hari kamis harus sudah jadi. Oh God!!

10 comments:

Makasih nih Mba. cari penguatan untuk Rhinos. Adikku sudah pake juga.

Thanks shinta. ternyata kt pnya msalah yg sama, flu krna alergi. alhmdllh sy jg minum obat ini, baru tw lo hrganya sgitu soalnya sy brobatnya ke spesialis paru. ini br prtama minum, smoga jg bs mngatasi flu yg ckup mnyebalkan ini. selama ini sy djuluki pria bertisu krna saking seringnya trkna flu.

thank, s infonya. Just share aja. Hari ini aku lg kena flu, mana besok mo Natalan lg. sebenarnya udah dari 2 hari kemarin tp karena lg malas ke dokter dan baru hari sempat mampir di apotik. Pas di apotik aku tanya obat yg bagus untuk flu, sama apotekernya langsung di berikan Rhinos SR. untuk di ketahui aku orangnya ga begitu percaya dengan obat. Setiap aku beli obat, aku googling untuk tau khasiat obat tersebut. thx yah.

Saya juga sudah pakai Rhinos, tadinya saya pakai actifed cuma ya itu badan jadi lemes dan ngantuk, kalau minum Rhinos pilek sembuh dan tidak ngantuk serta lemes

Thanks infonya. Saya juga biasanya klo pilek lgs ke apotik, dan cari Rhinos SR, sayangnya kebanyakan sold-out di apotik dekat rumah saya --"

Akhirnya saya beli alternatifnya, Aldisa SR (isinya krg lbh sama), harga beda dikit bgt lebih murah, dan syukurlah manjur! Baru sekali minum, mampet dan melernya perlahan hilang.

Rhinos, hoho jadi inget nih obat ada sejarahnya buat saya.

Seminggu sebelum nikahan, badan saya drop, mungkin karena kecapean ngurusin persipan nikah dan juga cuaca yang emang kurang baik. Alhasil, pilek melanda sampe sehari sebelum hari pernikahan.

Kebayang aja, kalau lagi akad nikah.. "saya terima nikahnya. slurp. slurp.." narik ingus kan, waduh bisa kacau.

Eh ada saudara tawarin obat Rhinos itu, awalnya mencurigakan, permen atau obat, jangan-jangan permen obat-obatan, tapi karena sudah putus asa (sebelumya coba minum warungan) akhirnya hajar deh tuh rhinos, oh iya saya campur minum tolak angin, Insya Allah sih enggak saling timpa.

Dan bener, besok paginya bangun, badan segar bugar dan pilek hilang alhasil akad nikah pun lancar sekali jalan, hohoho.

Iya manjur. Kemarin saya ngocor ingus dari hidung. tersiksa emang. Sorenya minum Rhinos. eh subuhnya nggak ngocor lagi tuh ingus. Alhamdulillah semoga terus sehat. Amiennn

Saya udah minum Rhinos dlm 3 hari ini tapi knp blm sembuh juga ya..sampe" saya nelen 2 kapsul semalem sangking stresnya..tp walhasil masih mampet..huft.

Saya udah minum Rhinos dlm 3 hari ini tapi knp blm sembuh juga ya..sampe" saya nelen 2 kapsul semalem sangking stresnya..tp walhasil masih mampet..huft.

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Welcome To - Lucky Technology S Iguard Largest And Longest Direct Distributor, I-Guard

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Glucowatch G2 Biographer, Gluco

GlucoWatch G2 Biographer - P990026/S0008

This is a brief overview of information related to FDA's approval to market this product. See the links below to the Summary of Safety and Effectiveness and product labeling for more complete information on this product, its indications for use, and the basis for FDA's approval.

What is it? The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer is a blood sugar (glucose) monitoring device that is worn on the wrist like a watch and does not require drawing blood through a finger-stick. The device takes non-invasive glucose measurements through the skin every 10 minutes for up to 13 hours at a time. These readings are used to supplement finger-stick measurements in detecting and tracking patterns in glucose levels. The device should not be used as a substitute for finger-stick measurements.

The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer was originally approved by FDA for adult use in March, 2001. It is now also approved for use in children aged 7 or older. It is a prescription device that must be used under the care of a doctor.

How does it work? After a 2-hour warm-up period, patients calibrate the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer with a finger-stick measurement. After calibration, the device begins monitoring glucose. Batteries produce a small electrical current that pulls fluid through the skin and into the device. Then sensors (electrodes) measure the glucose in the fluid. The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer contains a built-in alarm that can be programmed to alert the user when results fall above or below pre-set levels.

When is it used? The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer is used together with traditional finger-stick measurements to provide additional glucose information to adults and children with diabetes and their healthcare providers.

What will it accomplish? Additional information on glucose trends and patterns may help people with diabetes and their healthcare providers manage their disease better than if they relied on finger-stick measurements alone.

When should it not be used? The GlucoWatch G2 Biographer should not be used:

in patients who did not receive a prescription from a doctor who has completed a formal GlucoWatch training program;

in patients who did not complete a formal GlucoWatch training program;

in place of a blood glucose meter (treatment decisions should not be made or changed based on GlucoWatch G2 Biographer results alone);

by children under 7 years of age.

Villar Perosa - Forgotten Weapons, Perosa

Villar Perosa

The Villar Perosa was a rather odd weapon developed by noted designer Revelli in Italy in 1914 and adopted into service in 1915. It was a basically a pair of open-bolt submachine guns (pre-dating shoulder-fired submachine gun designs, interestingly) mounted side by side with a set of spade grips. It had an extremely high rate of fire (1200-1500 rpm form each barrel), and was initially intended for use on aircraft, against other aircraft. However, it was quickly made obsolete in this role by improvements in aircraft durability. It was also adapted to serve as a ground machine gun. Of course, it also suffered from having no practical grip or stock.

The most common practice when using the gun in a support role was to fire one barrel at a time, while an assistant gunner changed magazines. Used this way, a more continuous fire could be maintained – although a single 25-round magazine would take no more than a single second to empty.

The tactical role of the Villar Perosa changed throughout the war, as it was tried in different combat situations and soldiers developed more effective ways to exploit its strengths and avoid its weaknesses. In its intended use as a light machine gun for infantry support is was a failure due to its lack of range and small magazine capacity combined with its high rate of fire. It was more successfully used by Italian alpine troops, who lacked any other machine gun that was portable enough for mountain use. Eventually, tactics were developed to use the Villar Perosa in walking fire (like a BAR, actually) with a sling or harness. However, the final use of most Villar Perosa guns was to be broken down and their components used to build M1918 submachine guns by adding wood stocks, forearms, and conventional triggers to single-barrel halves of the gun.

M1915 Villar Perosa on a simple tripod

Most references to the Villar Perosa describe it as being chambered for the 9mm Glisenti cartridge, but we have found (and made available for download below) a manual in English which specifies the use of 9×19 Luger for the gun. The two cartridges are effectively identical in physical dimension, with the difference lying in powder charge. Some of the Villar Perosa guns were made in Toronto under contract with the Italian government – perhaps these Canadian guns were proofed for 9mm Luger? Or perhaps the reference is simply an error. We don’t know, but we’re looking for more information.

This Italian manual on the Villar Perosa covers use and disassembly/maintenance of the gun. It is in Italian, and includes pictures of all the component parts.

Istruzioni per il Funzionamento e per la Manutenzione della Pistola Mitragliatrice Villar Perosa (Italian, 1916)

This is a English-language promotional brochure or manual for the Villar Perosa (here called the Revelli Automatic Machine Gun), most likely printed in Canada.

Revelli Automatic Machine Gun (Villar Perosa) manual (English)

We have this gallery of pictures of a .455 Webley Villar-Perosa sent to the UK government for trials, courtesy of the the National Firearms Centre in Leeds:

10 comments to Villar Perosa

More Information About Fluoxetine, Fluoxibene

More information about Fluoxetine

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Antidepressant Use in Pediatric Patients - October 15, 2004

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Antidepressants increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children and adolescents with MDD and other psychiatric disorders.

Anyone considering the use of an antidepressant in a child or adolescent for any clinical use must balance the risk of increased suicidality with the clinical need.

Patients who are started on therapy should be observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior.

Families and caregivers should be advised to closely observe the patient and to communicate with the prescriber.

A statement regarding whether the particular drug is approved for any pediatric indication(s) and, if so, which one(s).

Among the antidepressants, only fluoxetine is approved for use in treating MDD in pediatric patients. Clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline are approved for OCD in pediatric patients. None of the drugs is FDA approved for other psychiatric indications in children.

Pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be closely observed for clinical worsening, as well as agitation, irritability, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes (either increases or decreases). This monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers and frequent contact with the physician. It is also recommended that prescriptions for antidepressants be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

In addition to the boxed warning and other information in professional labeling on antidepressants, MedGuides are being prepared for all of the antidepressants to provide information about the risk of suicidality in children and adolescents for patients and their families and caregivers. MedGuides are intended to be distributed by the pharmacist with each prescription or refill of a medication.

The FDA plans to work closely with the manufacturers of all approved antidepressant products to optimize the safe use of these drugs and implement the proposed labeling changes and other safety communications in a timely manner.

Additional information can be found on the FDA website at: http://www. fda. gov/medwatch/SAFETY/2004/safety04.htm#ssri, last accessed October 21, 2004.

Pronunciation

(floo OKS e teen)

Hypoten - L, Hypoten

PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: A. 7.1.3 Other hypotensives

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION: Sodium Nitroprusside ( Hypoten L ) is a powerful vasodilator. The effects of the nitroprusside ion are similar to those of nitrite, in that it acts directly on the smooth muscle of blood vessels - probably due to the Fe - NO grouping. Both resistance and capacitance vessels are affected. Vascular resistance is decreased less in the renal than in the femoral and mesenteric vascular beds. The effects of nitroprusside are quite transient, due to its rapid conversion in the body to thiocyanate. The effect of nitroprusside on smooth muscle other than vascular is not known.

INDICATIONS: For the immediate reduction of blood pressure as emergency treatment for patients in hypertensive encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage, head injury, hypertension complicated by acute heart failure and associated pulmonary edema, pheochromocytoma and toxemia of pregnancy. In skilled and experienced hands Hypoten L may be used for controlled hypotension during surgery where the technique is clearly indicated. Hypoten L can improve left vertricular function following acute myocardial infarction. It has had a preliminary but encouraging trial in patients with chronic refractory heart failure.

CONTRA-INDICATIONS: Hypoten L should not be used in the treatment of compensatory hypertension, e. g. arteriovenous shunt, coarctation of aorta nor is it indicated for chronic use. Hypoten L should not be given to children until its safety, proper administration and dosage for paediatric use have been determined.

DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE: Dissolve the contents of one vial in 5 mL of sterile dextrose solution and dilute to 1000 mL with sterile dextrose solution. The diluted solution is infused at a rate of 5 - 150 drops per minute until the desired systolic pressure is obtained. Blood pressure will return to normal 6 - 10 minutes after discontinuing the infusion. The hypotensive response to Hypoten L is very rapid, as is the rise in blood pressure on stopping the infusion. Therefore adequate facilities in terms of personnel and equipment for frequent monitoring of blood pressure should be available. Because of its rapid onset of action and its potency, Hypoten L should preferably be administered by devices that could allow precise adjustment of the flow rate such as an infusion pump or microdrip regulator. Dilutions of Hypoten L should not be kept for longer than 4 hours. If the infusion is highly coloured (blue, green or dark red), it must be discarded. Solutions should be protected from light.

SIDE-EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS: Nausea, retching, diaphoresis, headache, palpitations, dizziness, apprehension, muscle twitching, retrosternal discomfort and abdominal pain have been observed. All these symptoms disappear with appropriate slowing or temporary interruption of the infusion. If excessive amounts of Hypoten L are given, collapse as well as toxic side effects (e. g. tinnitus, blurred vision, delirium) may occur as a result of too high plasma thiocyanate levels, although these symptoms may also be due to the underlying disease. Determination of the thiocyanate concentration may help in determining the cause. With gross overdosages, cyanide intoxication is possible (dizziness, rapid breathing, headache, sleepiness, tachycardia, unconsciousness, cramps). The safety of Hypoten L for women who are pregnant or in whom pregnancy cannot be ruled out has not been established. It should therefore be used in such cases only after the expected therapeutic benefit to the mother has been weighed against the possible hazard to the fetus. Hypoten L should be used with appropriate caution and initially in low doses for elderly patients since they may be more sensitive to the drug's hypotensive effects. Ganglionic blocking agents are known to augment the hypotensive effect of Hypoten L . During infusion the heartrate and bloodpressure must be carefully monitored. Thiocyanate inhibits both uptake and binding of iodine. Therefore use caution in giving the preparation to patients with hypothyroidism. Elimination of thiocyanate is dependant on adequate renal function and so care must be exercised in patients with severe renal insufficiency, for extended treatment of such patients, blood levels of thiocyanate should be determined daily and should not exceed 10 mg per 100 mL.

KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT: The first signs of sodium nitroprusside overdosage are those of profound hypotension. Metabolic acidosis may be an early indication of this overdosage. This may be associated with or followed by dyspnea, headache, vomiting, dizziness, ataxia and loss of consciousness. Sodium nitroprusside should then be immediately discontinued. Massive overdosage may also produce signs similar to those of cyanide poisoning with coma, imperceptible pulse, absent reflexes, widely dilated pupils, pink colour, distant heart sounds, hypotension and very shallow breathing. Oxygen alone will not provide relief. Nitrites should be administered to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin in turn, combines with cyanide bound to cytochrome oxidase to liberate cytrochrome oxidase and form a non-toxic complex, cyanmethemoglobin. Cyanide then gradually dissociates from the latter and is converted by administration of thiosulphate to sodium thiocyanate in the presence of rhodanese. Treatment: In cases of massive overdosage when signs of cyanide toxicity are present use the following regimen:

Discontinue administration of Hypoten L .

Administer amyl nitrite inhalations for 15 - 30 seconds each minute until a 3 % sodium nitrite solution can be prepared for administration.

Kinetra

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Etanol - Definition Of Etanol By The Free Dictionary, Etnol

ethanol

al•co•hol

(ˈ?l kəˌhɔl, -ˌhɒl)

1. Also called ethyl alcohol . grain alcohol. ethanol. a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, C 2 H 5 OH, produced by yeast fermentation of carbohydrates or, synthetically, by hydration of ethylene: used chiefly as a solvent and in beverages and medicines.

2. an intoxicating liquor containing this liquid.

3. any of a class of chemical compounds having the general formula ROH, where R represents an alkyl group and –OH a hydroxyl group.

[1535–45; < New Latin < Medieval Latin < Arabic al-kuḥl the powdered antimony, the distillate]

eth·a·nol

An alcohol, C 2 H 6 O, obtained from the fermentation of sugars and starches and also made artificially. It is the intoxicating ingredient of alcoholic beverages, and it is also used as a solvent. Also called ethyl alcohol . grain alcohol .

Thesaurus Antonyms Related Words Synonyms Legend:

ethanol - the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors; used pure or denatured as a solvent or in medicines and colognes and cleaning solutions and rocket fuel; proposed as a renewable clean-burning additive to gasoline

neutral spirits. ethyl alcohol - nonflavored alcohol of 95 percent or 190 proof used for blending with straight whiskies and in making gin and liqueurs

gasohol - a gasoline substitute consisting of 90% gasoline and 10% grain alcohol from corn

alcohol - any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation

absolute alcohol - pure ethyl alcohol (containing no more than 1% water)

denatured alcohol - ethyl alcohol that is unfit for drinking but is still useful for other purposes

plant product - a product made from plant material

Interactions, Usage, Facts, And Information On Amiloretic, Amiloretik

Why register with MediGuard?

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Amiloretic

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DISCLAIMER: MediGuard is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. MediGuard cannot and does not take into consideration every possible interaction or account for individual responses to medicine. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have before making any changes to your treatment. The use of the MediGuard site and its content is at your own risk. The MediGuard site and the information contained in it is intended for users in the United States and information in other countries may be different.

© Quintiles 2016

Finasteride Side Effects In Detail, Finasterin

Finasteride Side Effects

Commonly reported side effects of finasteride include: impotence and decreased libido. Other side effects include: impotence and decreased libido. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.

For the Consumer

Applies to finasteride: oral tablet

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by finasteride. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

Major Side Effects

You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking finasteride:

More common:

Chills

cold sweats

confusion

dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position

Less common:

Bloating or swelling of the face, arms, hands, lower legs, or feet

breast enlargement and tenderness

hives or welts

itchy skin

rapid weight gain

redness of the skin

skin rash

swelling of the lips and face

tingling of the hands or feet

unusual weight gain or loss

Incidence not known:

Clear or bloody discharge from the nipple

dimpling of the breast skin

inverted nipple

lump in the breast or under the arm

persistent crusting or scaling of the nipple

redness or swelling of the breast

sore on the skin of the breast that does not heal

Minor Side Effects

Some of the side effects that can occur with finasteride may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

More common:

Decreased interest in sexual intercourse

inability to have or keep an erection

loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance

Less common:

Runny nose

sleepiness or unusual drowsiness

sneezing

stuffy nose

Less common or rare:

Abdominal or stomach pain

back pain

decreased amount of semen

diarrhea

dizziness

headache

Incidence not known:

Testicular pain

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to finasteride: oral tablet

Genitourinary

Most men were older and were taking concomitant medications and/or had comorbid conditions: Very common (10% or more): Impotence (up to 18.5%) Common (1% to 10%): Abnormal ejaculation, decreased ejaculatory volume, abnormal sexual function, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, testicular pain, male infertility and/or poor seminal quality [Ref ]

Two hundred fourteen reports of gynecomastia in men taking finasteride in the United States were received by the FDA between June 1992 and February 1995. Among those reported, fifty eight percent were taking additional medications that have been associated with gynecomastia. Sixty nine of 86 patients who discontinued finasteride treatment had partial or complete remission.

New reports of drug-related sexual adverse experiences have been reported to decrease with duration of therapy.

Erectile dysfunction has been reported to continue beyond treatment discontinuation. Normalization or improvement of seminal quality has been reported after withdrawing finasteride treatment. [Ref ]

Endocrine

Finasteride may cause a decrease in PSA levels in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as in patients with prostate cancer. In one study, mean PSA reductions of 50% were noted, regardless of baseline levels. There was no indication that PSA levels were further suppressed in patients with prostate cancer.

PSA levels are commonly used in the screening process for prostate cancer. Patients who develop sustained increases in PSA while on finasteride therapy should be carefully evaluated for medical causes as well as noncompliance. [Ref ]

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Breast tenderness, breast enlargement Frequency not reported: Reductions in prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of approximately 50% [Ref ]

Nervous system

Common (1% to 10%): Decreased libido, dizziness, somnolence Frequency not reported: Headache [Ref ]

Cardiovascular

Common (1% to 10%): Postural hypotension, hypotension Postmarketing reports: Palpitations [Ref ]

Oncologic

Frequency not reported: A prevention or delay in the appearance of prostate cancer, an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer Postmarketing reports: Rare cases of male breast cancer [Ref ]

Gastrointestinal

Frequency not reported: Nausea, flatulence, abdominal pain [Ref ]

Dermatologic

A 58 year old man presented with an itchy, lumpy rash on upper and lower extremities following two weeks of finasteride treatment for prostatism. The patient had no known allergies and was taking no other medications prior to the episode. The finasteride was discontinued and dapsone was initiated. The rash resolved two weeks after finasteride therapy was stopped. [Ref ]

Rare (less than 0.1%): Rash Very rare (less than 0.01%): Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, solitary fixed drug eruption Postmarketing reports: Pruritus, urticaria, angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, throat, and face) [Ref ]

Hypersensitivity

Frequency not reported: Pruritus, urticaria, angioedema of the lips, tongue, throat, and face [Ref ]

Metabolic

Common (1% to 10%): Edema [Ref ]

Respiratory

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Rhinitis, dyspnea [Ref ]

Psychiatric

Frequency not reported: Depression

Musculoskeletal

Frequency not reported: Asthenia

Hepatic

Frequency not reported: Increased hepatic enzymes

References

1. "Product Information. Proscar (finasteride)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.

2. Steiner JF "Finasteride: a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor." Clin Pharm 12 (1993): 15-23

3. Gormley GJ, Stoner E, Bruskewitz RC, Imperato-McGinley J, Walsh PC, McConnell JD, Andriole GL, Geller J, Bracken BR, Tenover JS, et al "The effect of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Finasteride Study Group." N Engl J Med 327 (1992): 1185-91

4. Tammela TL, Kontturi MJ "Urodynamic effects of finasteride in the treatment of bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia." J Urol 149 (1993): 342-4

5. Ferrando J, Grimalt R, Alsina M, Bulla F, Manasievska E "Unilateral Gynecomastia Induced by Treatment With 1 mg of Oral Finasteride." Arch Dermatol 138 (2002): 543-4

6. Green L, Wysowski DK, Fourcroy JL "Gynecomastia and breast cancer during finasteride therapy." N Engl J Med 335 (1996): 823

7. Stoner E "5 alpha-reductase inhibitors/finasteride." Prostate Suppl 6 (1996): 82-7

8. Guess HA, Heyse JF, Gormley GJ "The effect of finasteride on prostate-specific antigen in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia." Prostate 22 (1993): 31-7

9. Guess HA, Gormley GJ, Stoner E, Oesterling JE "The effect of finasteride on prostate specific antigen: review of available data." J Urol 155 (1996): 3-9

10. Stoner E, Round E, Ferguson D, Gormley GJ "Clinical experience of the detection of prostate cancer in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with finasteride." J Urol 151 (1994): 1296-300

11. Volpi R, Maccarini PA, Boni S, Chiodera P, Coiro V "Finasteride-induced gynecomastia in a 62-year-old man." Am J Med Sci 309 (1995): 322-5

12. Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Tangen CM, et al. "The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer." N Engl J Med 349 (2003): 215-24

13. Australian Government. Department of Health. Therapeutic Goods Administration "Medicines Safety Update, Volume 4, Number 6, December 2013. Available from: URL: http://www. tga. gov. au/hp/msu-2013-06.htm." ([2013 Dec]):

14. Oyama N, Kaneko F "Solitary fixed drug eruption caused by finasteride." J Am Acad Dermatol 60 (2009): 168-9

15. Lear JT, Byrne JPH "Finasteride-related cutaneous vaculitis." Postgrad Med J 72 (1996): 127

Not all side effects for finasteride may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here .

Buy Ilggem - Ketoconazole - Online Without Prescriptions, Ilggem

Nizoral (Ilggem)

Nizoral is used for treating fungal infections. Nizoral is an azole antifungal. It kills sensitive fungi by interfering with the formation of the fungal cell membrane.

Use Nizoral as directed by your doctor!

Take Nizoral by mouth with or without food.

Do not take an antacid within 1 hour before or 2 hours after you take Nizoral.

If you are also taking an anticholinergic (eg, hyoscyamine), an H 2 antagonist (eg, famotidine), or a proton pump inhibitor (eg, omeprazole), take Nizoral at least 2 hours before the H 2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor, or anticholinergic.

To clear up your infection completely, take Nizoral for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.

Nizoral works best if it is taken at the same time each day.

If you miss a dose of Nizoral, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Nizoral.

Store Nizoral between 59 and 77 degrees F (15 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Nizoral out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Ketoconazole.

Do NOT use Nizoral if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Nizoral

you have a fungal infection in the brain membranes (fungal meningitis)

you are taking an aldosterone blocker (eg, eplerenone), astemizole, cisapride, conivaptan, dofetilide, an ergot alkaloid (eg, ergotamine), erythromycin, midazolam, nevirapine, pimozide, a quinazoline (eg, alfuzosin), quinidine, rifabutin, rifampin, terfenadine, triazolam, or a 5-HT receptor agonist (eg, eletriptan).

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Nizoral. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you are allergic to other azole antifungals (eg, itraconazole)

if you have low stomach acid (eg, hypochlorhydria)

if you have a history of liver disease, regular alcohol use, alcohol abuse or dependence, or blood problems (eg, prophyria).

Some medicines may interact with Nizoral. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines (eg, used for infections, HIV, seizures, anxiety, sleep, heartburn, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart problems, high blood pressure, allergies, irregular heartbeat, pain, blood thinning, asthma, migraines, mood or mental problems, cancer, prostate problems, immune system suppression, erectile dysfunction, urinary problems, or contraception [birth control]), multivitamin products, and herbal or dietary supplements may interact with Nizoral, increasing the risk of serious side effects

Nevirapine, rifabutin, or rifampin because they may decrease Nizoral's effectiveness

Astemizole, cisapride, dofetilide, erythromycin, pimozide, quinidine, or terfenadine because the risk of severe heart effects may be increased

Midazolam or triazolam because their actions and the risk of their side effects may be increased by Nizoral, resulting in increased risk of sedation and breathing difficulties

Aldosterone blockers (eg, eplerenone), conivaptan, ergot alkaloids (eg, ergotamine), quinazolines (eg, alfuzosin) or 5-HT receptor agonists (eg, eletriptan) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Nizoral.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Nizoral may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Nizoral may cause dizziness or drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Nizoral with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Rarely, Nizoral may cause a severe allergic reaction right after you take the first dose. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the eyelids, face, or lips; or rash or hives. If this happens, seek medical care at once.

Use of alcohol with Nizoral has rarely caused symptoms such as flushing, rash, swelling of the hands and feet, nausea, and headache. Talk with your doctor before drinking alcohol while taking Nizoral.

Do NOT take more than the recommended dose or use for longer than prescribed without checking with your doctor.

Nizoral only works against fungi; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold) or bacterial infections.

Be sure to use Nizoral for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The infection could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Diabetes patients - Nizoral may increase the risk of low blood sugar from your diabetes medicine. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Nizoral. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Lab tests, including liver function tests, may be performed while you use Nizoral. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Nizoral should be used with extreme caution in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Nizoral while you are pregnant. Nizoral is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while using Nizoral.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Nausea; stomach pain or upset.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); bloating; dark urine; decreased sexual ability; depression; irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; loss of appetite; numbness or tingling of the hands or feet; pale stools; severe or persistent nausea or stomach pain; swollen or tender abdomen; thoughts of suicide; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual tiredness or fatigue; vision changes; vomiting; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Customers who bought this product also bought

Good Evaluation And Reporting Practices From Humanitarian Missions Budosan Boris 9783659418501, Budo

Good Evaluation and Reporting Practices from Humanitarian Missions

Description

Humanitarian assistance is needed to assist populations affected by natural and man-made disasters worldwide. Consequently, many humanitarian projects are implemented in different countries each year. Because of global economic crisis and limited funds, proper evaluation of implemented projects becomes more and more important. Transparency in reporting results is needed because humanitarian projects usually involve many different stakeholders, such as local governments, UN organizations, local and international non-governmental organizations and local communities. General public from countries which provide funds for the projects also has the right to know if these projects are worth their tax money. This book is a compilation of final field reports from three humanitarian projects and it contains evaluation of their final results. All the information is presented according to good practices on evaluation and reporting. This book can be a very useful tool for humaitarian workers, especially for those who start their work in the field of humanitarian assistance.

Product details

Format Paperback | 156 pages

Dimensions 150.11 x 219.96 x 9.14mm | 281.23g

Publication date 07 Nov 2013

Publisher LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

Publication City/Country United States

Language English

Illustrations note black & white illustrations

ISBN10 3659418501

ISBN13 9783659418501

Sales rank 1,466,409

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Dolocam

FORMA FARMACпїЅUTICA Y FORMULACIпїЅN:

Cada tableta contiene:

Meloxicam. 7.5 mg y 15 mg

Excipiente c. b.p. 1 tableta.

DOLOCAM es un antiinflamatorio no esteroideo inhibidor selectivo de la COX-2 indicado para el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide aguda y crпїЅnica; de la osteoartritis (enfermedad articular degenerativa) de la periartritis de hombro y de cadera de la espondilitis anquilosante asпїЅ como de las distensiones musculares y de los ataques de gota. DOLOCAM es пїЅtil para el tratamiento de la inflamaciпїЅn y del dolor secundario a traumatismos asпїЅ como de los procesos inflamatorios de tejidos blandos (vпїЅas aпїЅreas) padecimientos ginecolпїЅgicos dismenorrea primaria.

FARMACOCINпїЅTICA Y FARMACODINAMIA:

El meloxicam es un antiinflamatorio no esteroideo que tiene actividad antiinflamatoria analgпїЅsica y antipirпїЅtica; posee un mecanismo de acciпїЅn especпїЅfico inhibiendo seпїЅlecпїЅtivamente a la COX-2 en relaciпїЅn con la COX-1. La inhibiciпїЅn de la COX-2 es la responsable de las acciones terapeпїЅticas de los AINEs y la inhibiciпїЅn de la COX-1 es la responsable de los efectos secundarios a nivel gastrointestinal y renal.

El meloxicam se absorbe por completo despuпїЅs de su administraciпїЅn oral o intramuscular; esta absorciпїЅn no se modifica por la ingestiпїЅn simultпїЅnea de alimentos cuando es ingerido. Posterior a una administraciпїЅn oral se obtienen concentraciones mпїЅximas de 1.6 пїЅg/ml en aproximadamente 50 a 60 minutos. La dosificaciпїЅn diaria alcanza concentraciones plasmпїЅticas entre 0.4-1.0 пїЅg/ml o de 0.8-2 пїЅg/ml para dosis de 7.5 y 15 mg respectivamente y se obtienen concentraciones en estado de equilibrio al cabo de un lapso de 3 a 5 dпїЅas. El meloxicam se une a las proteпїЅnas plasmпїЅticas en 99% su volumen de distribuciпїЅn es bajo con variaciones interindividuales del 30 al 40%.

El meloxicam tiene una buena penetraciпїЅn en lпїЅquido sinovial con niveles equivalentes a la mitad de las concentraciones plasmпїЅticas. El meloxicam se metaboliza principalmente por oxidaciпїЅn del grupo metilo de la molпїЅcula tiazolil. Tiene una vida media de eliminaciпїЅn de aproximadamente 20 horas. El aclaramiento plasmпїЅtico es en promedio de 8 ml/min y disminuye en sujetos de edad avanzada. Alrededor de la mitad de la dosis se elimina por la orina y el resto lo hace a travпїЅs de las heпїЅces; en orina se encuentran huellas del fпїЅrmaco sin modiпїЅficar. La farmacocinпїЅtica no se modifica en caso de insuficiencia hepпїЅtica o renal de grados medio a moderado.

Hipersensibilidad conocida al principio activo o a cualquier componente de la fпїЅrmula. Existe un riesgo de sensibilidad cruzada con el пїЅcido acetilsalicпїЅlico y otros antiinflamatorios no esteroideos por lo que no debe prescribirse a pacientes con antecedentes cuya administraciпїЅn previa de dichos fпїЅrпїЅmaпїЅcos haya dado lugar a manifestaciones de asma angioпїЅedema o urticaria. No se recomienda su empleo durante el embarazo y la lactancia asпїЅ como en casos de пїЅlcera pпїЅptica activa o de insuficiencia hepпїЅtica o renal severa.

RESTRICCIONES DE USO DURANTE EL EMBARAZO Y LA LACTANCIA:

Debe tenerse precauciпїЅn al igual que con otros AINEs en pacientes con enfermedad acidopпїЅptica o que se encuentren bajo tratamiento con anticoagulantes. DeberпїЅ vigilarse a pacientes ancianos o con insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva cirrosis hepпїЅtica sпїЅndrome nefrпїЅtico o enfermedad renal previa o sujetos sometidos a procedimientos quirпїЅrgicos mayores que se encuentren en riesgo de presentar hipovolemia ya que son mпїЅs sensibles a la inhibiciпїЅn de la sпїЅntesis de prostaglandinas renales que son necesarias para la adecuada perfusiпїЅn renal por lo que el volumen urinario y la funciпїЅn renal deberпїЅn ser vigiladas desde el inicio del tratamiento.

REACCIONES SECUNDARIAS Y ADVERSAS:

Como sucede con otros AINEs los sпїЅntomas gastrointestinales han sido los mпїЅs frecuentes; dispepsia nпїЅusea diarrea dolor abdominal. VпїЅmitos constipaciпїЅn flatulencia. PueпїЅde presentarse prurito y rash cutпїЅneo cefalea mareo anemia y edema.

INTERACCIONES MEDICAMENTOSAS Y DE OTRO GпїЅNERO:

Tiene interacciones con otros AINEs inclusive salicilatos en dosis altas anticoagulantes orales y parenterales litio y metotrexato antihipertensivos como betabloqueadores y algunos inhibidores de la ECA.

ALTERACIONES EN LOS RESULTADOS DE PRUEBAS DE LABORATORIO:

Al igual que con otros AINEs ocasionalmente pueden presentarse elevaciones de las transaminasas sпїЅricas o de otros indicadores de la funciпїЅn hepпїЅtica.

PRECAUCIONES EN RELACIпїЅN CON EFECTOS DE CARCINOGпїЅNESIS MUTAGпїЅNESIS TERATOGпїЅNESIS Y SOBRE LA FERTILIDAD:

No tiene activiпїЅdad carcinogпїЅnica. No se han reportado efectos teratogпїЅnicos mutagпїЅnicos ni alteraciones sobre la fertilidad.

DOSIS Y VпїЅA DE ADMINISTRACIпїЅN:

DOLOCAM se administra en dosis de 7.5 пїЅ 15 mg en una sola toma al dпїЅa. La dosis mпїЅxima recomendada es de 15 mg al dпїЅa.

MANIFESTACIONES Y MANEJO DE LA SOBREDOSIFICACIпїЅN O INGESTA ACCIDENTAL:

No se han reportado casos de sobredosificaciпїЅn sin embargo en caso de que se presentaran se recomienda el vaciamiento gпїЅstrico y tratamiento sintomпїЅtico.

Puede acelerarse la eliminaciпїЅn del meloxicam administrando 4 mg de colestiramina cada 8 horas.

Caja con 7 y 14 tabletas de 7.5 mg.

Caja con 10 tabletas de 15 mg.

RECOMENDACIONES SOBRE ALMACENAMIENTO:

ConsпїЅrvese en lugar fresco y seco.

LEYENDAS DE PROTECCIпїЅN:

Literatura exclusiva para mпїЅdicos. Su venta requiere receta mпїЅdica. No se deje al alcance de los niпїЅos. No debe administrarse a mujeres embarazadas y lactando ni en menores de 12 aпїЅos.

REPRESENTACIONES E INVESTIGACIONES MпїЅDICAS S. A. de C. V.

Reg. NпїЅm. 316M2000 S. S. A.

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