Sizomax (2 Mg)- Risperidone- Tablet Medicine Side-Effects, Usage Of Risperidone, Sizomax (2 Mg)- Ris

Sizomax (2 mg)- Risperidone - Tablet is used for Schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder.

Sizomax (2 mg)- Risperidone - Tablet is made by RPG Life Sciences Ltd

The compostion is Risperidone: costs about Rs.2.02 in India

Known Side Effects of Sizomax (2 mg)- Risperidone - Tablet

Sedation, insomnia, agitation extra pyramidal symptoms, dizziness, anxiety and rhinitis. Orthostatic hypotension, constipation, rash and allergy, galactorrhoea, gynaecomastia, menstrual disorders. Weight gain, oedema, tardive dyskinesia. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Compare the price of other similar medicines contains the same Generic medicine - Sizomax (2 mg) Risperidone.

Usage of Sizomax (2 mg)- Risperidone - Tablet

When not to use Sizomax (2 mg)- Risperidone - Tablet

Hypersensitivity. Pregnancy and lactation.

Caution when using Sizomax (2 mg)- Risperidone - Tablet

Preexisting CV disease. Renal and hepatic impairment. Elderly. Epilepsy, Parkinsonism. Drowsiness and orthostatic hypotension. Patients at risk of developing diabetes.

Manufactured by

RPG Life Sciences Ltd

Type of medicine

Gsk Terms Of Use, Zolterol

GSK Terms of Use

Healthcare information

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The section for the public has been designed as a library resource to provide reference information relating to GSK medicines, including but not limited to, prescription only medicines, to the public within the United Kingdom. Within the public section there are specific patient-only pages for those who have been prescribed the medicine relating to those pages. These pages remain hidden from site navigation and can only be accessed once a member of the public has confirmed they are a patient that has been prescribed a particular medicine.

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Izopamil Lekovi, Izopamil

Izopamil

Informacije o leku Izopamil, mere opreza, nacin primene, nezeljena dejstva

Izopamil sadrzi aktivnu supstancu koja se naziva verapamil. Izopamil je lek koji pripada grupi lekova koji se nazivaju blokatori kalcijumskih kanala (kalcijumski blokatori). Izopamil deluje tako sto menja prolaz kalcijuma kroz kalcijumske kanale u glatkim misicima. Ovaj efekat dovodi do opustanja srcanog misica kao i i misica zidova krvnih sudova. Rezultat svega ovoga je smanjena potreba srca za kiseonikom (zbog cega se koristi u terapiji Prinzmetal-ove angine pektoris), olaksan protok krvi kroz krvne sudove (zbog cega se koristi u terapiji povisenog krvnog pritiska-hipertenzije) i usporavanje rada srca (zbog cega se koristi u terapiji tahikardije-ubrzan rad srca).

Mere opreza

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati ili se moze primenjivati ali uz veliki oprez u sledecim stanjima:

Atrioventrikularni blok (AV) I, II ili III stepen. Izopamil moze dodatno da uspori rad srca i da dovede do srcanog zastoja.

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji imaju ili su imali kardiogeni sok!

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji imaju usporen rad srca (bradikardija)

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji boluju od hipotenzije (nizak krvni pritisak)

Izopamil se mora primenjivati sa velikim oprezom kod pacijenata koji imaju ostecenje jetre. Izopamil se izlucuje iz organizma preko jetre, te pacijenti koji imaju ostecenje jetre mogu da koriste Izopamil, ali u manjim dozama.

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji boluju od mijastenije gravis (ostecenje misica).

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji boluju od srcane insuficijencije

Izopamil se mora primenjivati uz veliki oprez kod pacijenata koji boluju od ostecenjem bubrega

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji boluju od Wolff-Parkinson-White sindroma

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati kod pacijenata koji imaju ugraden pejsmejker (pacemaker)

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati u kombinaciji sa lekovima koji se zovu beta blokatori a koriste se za lecenje visokog krvnog pritiska kao sto su: propranolol. bisoprolol, metoprolol, nebivolol, atenolol (Prinorm) i drugi. Beta blokatori mogu da uspore rad srca kao i Izopamil, te kombinacija ovih lekova moze da dovede do zastoja srca!

Vodite racuna da prilikom koriscenja Izopamil tableta ne ustajete naglo iz lezeceg polozaja, jer se moze javiti ortostatska hipotenzija. Ortostatska hipotenzija se karakterise naglim padom krvnog pritiska kada naglo ustajete iz lezeceg polozaja, pri cemu se javljaju vrtoglavica i nesvestica. Ako dode do gubitka svesti, bolesnika treba staviti u lezeci polozaj i podici mu i ruke i noge. Ukoliko dode do gubitka svesti, odmah se obratite lekaru.

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati u kombinaciji sa grejpfrutom ili sokom od grejpfruta, jer ovo voce moze da pojaca dejstvo Izopamil tableta i da dovede do pojave nezeljenih efekata.

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati ni u kombinaciji sa alkoholnim picima, jer alkoholna pica pojacavaju dejstvo Izopamil tableta i mogu da dovedu do pojave nezeljenih efekata.

Ukoliko primetite usporen rad srca (bradikardija) odmah se javite vasem lekaru!

Primena tokom trudnoce i dojenja

Prema americkoj agenciji za hranu i lekove, Izopamil spada u grupu C (FDA: Group C). To znaci da postoje ispitivanja na zivotinjama koja su pokazala da je Izopamil stetan po plod, ali ne postoje ispitivanja na ljudima! Izopamil se moze primenjivati tokom trudnoce, samo ako je korist za majku veca od rizika za dete.

Izopamil se izlucuje u mleko dojilja i moze naskoditi vasoj bebi. Nemojte da dojite vasu bebu dok ste na terapiji Izopamil tabletama.

Nacin primene

Maksimalna dnevna doza je 480 mg!

Smanjenje doze Izopamil tableta je neophodno kod starijih pacijenata (stariji od 65 godina) kao i kod pacijenata koji imaju ostecenje jetre!

Izopamil se uzima uz obrok ili odmah nakon obroka, uz malo vode. Tabletu progutajte celu. Nemojte da je lomite ili zvacete, jer se tako moze smanjiti dejstvo Izopamil tableta.

Kao sto smo vec napomenuli, Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati u kombinaciji sa grejpfrutom ili alkoholnim picima, jer ove namirnice pojacavaju dejstvo Izopamil tableta.

Vodite racuna da ne ustajete naglo dok ste na terapiji Izopamil tabletama, kako biste izbegli pojavu ortostatske hipotenzije (nagli pad krvnog pritiska prilikom ustajanja iz lezeceg polozaja).

Ukoliko osecate nesvesticu ili vrtoglavicu, nemojte da upravljate motornim vozilima dok ste na terapiji Izopamil tabletama.

Predoziranje

Simptomi predoziranja su: nesvestica, glavobolja, crvenilo, vrtoglavica, bradikardija (usporen rad srca).

Lecenje podrazumeva primenu 10%-og kalcijum glukonata u obliku infuzije u kolicini od 20 ml i simptomatsko lecenje. Bradikardiju treba leciti primenom atropina. Odmah se obratite lekaru ukoliko ste uzeli vise Izopamil tableta nego sto vam je lekar preporucio.

Primena sa drugim lekovima (Interakcije)

Izopamil se ne sme primenjivati u kombinaciji sa sledecim lekovima:

Beta blokatori kao sto su: bisoprolol, propranolol, nebivolol, metoprolol, atenolol (Prinorm) i drugi. Ovi lekovi kao i Izopamil, usporavaju rad srca i mogu da dovedu do zastoja srca ako se primenjuju u kombinaciji sa Izopamil tabletama.

Izopamil pojacava dejstvo kolhicin tableta koje se koriste za lecenje gihta (oboljenje zglobova), te se ova dva leka ne smeju primenjivati istovremeno.

Izopamil pojacava i dejstvo lekova koji se koriste za snizavanje holesterola (tzv. statini) kao sto su: rosuvastatin. simvastatin (Cholipam), fluvastatin. lovastatin. atorvastatin i drugi.

Antibiotici, kao sto su: eritromicin, klaritromicin, telitromicin, itrakonazol, ketokonazol i drugi. Ovi lekovi pojacavaju dejstvo Izopamil tableta i mogu da dovedu do pojave nezeljenih efekata Izopamil tableta.

Lekovi koji se koriste u terapiji side (HIV) kao sto su: sakvinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, efavirenz, lopinavir i drugi.

Lekovi koji se koriste u terapiji srcane insuficijencije kao sto su: digoksin, digitoksin.

Lekovi koji se koriste za lecenje tuberkuloze kao sto su: izoniazid, rifampicin.

Lekovi koji se koriste za lecenje epilepsije kao sto su: karbamazepin, fenitoin, fenobarbiton.

Drugi blokatori kalcijuma kao sto su: diltiazem. nifedipin. felodipin. nimodipin. nikardipin, amlodipin i drugi.

Nezeljena dejstva

Izopamil moze da izazove sledeca nezeljena dejstva: vrtoglavica, nesvestica, glabovolja, crvenilo, tremor (drhtanje), usporen rad srca (bradikardija), nizak krvni pritisak (hipotenzija), mucnina, povracanje, opstipacija (zatvor), Stevens-Johnson-ov sindrom (veoma tesko oboljenje koze), uvecanje grudi kod muskaraca (ginekomastija), poremecaj raspolozenja, simptomi slicni gripu (upala grla, kasalj), alergija i drugi.

Obavestite lekara ako primetite bilo koji nezeljeni efekat.

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Apotek Arofat News Levofloxacin Ampuh Untuk Infeksi Bakteri Langka, Ketopain

Lembaga Obat dan Makanan Amerika telah menyetujui bahwa Levofloxacin sebagai obat yang mampu mengatasi infeksi akibat bakteri langka yang mematikan.

Dalam siaran berita yang dilansir oleh Drugs. com beberapa waktu yang lalu, Levofloxacin digunakan untuk mengobati infeksi bakteri pada kulit, sinus, ginjal, kandung kemih, atau prostat. Levofloxacin juga bisa digunakan sebagai obat untuk mengobati infeksi bakteri yang menyebabkan bronchitis, pneumonia, atau bahkan sebagai obat wabah antraks.

Meski dikatakan ampuh sebagai penghalau bakteri tertentu, namun sayangnya penggunaan Levofloxacin memiliki efek samping tertentu seperti mual, sakit kepala, diare, insomnia, sembelit dan pusing. Efek samping serius lainnya seperti kerusakan hati, masalah pada sistem darah dan saraf, dan irama jantung yang abnormal. Agar tidak mengalami efek samping yang buruk ini, ada baiknya berkonsultasi dengan dokter atau memperhatikan hal-hal penting di bawah ini.

Beritahu dokter apabila Anda memiliki gangguan ginjal atau penyakit hati, kelemahan otot, kesulitan bernapas, gangguan pada persendian, kejang, diabetes, atau memiliki reaksi alergi terhadap antibiotik.

Hindari mengonsumsi antasid, vitamin atau suplemen mineral, sukralfat (Carafate), atau tablet kunyah dalam waktu 2 jam sebelum atau setelah Anda mengonsumsi Levofloxacin.

Berhentilah untuk mengonsumsi Levofloxacin jika Anda merasakan nyeri atau bengkak pada sendi.

Valsartan - Brand Name List From, Cardival

Valsartan

See also.

Disclaimer: The indications, uses and warnings for individual medications outside the USA are determined by local regulatory bodies in each country or region. The Drugs. com website is intended primarily for audiences in the United States and its territories. Indications, uses and warnings on Drugs. com patient information leaflets are derived from FDA product labels and may differ in countries outside the USA. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided on this page is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drugs. com does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend specific therapies. The information on this page is not a substitute for the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that a drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Drugs. com does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information provided here. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Always consult your doctor or healthcare specialist for medical advice.

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Buy Globuce - Ciprofloxacin - Online Without Prescriptions, Globuce

Ciplox (Globuce)

Ciplox is used to treat different types of bacterial infections. It may also be used to prevent or slow anthrax after exposure.

Take Cipro exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Take Cipro with a full glass of water (8 ounces). Drink several extra glasses of fluid each day while you are taking this medicine. Cipro may be taken with or without food, but take it at the same time each day. Shake the oral suspension (liquid) for at least 15 seconds just before you measure a dose. To be sure you get the correct dose, measure the liquid with a marked measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.

When taking the Cipro oral liquid, swallow it without chewing the medicine beads you may notice in the liquid.

Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Do not take Cipro with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. You may eat or drink these products as part of a regular meal, but do not use them alone when taking Cipro. They could make the medication less effective.

Take Cipro for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Cipro will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.

Store Cipro at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

If you missed a dose - take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Take exactly as prescribed by your Health Provider.

Store this medicine at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Do not allow the liquid medicine to freeze.

You should not use Ciplox if you are taking tizanidine (Zanaflex), if you have a history of myasthenia gravis, or if you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar antibiotics such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

Before taking Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have a heart rhythm disorder, kidney or liver disease, joint problems, diabetes, muscle weakness or trouble breathing, a condition called pseudotumor cerebri, a history of seizures, a history of head injury or brain tumor, low levels of potassium in your blood, a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome, or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic.

Do not take Ciplox with dairy products such as milk or yogurt, or with calcium-fortified juice. Avoid taking antacids, vitamin or mineral supplements, sucralfate (Carafate), or didanosine (Videx) powder or chewable tablets within 6 hours before or 2 hours after you take Ciplox. Ciprofloxacin may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions.

You should NOT take Ciplox if:

you are also taking tizanidine (Zanaflex);

you have a history of myasthenia gravis; or

you are allergic to ciprofloxacin or similar medications such as gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin (Levaquin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), ofloxacin (Floxin), norfloxacin (Noroxin), and others.

To make sure you can safely take Ciplox, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

heart rhythm disorder, especially if you take quinidine (Quin-G), disopyramide (Norpace), bretylium (Bretylol), procainamide (Pronestyl, Procan SR), amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), or sotalol (Betapace);

a history of head injury or brain tumor;

a condition called pseudotumor cerebri (high pressure inside the skull that may cause headaches, vision loss, or other symptoms);

a history of allergic reaction to an antibiotic;

joint problems;

kidney or liver disease;

epilepsy or seizures;

diabetes;

muscle weakness or trouble breathing;

low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia); or

a personal or family history of Long QT syndrome.

FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether Ciplox will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using it. Ciprofloxacin passes into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Ciplox may cause swelling or tearing of a tendon (the fiber that connects bones to muscles in the body), especially in the Achilles' tendon of the heel. These effects may be more likely to occur if you are over 60, if you take steroid medication, or if you have had a kidney, heart, or lung transplant. Stop taking Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have sudden pain, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or movement problems in any of your joints. Rest the joint until you receive medical care or instructions. Do not share Ciplox with another person (especially a child), even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Ciplox: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using Ciplox and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;

sudden pain, snapping or popping sound, bruising, swelling, tenderness, stiffness, or loss of movement in any of your joints;

diarrhea that is watery or bloody;

confusion, hallucinations, depression, unusual thoughts or behavior;

seizure (convulsions);

severe headache, ringing in your ears, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, pain behind your eyes;

pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, fever, weakness;

urinating less than usual or not at all;

easy bruising or bleeding;

numbness, tingling, or unusual pain anywhere in your body;

the first sign of any skin rash, no matter how mild; or

severe skin reaction -- fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain, followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.

Less serious side effects:

nausea, vomiting;

dizziness or drowsiness;

blurred vision;

feeling nervous, anxious, or agitated; or

sleep problems (insomnia or nightmares).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

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Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

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Medorisper 0, 5 Mg ~ Pribalovy Letak, Skupina, Ucinky, Medorisper

Medorisper 0,5 Mg

Prectete si pozorne celou pribalovou informaci drive, nez zacnete tento pripravek uzivat.

Ponechte si pribalovou informaci pro pripad, ze si ji budete potrebovat precist znovu. Mate-li pripadne dalsi otazky, zeptejte se, prosim, sveho lekare nebo lekarnika. Tento pripravek byl predepsan Vam, a proto jej nedavejte zadne dalsi osobe. Mohl by ji ublizit, a to i tehdy, ma-li stejne priznaky jako Vy.

Pokud se u Vas zhorsuji jakekoli z nezadoucich ucinku nebo pokud si povsimnete nezadoucich ucinku, ktere nejsou uvedeny v teto pribalove informaci, sdelte to, prosim, Vasemu lekari nebo lekarnikovi.

V teto pribalove informaci naleznete :

Co je to MEDORISPER a k cemu s pouziva

Cemu je treba venovat pozornost, nez zacnete MEDORISPER uzivat

Jak se MEDORISPER uziva

Mozne nezadouci ucinky

Uchovavani pripravku MEDORISPER

MEDORISPER je antipsychotikum. Psychoza narusuje funkci mozku tak, ze ovlivnuje myslenky, pocity a chovani. Muzete se citit, ze jste sledovani, slyset hlasy, jen obtizne se soustredit nebo se citit odcizeny. MEDORISPER zmirnuje nebo zcela potlacuje tyto priznaky psychozy.

Schizofrenie; akutni a chronicke schizofrenni psychozy

Urcitych nemoci s manickou fazi, charakterizovanych symptomy jako povznesena, sdilna nebo vznetliva nalada, nezdrave sebevedomi, snizena potreba spanku, nutkava rec, myslenkovy trysk, roztrzitost nebo chybny usudek vcetne rusiveho nebo agresivniho chovani.

slabomyslnych nebo mentalne retardovanych deti, dospivajicich a dospelych tam, kde nicive chovani dominuje (napr. agresivita, impulzivnost a sebeposkozovani) a kde psychosocialni terapie bez pouziti leciv nema patricny ucinek.

Lekar muze MEDORISPER predepsat i pro jine pouziti. Vzdy se drzte pokynu lekare.

Neuzivejte MEDORISPER pokud jste alergicti (precitliveli) na risperidon nebo jakoukoli jinou slozku pripravku MEDORISPER .

Informujte se pred uzivanim MEDORISPER U u Vaseho lekare, pokud mate nebo jste prodelal nasledujici onemocneni, nebot muze byt nutne pro Vas upravit davku:

Nizky krevni tlak spojeny se zavratemi (ortostaticka hypotenze)

Onemocneni ledvin nebo jater

Onemocneni srdce nebo cev

Starsi osoby s demenci maji pri lecbe risperidonem zvysene riziko mrtvice (mozna i smrtelne) a prechodne snizeneho privodu krve do mozku (prechodny ischemicky zachvat). To se projevuje nahlym ztrnutim obliceje, nohou a pazi (jen na jedne strane tela), nezretelnou mluvou a poruchami videni. Pokud se takove priznaky objevi, je treba okamzite vyhledat lekare.

Je treba vyvarovat se prejidani, nebot je zde zvysene riziko pribyvani na vaze.

MEDORISPER obsahuje monohydrat laktosy. Pred uzivani pripravku se obratte na sveho lekare, pokud vite, ze nesnasite urcite typy cukru.

Uzivani jinych leku

Informujte, prosim, Vaseho lekare nebo lekarnika, pokud uzivate nebo jste v posledni dobe uzival/a jine leky, vcetne leku bez lekarskeho predpisu, prirodnich doplnku stravy, silnych vitaminu a mineralu.

Zvlaste dulezite je informovat lekare pokud uzivate nasledujici leky:

stimulatory dopaminu napr. levodopa, bromokriptin a pergolid (na Parkinsonovu chorobu), protoze risperidon muze pusobit proti ucinku techto latek

latky zvysujici koncentraci jaternich enzymu, napr. karbamazepin (na epilepsii), nebot tyto latky mohou snizovat koncentraci risperidonu v plazme a tim snizovat jeho antipsychoticky efekt

centralne pusobici leky, napr. tablety na spani a urcite leky proti bolesti, nebot tyto preparaty mohou zvysovat plazmatickou koncentraci risperidonu, ale nemaji vliv na antipsychoticky ucinek risperidonu

urcite leky proti depresi, napr. paroxetin a fluoxetin, protoze tyto latky mohou zvysit koncentraci risperidonu v plazme, nicmene antipsychoticky ucinek ovlivnuji jen malo

urcite beta-blokatory (na srdce a krevni tlak), nebot mohou zvysovat plazmatickou koncentraci risperidonu, ale nemaji vliv na antipsychoticky ucinek risperidonu

furosemid (diuretikum), nebot pacienti uzivajici zaroven furosemid a risperidon maji vyssi umrtnost

Kontaktujte Vaseho lekare. Muze byt nutne upravit davku.

MEDORISPER lze uzivat spolu s jidlem a pitim. MEDORISPER muze zvysit ucinek alkoholu. Proto byste behem uzivani MEDORISPER U nemel/a pit alkohol.

Tehotenstvi a kojeni

Poradte se se svym lekarem nebo lekarnikem drive, nez zacnete uzivat jakykoliv lek.

Neuzivejte MEDORISPER . pokud jste tehotna.

Neuzivejte MEDORISPER . pokud kojite.

Rizeni a obsluha stroju

Uzivani MEDORISPER U muze vest k ospalosti. Tento fakt musite mit na mysli, pokud se chystate ridit nebo obsluhovat stroje.

MEDORISPER obsahuje monohydrat laktozy. Prosim, podivejte se vyse do casti „ Venujte uzivani MEDORISPER U zvlastni p ozornost “ . 2 mg tablety obsahuji barvivo hlinity lak oranzove zluti (E110), ktere muze pusobit alergicke reakce.

MEDORISPER uzivejte vzdy presne podle pokynu lekare. Pokud si nejste necim jisti, zeptejte se sveho lekare nebo lekarnika. Obvykle davkovani je toto:

Schizofrenie; akutni a chronicke schizofrenni psychozy

MEDORISPER muze byt podavan jednou nebo dvakrat denne.

Obvykla pocatecni davka je 2 mg denne. Davka se postupne behem nekolika dni podle pokynu lekare zvysuje na obvyklou udrzovaci davku 4 az 6 mg denne v jedne nebo dvou davkach.

Je dulezite davku spravne nastavit. Ridte se podle pokynu lekare.

S lecbou deti do 15 let nejsou zkusenosti.

N emoci s manickou fazi, charakterizovane symptomy jako povznesena, sdilna nebo vznetliva nalada, nezdrave sebevedomi, snizena potreba spanku, nutkava rec, myslenkov y trysk, roztrzitost nebo chybny usud e k vcetne rus iveho nebo agresivniho chovani.

MEDORISPER muze byt podavan jednou denne.

Pocatecni davka MEDORISPER U by mela byt 2 mg/den. Tuto davku lze individualne nastavit po 1 mg/den kazdych 24 hodin. Pro vetsinu pacientu je optimalni udrzovaci davka 2 az 6 mg/den.

Je dulezite davku spravne nastavit. Ridte se podle pokynu lekare.

S lecbou deti a dospivajicich do 18 let nejsou zkusenosti.

Slabomyslne nebo mentalne retardovane deti, adolescent i a dospel i tam, kde nicive chovani dominuje (napr. agresivita, impul s ivnost a sebeposkozovani) a kde psychosocialni terapie bez pouziti leciv nema patricny ucinek.

Dospeli (s vahou nad 50 kg):

Doporucuje se pocatecni davka 0,5 mg jednou denne. Tato davka muze byt kazdy dalsi den individualne nastavovana po 0,5 mg jednou denne. Optimalni davka pro vetsinu pacientu je 1 mg jednou denne.

Deti a dospivajici (s vahou do 50 kg):

Doporucuje se pocatecni davka 0,25 mg jednou denne. Tato davka muze byt kazdy dalsi den individualne nastavovana po 0,25 mg jednou denne. Optimalni davka pro vetsinu pacientu je 0,5 mg jednou denne. S lecbou deti mladsich 5 let nejsou klinicke zkusenosti.

Poskozeni jater a ledvin

Je dulezite davku snizit. Drzte se pokynu lekare. Vase davka je individualni.

Pokud si vezmete vice MEDORISPER U . nez je zmineno v teto pribalove informaci nebo nez Vam lekar predepsal, kontaktujte lekare, pohotovost nebo lekarnu.

Priznaky predavkovani jsou ospalost, spavost, buseni srdce, nizky krevni tlak, tres a ztuhle svalstvo.

Nikdy si ve snaze nahradit zapomenutou davku neberte 2 davky soucasne. Vezmete si dalsi davku v obvyklem case.

Zmena nebo ukonceni lecby by melo byt provedeno pouze se souhlasem Vaseho lekare. Lecba MEDORISPER EM by mela byt obvykle ukoncena postupne.

priznaky z nahleho preruseni lecby jsou tyto: nevolnost, zvraceni, poceni, nespavost, mimovolni pohybove poruchy (napr. nepokoj, dystonie a dyskineza).

Mozne nezadouci ucinky

Jako u vsech leku, i pri uzivani MEDORISPER U se u nekterych lidi mohou vyskytnout nechtene ucinky. Ty se nazyvaji nezadouci ucinky.

Zavazne nezadouci ucinky

Mene caste nezadouci ucinky (vyskytuji se u 1 az 10 pacientu z 1000):

Mrtvice (mozna i smrtelna) a prechodne snizeny privod krve do mozku (prechodny ischemicky zachvat). To se projevuje nahlym ztrnutim obliceje, nohou a pazi (jen na jedne strane tela), nezretelnou mluvou a poruchami videni. Prosim, podivejte se vyse do casti „ Venujte uzivani MEDORISPER U zvlastni pozornost “ .

Stav s rigiditou svalstva, horeckou snizenou pricetnosti (maligni neurolepticky syndrom).

Pokud se takove priznaky objevi, je treba okamzite vyhledat lekare.

Nezavazne nezadouci ucinky

Caste nezadouci ucinky (vyskytuji se u 1 az 10 pacientu ze 100):

Poruchy spanku, vzrusenost, uzkost, bolest hlavy. Sedace (utlum) byla popsana casteji u deti a dospivajicich nez u dospelych. Obecne je sedace lehka a jen prechodna.

Mene caste nezadouci ucinky (vyskytuji se u 1 az 10 pacientu z 1000):

Unava, zavrat, obtizne soustredeni, zacpa, nevolnost, zvraceni, bolest zaludku, rozmazane videni, zmeny v sexualnich schopnostech, inkontinence (pomocovani), zmeny menstruacniho cyklu, produkce materskeho mleka, zvetseni prsni zlazy u muzu, ryma, vyrazka a jine alergicke reakce.

Svalova ztuhlost, snizena pohybova schopnost, tres.

Krece, mimovolni pohyby jazyka (tardivni dyskineza).

Buseni srdce a zavrat behem prechodu ze sedu nebo lehu do stoje, nizky krevni tlak (hypotenze).

Zmena slozeni krve a zvyseni hodnot jaternich enzymu.

Prirustek na vaze, zadrzovani tekutin (edem), poruchy telesne teploty.

Vzacne nebo velmi vzacne se mohou vyskytnout dalsi nezavazne nezadouci ucinky, ktere zde nejsou uvedeny. Chcete-li byt o nich informovani, obratte se na Vaseho lekare nebo lekarnika.

Pokud se u Vas zhorsuji jakekoli z nezadoucich ucinku nebo pokud si povsimnete nezadoucich ucinku, ktere nejsou uvedeny v teto pribalove informaci, sdelte to, prosim, Vasemu lekari nebo lekarnikovi. Nektere nezadouci ucinky mohou vyzadovat lecbu.

Uchovavejte mimo dosah a dohled deti.

Nepouzivejte po uplynuti doby pouzitelnosti vyznacene na obale.

Pokud Vam lekar rekne, ze mate uzivani prerusit, odneste zbyle tobolky k Vasemu lekarnikovi.

MEDORISPER potahovane tablety 0,5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg a 8 mg.

Lecivou latkou v pripravku MEDORISPER je risperidonum. Jenda tableta obsahuje 0,5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg, 6 mg nebo 8 mg risperidonu.

Krome toho MEDORISPER obsahuje pomocne latky:

Monohydrat laktosy, kukuricny skrob, natrium-lauryl-sulfat, mikrokrystalicka celulosa, hypromelosa 2910/15 (E464), koloidni bezvody oxid kremicity, magnesium-stearat.

Hypromelosa 2910/5 (E464), oxid titanicity (E171), propylenglykol, mastek.

Dalsi pomocne latky

0,5 mg: Hneda Opadry: oxid zelezity zluty, cerveny a cerny (E172)

1 mg: Bila Opadry: oxid titanicity (E171)

2 mg: Oranzova Opadry: chinolinovy lak oranzove zluti (E110)

3 mg: Zluta Opadry: hlinity lak chinolinove zluti (E104)

4 mg: Zelena Opadry: indigokarmin (E132), hlinity lak chinolinove zluti (E104)

6 mg: Zluta Opadry: hlinity lak chinolinove zluti (E104)

8 mg: Zelena Opadry: indigokarmin (E132), hlinity lak chinolinove zluti (E104)

Jak pripravek vypada

0,5 mg: hnede ovalne potahovane tablety 11 x 5,5 mm, s oboustrannou pulici ryhou1 mg: bile ovalne potahovane tablety 11 x 5,5 mm, s oboustrannou pulici ryhou

2 mg: oranzove ovalne potahovane tablety 11 x 5,5 mm, s oboustrannou pulici ryhou

3 mg: zlute ovalne potahovane tablety 11 x 5,5 mm, s oboustrannou pulici ryhou

4 mg: zelene ovalne potahovane tablety 11 x 5,5 mm, s oboustrannou pulici ryhou

6 mg: zlute kulate bikonvexni potahovane tablety o prumeru 8 mm s pulici ryhou na jedne strane

8 mg: zelene kulate bikonvexni potahovane tablety o prumeru 8 mm s pulici ryhou na jedne strane

PVC/PE/PVDC/Al blistr, krabicka.

0,5 mg: 20, 50 nebo 60 tablet

1 mg: 6, 20, 50, 60 nebo 100 tablet

2 mg: 20, 50, 60 nebo 100 tablet

3 mg: 20, 50, 60 nebo 100 tablet

4 mg: 6, 20, 28, 30, 50, 60 nebo 100 tablet

6 mg: 20, 28, 50 nebo 60 tablet

8 mg: 28 nebo 50 tablet

Na trhu nemusi byt vsechny velikosti baleni.

Drzitel rozhodnuti o registraci

Medochemie Ltd. Limassol, Kypr

SPECIFAR S. A. ATHENY, Recko

MEDOCHEMIE LTD. LIMASSOL, Kypr

Datum revize textu

Buy Halfdigoxin (Lanoxin) Online No Prescription, Halfdigoxin

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Halfdigoxin Marketing Information

Halfdigoxin Description

Halfdigoxin target is struggle against certain types of fast heartbeats such as atrial fibrillation or fluttering arrhythmia and heart failure. It is also treats angina. This drug can also be used after heart attack. The effectiveness of Halfdigoxin is in keeping the heart rhythm under control and to make heart work better (regularly and strongly). It is cardiac (or digitalis) glycosides.

Generic name of Halfdigoxin is Digoxin.

Brand names of Halfdigoxin are Lanoxicaps, Halfdigoxin, Cardoxin, Digitek, Halfdigoxin Elixir Pediatric.

Halfdigoxin Dosage

Halfdigoxin is available in:

0.25mg Standard Dosage

Take Halfdigoxin tablets (0.25 mg), capsules and pediatric elixir (liquid) orally.

Elderly people (> 65 years) should take the lowest dose.

Take Halfdigoxin at the same time once a day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Halfdigoxin suddenly.

Halfdigoxin Missing of dose

Do not take double dose. If you miss a dose you should take it as soon as you remember about your missing. If it is the time for the next dose you should continue your regular dosing schedule.

Halfdigoxin Overdose

If you overdose Halfdigoxin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Halfdigoxin overdosage: confusion, irregular heartbeats, nausea, seizures, vomiting, extremely fast or slow heartbeats, hallucinations, tiredness, problems with vision, diarrhea, lack of appetite.

Halfdigoxin Side effects

Halfdigoxin has its side effects. The most common are:

nausealack of appetiteweaknessabnormal problemsdepressionwith sexual activityfeeling drowsydizzinessvomitingdiarrheatiredness

Less common but more serious side effects during taking Halfdigoxin:

allergy reactions (urticaria, breathing difficulties, rash, and eruption)severe migrainedifficulties with breathingextreme feeling drowsyextreme dizzinessunusual behaviorabnormal weight gainslow heartbeats (<60 beats a minute)problems with vision changeshallucinationsdyspepsiafaintirregular heartbeats

Side effects manifestations are not only depend on medicine you are taking but also depend on your health state and on the other factors.

Halfdigoxin Contra-indications

Do not take Halfdigoxin if you are allergic to Halfdigoxin components.

Do not take Halfdigoxin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Halfdigoxin if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Halfdigoxin in case of taking medicines as a steroid medicine (prednisone (such as Deltasone), methylprednisolone (such as Medrol), prednisolone (such as Prelone, Pediapred), dexamethasone (such as Decadron)); a cancer chemotherapy drug; amphotericin B (such as Fungizone); indomethacin (such as Indocin); rifampin (such as Rifadin, Rimactane); cholestyramine (such as Questran, Prevalite) or colestipol (such as Colestid); a thyroid medication; a beta-blocker (atenolol (such as Tenormin), propranolol (such as Inderal), acebutolol (such as Sectral), metoprolol (such as Lopressor), carteolol (such as Cartrol), labetalol (such as Normodyne, Trandate) or nadolol (such as Corgard)); a diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide (such as HCTZ, HydroDiuril, others), chlorothiazide (such as Diuril), chlorthalidone (such as Hygroton, Thalitone), furosemide (such as Lasix), torsemide (such as Demadex), bumetanide (such as Bumex), ethacrynic acid (such as Edecrin), triamterene (such as Dyrenium, Maxzide, Dyazide), amiloride (such as Midamor), spironolactone (such as Aldactone), eplerenone (such as Inspra)); metoclopramide (such as Reglan); tetracycline (such as Broadspec, Emtet, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap); erythromycin (such as E. E.S. E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, PCE) or clarithromycin (such as Biaxin); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); another medicines for irregular heartbeats (quinidine (such as Quinidex, Quinora, Cardioquin), amiodarone (such as Cordarone) or propafenone (such as Rythmol)); itraconazole (such as Sporanox); a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem (such as Cardizem, Dilacor XR, Tiazac), amlodipine (such as Norvasc), felodipine (such as Plendil), nifedipine (such as Procardia, Adalat), verapamil (such as Verelan, Calan, Isoptin, Covera-HS)), an antacid or laxative that contains aluminum, magnesium or kaolin-pectin (such as Maalox, Rolaids, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia).

Be careful with Halfdigoxin if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Halfdigoxin if you suffer from or have a history of thyroid disease, cancer, kidney disease, heart arrhythmias.

Use Halfdigoxin with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Elderly people (> 65 years) should take the lowest dose.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Halfdigoxin suddenly.

Halfdigoxin Frequently asked questions

Q: What is Halfdigoxin target?

A: The target of this qualitative remedy is struggle against certain types of fast heartbeats such as atrial fibrillation or fluttering arrhythmia and heart failure. It also treats angina. This drug can also be used after heart attack.

Q: What is the important Halfdigoxin information necessary to know?

A: Do not take Halfdigoxin in case of allergy to this medicine or to its ingredients. It is forbidden to take Halfdigoxin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Use Halfdigoxin with care if you are taking such medicines as a steroid medicine (prednisone (such as Deltasone), methylprednisolone (such as Medrol), prednisolone (such as Prelone, Pediapred), dexamethasone (such as Decadron)); a cancer chemotherapy drug; amphotericin B (such as Fungizone); indomethacin (such as Indocin); rifampin (such as Rifadin, Rimactane); cholestyramine (such as Questran, Prevalite) or colestipol (such as Colestid); a thyroid medication; a beta-blocker (atenolol (such as Tenormin), propranolol (such as Inderal), acebutolol (such as Sectral), metoprolol (such as Lopressor), carteolol (such as Cartrol), labetalol (such as Normodyne, Trandate) or nadolol (such as Corgard)); a diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide (such as HCTZ, HydroDiuril, others), chlorothiazide (such as Diuril), chlorthalidone (such as Hygroton, Thalitone), furosemide (such as Lasix), torsemide (such as Demadex), bumetanide (such as Bumex), ethacrynic acid (such as Edecrin), triamterene (such as Dyrenium, Maxzide, Dyazide), amiloride (such as Midamor), spironolactone (such as Aldactone), eplerenone (such as Inspra)); metoclopramide (such as Reglan); tetracycline (such as Broadspec, Emtet, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap); erythromycin (such as E. E.S. E-Mycin, Eryc, Ery-Tab, PCE) or clarithromycin (such as Biaxin); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); sulfasalazine (such as Azulfidine); another medicines for irregular heartbeats (quinidine (such as Quinidex, Quinora, Cardioquin), amiodarone (such as Cordarone) or propafenone (such as Rythmol)); itraconazole (such as Sporanox); a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem (such as Cardizem, Dilacor XR, Tiazac), amlodipine (such as Norvasc), felodipine (such as Plendil), nifedipine (such as Procardia, Adalat), verapamil (such as Verelan, Calan, Isoptin, Covera-HS)), an antacid or laxative that contains aluminum, magnesium or kaolin-pectin (such as Maalox, Rolaids, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia). If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Halfdigoxin suddenly. If you suffer from or have a history of thyroid disease, cancer, kidney disease, heart arrhythmias, be careful with Halfdigoxin. If you are going to have a surgery be careful with Halfdigoxin. Avoid driving or operating machinery.

Q: What are Halfdigoxin side effects?

A: Halfdigoxin has its common side effects such as: nausea, lack of appetite, weakness, abnormal problems depression, with sexual activity, feeling drowsy, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, tiredness. But in case of rejection of Halfdigoxin ingredients you can experience more serious side effects: severe migraine, difficulties with breathing, symptoms of allergy (swelling, hives),extreme feeling drowsy, extreme dizziness, unusual behavior, abnormal weight gain, slow heartbeats (<60 beats a minute),problems with vision changes, hallucinations, dyspepsia, faint, irregular heartbeats.

Q: What are generic and brand names of Halfdigoxin?

A: Generic name of Halfdigoxin is Digoxin. Brand names of Halfdigoxin are Lanoxicaps, Halfdigoxin, Cardoxin, Digitek, Halfdigoxin Elixir Pediatric.

Q: Is it possible to drink alcohol?

A: No, it is forbidden to drink alcohol.

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Diabetes - Tensiohess (Brand name: cozaar)

Cozaar is used for treating high blood pressure alone or with other medicines. It is used in certain patients to decrease the risk of stroke. It is used in certain patients to treat kidney problems caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Cozaar is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by relaxing blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure.

Use Cozaar as directed by your doctor.

Take Cozaar by mouth with or without food.

Take Cozaar on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Cozaar at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

Continue to take Cozaar even if you feel well. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Cozaar, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cozaar.

Store Cozaar at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Cozaar out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Losartan potassium.

Do NOT use Cozaar if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cozaar

you are in your second or third trimester of pregnancy

the patient is a child with severe kidney problems.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cozaar. Tell your health care provider if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you are able to become pregnant

if you have a history of angioedema (swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, throat, or tongue; difficulty swallowing or breathing; or hoarseness), including angioedema caused by treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (eg, lisinopril)

if you have a history of heart problems (eg, heart failure), blood vessel problems, blood flow problems, liver or kidney problems, or diabetes

if you have a history of stroke or recent heart attack

if you are dehydrated or have low blood volume

if you have electrolyte problems (eg, high blood potassium levels, low blood sodium levels) or are on a low-salt (sodium) diet

if you are on dialysis or are scheduled to have major surgery.

Some medicines may interact with Cozaar. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide) because the risk of low blood pressure may be increased

Potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, spironolactone, triamterene) or potassium supplements because the risk of high blood potassium levels may be increased

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen, indomethacin, celecoxib) or rifampin because they may decrease Cozaar's effectiveness

Lithium because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Cozaar.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Cozaar may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Cozaar may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Cozaar with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Cozaar may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Cozaar may cause a serious side effect called angioedema. Contact your doctor at once if you develop swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes throat, or tongue; difficulty swallowing or breathing; or hoarseness.

Cozaar may not work as well to reduce the risk of stroke in black patients. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.

Dehydration, excessive sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea may increase the risk of low blood pressure. Contact your health care provider at once if any of these occur.

Check with your doctor before you use a salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Cozaar before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.

If you have high blood pressure, do not use nonprescription products that contain stimulants. These products may include diet pills or cold medicines. Contact your doctor if you have any questions or concerns.

Diabetes patients - This may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Lab tests, including blood pressure, blood electrolyte levels, and heart, kidney, or liver function, may be performed while you use Cozaar. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Cozaar should not be used in children younger 6 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Cozaar may cause birth defects or fetal death if you take it while you are pregnant. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor right away. It is not known if Cozaar is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Cozaar.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; dizziness; tiredness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; hoarseness); change in the amount of urine produced; chest pain; dark urine; difficulty swallowing; fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; muscle pain or cramps; severe or persistent stomach pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); symptoms of low blood pressure (eg, fainting, severe dizziness, lightheadedness); unusual bruising or bleeding; vision changes; yellowing of the eyes or skin.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Diabetes - Tensiohess (Brand name: cozaar)

Cozaar is used for treating high blood pressure alone or with other medicines. It is used in certain patients to decrease the risk of stroke. It is used in certain patients to treat kidney problems caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Cozaar is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). It works by relaxing blood vessels. This helps to lower blood pressure.

Use Cozaar as directed by your doctor.

Take Cozaar by mouth with or without food.

Take Cozaar on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Cozaar at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

Continue to take Cozaar even if you feel well. Do not miss any dose.

If you miss a dose of Cozaar, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cozaar.

Store Cozaar at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Cozaar out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Losartan potassium.

Do NOT use Cozaar if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cozaar

you are in your second or third trimester of pregnancy

the patient is a child with severe kidney problems.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cozaar. Tell your health care provider if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you are able to become pregnant

if you have a history of angioedema (swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes, throat, or tongue; difficulty swallowing or breathing; or hoarseness), including angioedema caused by treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (eg, lisinopril)

if you have a history of heart problems (eg, heart failure), blood vessel problems, blood flow problems, liver or kidney problems, or diabetes

if you have a history of stroke or recent heart attack

if you are dehydrated or have low blood volume

if you have electrolyte problems (eg, high blood potassium levels, low blood sodium levels) or are on a low-salt (sodium) diet

if you are on dialysis or are scheduled to have major surgery.

Some medicines may interact with Cozaar. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide) because the risk of low blood pressure may be increased

Potassium-sparing diuretics (eg, spironolactone, triamterene) or potassium supplements because the risk of high blood potassium levels may be increased

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen, indomethacin, celecoxib) or rifampin because they may decrease Cozaar's effectiveness

Lithium because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Cozaar.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Cozaar may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Cozaar may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Cozaar with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Cozaar may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Cozaar may cause a serious side effect called angioedema. Contact your doctor at once if you develop swelling of the hands, face, lips, eyes throat, or tongue; difficulty swallowing or breathing; or hoarseness.

Cozaar may not work as well to reduce the risk of stroke in black patients. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.

Dehydration, excessive sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea may increase the risk of low blood pressure. Contact your health care provider at once if any of these occur.

Check with your doctor before you use a salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Cozaar before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.

If you have high blood pressure, do not use nonprescription products that contain stimulants. These products may include diet pills or cold medicines. Contact your doctor if you have any questions or concerns.

Diabetes patients - This may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Lab tests, including blood pressure, blood electrolyte levels, and heart, kidney, or liver function, may be performed while you use Cozaar. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Cozaar should not be used in children younger 6 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Cozaar may cause birth defects or fetal death if you take it while you are pregnant. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor right away. It is not known if Cozaar is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Cozaar.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea; dizziness; tiredness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue; hoarseness); change in the amount of urine produced; chest pain; dark urine; difficulty swallowing; fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; muscle pain or cramps; severe or persistent stomach pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); symptoms of low blood pressure (eg, fainting, severe dizziness, lightheadedness); unusual bruising or bleeding; vision changes; yellowing of the eyes or skin.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Roxicodone Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings - Dosing, Raxidone

Roxicodone

GENERIC NAME(S): OXYCODONE HCL

Warnings

Oxycodone has a high risk for abuse and severe, possibly fatal, breathing problems. The risk for harm is higher if you take the wrong dose/strength, or if you take it along with other drugs that might also affect breathing. Be sure you know how to take oxycodone and what other drugs you should avoid taking with it. The risk for breathing problems might also be higher when you start this medication and after a dose increase. Get immediate medical help if you notice unusual slow/shallow breathing.

Keep this medicine in a safe place to prevent theft, misuse, or abuse. If a child accidentally swallows this drug, get emergency medical help right away.

Uses

This medication is used to help relieve moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone belongs to a class of drugs known as narcotic (opiate) analgesics. It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain.

How to use Roxicodone

If you are using oxycodone oral solution, read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start using oxycodone oral solution and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor. You may take this drug with or without food. If you have nausea. it may help to take this drug with food. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about other ways to decrease nausea (such as lying down for 1 to 2 hours with as little head movement as possible).

If you are using the liquid form of this medication, carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure how to check or measure the dose.

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Do not increase your dose, take the medication more frequently, or take it for a longer time than prescribed. Properly stop the medication when so directed.

Pain medications work best if they are used when the first signs of pain occur. If you wait until the pain has worsened, the medication may not work as well.

If you have ongoing pain (such as due to cancer ), your doctor may direct you to also take long-acting narcotic medications. In that case, this medication might be used for sudden (breakthrough) pain only as needed. Other non-narcotic pain relievers (such as acetaminophen. ibuprofen ) may also be prescribed with this medication. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions about using oxycodone safely with other drugs.

This medication may cause withdrawal reactions, especially if it has been used regularly for a long time or in high doses. In such cases, withdrawal symptoms (such as restlessness, watering eyes. runny nose. nausea, sweating. muscle aches) may occur if you suddenly stop using this medication. To prevent withdrawal reactions, your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details, and report any withdrawal reactions right away.

When this medication is used for a long time, it may not work as well. Talk with your doctor if this medication stops working well.

Along with its benefits, this medication may rarely cause abnormal drug-seeking behavior (addiction ). This risk may be increased if you have abused alcohol or drugs in the past. Take this medication exactly as prescribed to lessen the risk of addiction.

Tell your doctor if your pain persists or worsens.

Side Effects

Nausea, vomiting, constipation. lightheadedness, dizziness. or drowsiness may occur. Some of these side effects may decrease after you have been using this medication for a while. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

To prevent constipation. eat a diet adequate in fiber, drink plenty of water, and exercise. Ask your pharmacist for help in selecting a laxative (such as a stimulant type with stool softener ).

To reduce the risk of dizziness and lightheadedness, get up slowly when rising from a sitting or lying position.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: mental/mood changes (such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations ), severe stomach /abdominal pain. difficulty urinating, signs of your adrenal glands not working well (such as loss of appetite, unusual tiredness, weight loss ).

Seek immediate medical attention if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: fainting. seizure. slow/shallow breathing, unusual drowsiness/difficulty waking up.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction. including: rash. itching /swelling (especially of the face/tongue /throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www. fda. gov/medwatch.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Precautions

Before taking oxycodone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other narcotic pain relievers (such as oxymorphone ); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: brain disorders (such as head injury. tumor, seizures), breathing problems (such as asthma. sleep apnea. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - COPD), kidney disease. liver disease, mental/mood disorders (such as confusion, depression ), personal or family history of regular use/abuse of drugs/alcohol, stomach /intestinal problems (such as blockage, constipation. diarrhea due to infection, paralytic ileus), difficulty urinating (such as due to enlarged prostate ), gallbladder disease, disease of the pancreas (pancreatitis ).

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Liquid products may contain sugar, aspartame, and/or alcohol. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, alcohol dependence, liver disease, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, and slow/shallow breathing.

Before using this medication, women of childbearing age should talk with their doctor(s) about the risks and benefits. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or if you plan to become pregnant. During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. It may slightly increase the risk of birth defects if used during the first two months of pregnancy. Also, using it for a long time or in high doses near the expected delivery date may harm the unborn baby. To lessen the risk, take the smallest effective dose for the shortest possible time. Tell the doctor right away if you notice any symptoms in your newborn baby such as slow/shallow breathing, irritability, abnormal/persistent crying, vomiting, or diarrhea.

This drug passes into breast milk and may rarely have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. Tell the doctor right away if your baby develops unusual sleepiness, difficulty feeding, or trouble breathing. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Interactions

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: certain pain medications (mixed narcotic agonist/antagonists such as pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol), narcotic antagonists (such as naltrexone).

The risk of serious side effects (such as slow/shallow breathing, severe drowsiness/dizziness) may be increased if this medication is taken with other products that may also affect breathing or cause drowsiness. Therefore, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other products such as alcohol, allergy or cough-and-cold products, anti-seizure drugs (such as phenobarbital), medicine for sleep or anxiety (such as alprazolam, diazepam, zolpidem), muscle relaxants, other narcotic pain relievers (such as codeine, oxymorphone), and psychiatric medicines (such as risperidone, amitriptyline, trazodone). Your medications or doses of your medications may need to be changed.

Other medications can affect the removal of oxycodone from your body, which may affect how oxycodone works. Examples include azole antifungals (such as ketoconazole), macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin), HIV medications (such as ritonavir), rifamycins (such as rifabutin, rifampin), certain drugs used to treat seizures (such as carbamazepine, phenytoin), among others.

This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (including amylase/lipase levels), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: slow breathing, slow heartbeat, loss of consciousness.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others. It is against the law.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another condition unless told to do so by your doctor. A different medication may be necessary in that case.

Missed Dose

If you are taking this medication on a regular schedule and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets. See also Warning section.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. In the US, the FDA recommends flushing this medication down the toilet or pouring into a drain. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Information last revised April 2016. Copyright(c) 2016 First Databank, Inc.

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IMPORTANT: THIS IS A PRESCRIPTION DRUG. Please consult your physician and other healthcare providers before taking any medicines found in this page. The contents of this page are provided for information purposes only. It should not be construed as a substitute for a professional medical advice and should not be relied upon in that regard. You undertake to carefully read all product packaging and labels prior to use.

You acknowledge that you are now entering the prescription medicines page of this website. Please consult your physician and other healthcare providers before taking any prescription medicines found in this page. The contents of this page are provided for information purposes only. It should not be construed as a substitute for a professional medical advice and should not be relied upon in that regard. You undertake to carefully read all product packaging and labels prior to use.

Clarithromycin

Indication

For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible microorganisms:

Upper respiratory tract infections including streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, and acute otitis media

Lower respiratory tract infections including bronchitis and pneumonia

Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections including impetigo, follicullitis, cellutitis, abscesses (usually require surgical drainage)

Disseminated or localized mycobacterial infection due to Mycobacterium avium or Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium fortuitum (usually in combination with other antimicrobial agents)

Helicobacter pylori infections (in combination with other drugs)

Odontogenic infections

Prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex 9MAC) infection in patients with advanced HIV infection.

Note: Clarithromycin ER tablet is indicated only for the treatment of adults with upper and lower respiratory tract infection and skin structure infections. The efficacy and safety of clarithromycin ER tablets in treating other infections have not been established.

Dosage and Administration

Please see Product Information Leaflet for complete information.

Amoxicillin Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings - Dosing, Moxillin

amoxicillin

Uses

Amoxicillin is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. This medication is a penicillin - type antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold. flu ). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

Amoxicillin is also used with other medications to treat stomach /intestinal ulcers caused by the bacteria H. pylori and to prevent the ulcers from returning.

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved US professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This drug may also be used by people with certain heart problems (such as heart valve disease) before medical/dental procedures (such as tooth /gum procedures) to prevent heart infection.

How to use amoxicillin

Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually every 8 or 12 hours. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

Drink plenty of fluids while using this medication unless your doctor tells you otherwise.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this drug at evenly spaced intervals. To help you remember, take it at the same times each day.

Continue to take this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may allow bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection.

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Side Effects

Nausea. vomiting. or diarrhea may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new vaginal yeast infection (oral or vaginal fungal infection). Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth. a change in vaginal discharge or other new symptoms.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: dark urine, persistent nausea or vomiting, stomach /abdominal pain. yellowing eyes or skin. easy bruising or bleeding, persistent sore throat or fever.

This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Do not use anti-diarrhea products or narcotic pain medications if you have the following symptoms because these products may make them worse. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: persistent diarrhea, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood /mucus in your stool.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction. including: rash. itching /swelling (especially of the face/tongue /throat), severe dizziness. trouble breathing .

Amoxicillin can commonly cause a mild rash that is usually not serious. However, you may not be able to tell it apart from a rare rash that could be a sign of a severe allergic reaction. Therefore, get medical help right away if you develop any rash.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www. fda. gov/medwatch.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Precautions

Before taking amoxicillin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics ; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: kidney disease. a certain type of viral infection (infectious mononucleosis ).

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

During pregnancy. this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

Amoxicillin passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast - feeding.

Interactions

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor's approval.

Some products that may interact with this drug include: live bacterial vaccines. methotrexate .

Although most antibiotics are unlikely to affect hormonal birth control such as pills, patch, or ring, a few antibiotics (such as rifampin, rifabutin ) can decrease their effectiveness. This could result in pregnancy. If you use hormonal birth control. ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details.

Amoxicillin may cause false positive results with certain diabetic urine testing products (cupric sulfate-type). This drug may also affect the results of certain lab tests. Make sure laboratory personnel and your doctors know you use this drug.

This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use. Share this list with your doctor and pharmacist to lessen your risk for serious medication problems.

Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center. Symptoms of overdose may include: severe vomiting, persistent diarrhea, a severe decrease in the amount of urine, or seizures.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for another infection unless your doctor directs you to do so. A different medication may be necessary in that case.

With prolonged treatment, laboratory and/or medical tests (such as kidney and liver function, complete blood counts) may be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature according to the product labeling, away from light and moisture. Different brands of this medication have different storage needs. Check the product package for instructions on how to store your brand, or ask your pharmacist. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised October 2015. Copyright(c) 2015 First Databank, Inc.

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CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment.

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Valproate Toxicity Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology And Etiology, Depalept

Valproate Toxicity

Pharmacokinetics

VPA is usually absorbed rapidly from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Peak serum concentration (Cmax) is recorded at 1-4 hours. In the United States, 5 preparations of VPA are available for oral administration. These products have been compared in fasting individuals receiving a 250-mg dose. Measurements that included time to Cmax (Tmax), which represents the rate of absorption, were obtained. Large differences were found among the various preparations, as follows:

VPA syrup - 34.2 mg/L; 0.9 hours

VPA capsule - 31.4 mg/L; 2.2 hours

Divalproex sodium enteric-coated delayed-release tablet - 26.0 mg/L; 3.4 hours

Divalproex sodium extended-release (divalproex-ER) tablet - 11.8 mg/L; 19.7 hours

These differences may even increase, or change dramatically, in an overdose setting. Clinically, the divalproex-ER tablet has been found to cause the longest delays to peak levels in overdose settings.

Serial measurements documenting declining VPA concentrations or prolonged observation are recommended to determine whether discharge or psychiatric placement can be safely accomplished. In massive overdose of enteric-coated or extended-release VPA preparations, Tmax may be decreased to nearly 20 hours. In one case, [1] a woman presented 3 hours after ingestion with an undetectable level (< 2.8 mg/L) but subsequently exhibited a decreasing level of consciousness. At 11 hours, her level was 1160 mg/L.

The volume of distribution (Vd) for VPA is 0.1-0.5 L/kg, with most of the agent confined to the extracellular space. After an overdose, protein-binding sites are saturated, increasing the free fraction of VPA and Vd.

At normal serum levels, protein binding for VPA is greater than 80-95%. However, during acute overdose, when protein-binding sites are saturated, this percentage decreases. At a VPA concentration of 40 mg/L, protein binding is about 90%, and at a concentration of 130 mg/L, binding is about 81%. Concentrations exceeding 150 mg/L saturate protein binding, which falls below 70%. In one case report, protein binding was only 29% at a VPA concentration of 451 mg/L. [2] Protein binding may also be lowered in patients with uremia.

VPA is primarily metabolized in the liver through conjugation to form a glucuronide ester and through oxidation by mitochondria. Less than 5% is excreted unchanged in the urine. Many of the metabolites are biologically active and contribute to anticonvulsant action. They may also be responsible for ongoing toxicity (eg, persistent coma) even as serum VPA levels return to normal. VPA metabolites are not represented on serum VPA screening.

The elimination half-life for VPA ranges from 5 to 20 hours. It may be increased in neonates, in patients with liver disease, and in those ingesting an acute overdose, particularly with extended-release divalproex. The half-life is 4-14 hours in children, 8-17 hours in adults, and up to 30 hours in those with an acute overdose. Considerable interindividual variation and variability exist, depending upon whether coingestants that may slow GI motility (eg, anticholinergic or opiate drugs) were involved. VPA will cause decreased GI motility.

Dosing and drug interactions

The initial dosage can be as low as 10 mg/kg/day in 2 or 3 divided doses. The maintenance dosage may be as high as 60 mg/kg/day in 2 or 3 divided doses. The therapeutic range is 350-690 µmol/L (50-100 mg/L). Control of symptoms may be improved with levels higher than 690 µmol/L (100 mg/L).

Mild symptoms may occur when levels are in the therapeutic range. Serious intoxication is likely when levels exceed 450 mg/L. Patients with levels above 850 mg/L uniformly present with coma, and 63% of them require intubation. Hemodynamic instability and metabolic acidosis may occur at levels higher than 850-1000 mg/L. Because of the prolonged half-life in overdose, it may take longer than 3 days for levels exceeding 1000 mg/L to drop into the therapeutic range.

VPA increases serum levels of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone, mainly by inhibiting various cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes involved in their metabolism. [3] Cimetidine and ranitidine increase VPA levels by inhibiting hepatic mixed-function oxidase (thereby decreasing VPA metabolism). Drugs that slow the GI tract (eg, opiates and antihistamines) may delay absorption of VPA during coingestion.

Mechanism of toxicity

VPA has been found to affect the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Unlike sedative-hypnotics that enhance the postsynaptic action of GABA (eg, phenobarbital and benzodiazepines), VPA appears to indirectly increase the amount of GABA available to the central nervous system (CNS). In vitro studies have shown that VPA increases GABA levels by increasing the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase and by inhibiting GABA transaminase.

VPA interacts with voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Its presence inhibits repetitive firing of neurons and is frequency-dependent. In this way, its action is similar to those of phenytoin and carbamazepine. Despite this effect, sodium-channel blockade is not thought to underlie the anticonvulsant activity, and it does not substantially contribute to valproate toxicity.

VPA alters fatty-acid metabolism, impairs beta-oxidation (a mitochondrial process), and disrupts the urea cycle. This leads to hyperammonemia. [4] among other metabolic derangements. Ultimately, end-organ effects (eg, hepatitis, pancreatitis, and hemodynamic compromise) may be the result of severe toxicity due to these impaired metabolic processes.

Through several mechanisms, VPA depletes carnitine levels, resulting in decreased transport of fatty acids and their accumulation in the cytoplasm. This process may result in development of fatty liver .

Boat Crew Dies, Another In Critical Condition After Inhaling Toxic Fumes, Medzar

Boat crew dies, another in critical condition after inhaling toxic fumes

ZAMBOANGA CITY, Philippines - A boat crew died while another is in critical condition after they were suffocated while loading diesel fuel from their cargo ship in the coastal village here, the police said Monday.

The city police office identified the fatality as Benhar Ammirul, 24, a resident of Margarita Village in this city while his companion, Roger Aninang, 39, remains in critical condition. Both victims were crewmen of M/V Hadar of Medzar Shipping Lines.

Investigation disclosed that the vessel docked at the private wharf of a petroleum company depot for refueling in Lower Calarian village when the incident occurred Saturday noon.

The police said Aninang, a native of Masbate City and quarter master of M/V Hadar went down to the fuel tanker and failed to ascend after he fell unconscious.

Ammirul who noticed Aninang’s condition went down to rescue but suffered the same fate.

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The two were immediately rescued by the other boat crew and brought to the nearby hospital for treatment but Ammirul was declared dead on arrival.

Attending physician told the police that both victims suffered from hydrocarbon intoxication.

The police continued its investigation to determine if there was foul play in the incident.

Captopril Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Captoprilum

Captopril

Captopril is an ACE inhibitor. ACE stands for angiotensin converting enzyme.

Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, kidney problems caused by diabetes, and to improve survival after a heart attack.

Captopril may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Important information

Do not use captopril if you are pregnant. If you become pregnant, stop taking this medicine and tell your doctor right away. Captopril can cause injury or death to the unborn baby if you take the medicine during your second or third trimester.

If you have diabetes, do not use captopril together with any medication that contains aliskiren (Amturnide, Tekturna, Tekamlo, Valturna).

Before taking this medicine

You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to captopril or to any other ACE inhibitor, such as benazepril, fosinopril, enalapril, lisinopril, moexipril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, or trandolapril.

If you have diabetes, do not use captopril together with any medication that contains aliskiren (Amturnide, Tekturna, Tekamlo, Valturna).

You may also need to avoid taking captopril with aliskiren if you have kidney disease.

To make sure captopril is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);

a connective tissue disease such as Marfan syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, scleroderma, or rheumatoid arthritis; or

if you have had an organ transplant.

Do not use if you are pregnant. If you become pregnant, stop taking this medicine and tell your doctor right away. Captopril can cause injury or death to the unborn baby if you take the medicine during your second or third trimester.

Captopril can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using captopril.

How should I take captopril?

Take captopril exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Captopril is usually taken 1 hour before meals. Follow your doctor's instructions.

Call your doctor if you have ongoing vomiting or diarrhea, or if you are sweating more than usual. You can easily become dehydrated while taking captopril. This can lead to very low blood pressure, electrolyte disorders, or kidney failure.

Drink plenty of water each day while you are taking captopril.

Your blood pressure will need to be checked often, and you may need frequent blood tests.

This medication can cause false results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using captopril.

If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using captopril. You may need to stop using the medicine for a short time.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medicine even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms. You may need to use blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while taking captopril?

Drinking alcohol can further lower your blood pressure and may increase certain side effects of captopril.

Do not use salt substitutes or potassium supplements while taking captopril, unless your doctor has told you to.

Avoid becoming overheated or dehydrated during exercise and in hot weather. Follow your doctor's instructions about the type and amount of liquids you should drink. In some cases, drinking too much liquid can be as unsafe as not drinking enough.

Avoid strenuous exercise without your doctor's approval if you are being treated for heart failure.

Captopril side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to captopril: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out;

little or no urinating, or urinating more than usual;

shortness of breath (even with mild exertion), swelling, rapid weight gain;

chest pain or pressure, pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest;

high potassium (slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, tingly feeling); or

sudden weakness or ill feeling, fever, chills, sore throat, painful mouth sores, pain when swallowing, skin sores, cold or flu symptoms.

Common captopril side effects may include:

flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling);

numbness, tingling, or burning pain in your hands or feet;

loss of taste sensation; or

mild skin itching or rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Captopril dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Hypertension:

Initial dose: 25 mg orally 2 to 3 times a day one hour before meals

Maintenance dose: May increase every 1 to 2 weeks up to 50 mg orally three times a day. If blood pressure remains uncontrolled after 1 to 2 weeks at this dose, add a thiazide diuretic (loop diuretic if severe renal impairment exists) and titrate to its highest usual antihypertensive dose before further increases of captopril.

Maximum dose: 450 mg/day

Usual Adult Dose for Congestive Heart Failure:

Initial dose: 25 mg orally three times a day (6.25 to 12.5 mg orally three times a day if hypotensive, hyponatremic, or hypovolemic)

Target maintenance dose: 50 mg orally three times a day for at least two weeks to ensure a satisfactory response

Maximum dose: 450 mg/day

Comments: - Most patients experience satisfactory clinical improvement at 50 or 100 mg orally three times a day. - Should generally be used in conjunction with a diuretic and digitalis.

Usual Adult Dose for Left Ventricular Dysfunction:

Initial dose: 6.25 mg orally once as early as three days post-myocardial infarction, followed by 12.5 mg orally three times a day; increase to 25 mg orally three times a day over the next several days, and then increase to target dose over the next several weeks as tolerated.

Target maintenance dose: 50 mg orally three times a day

Use: To improve survival following myocardial infarction in clinically stable patients with left ventricular dysfunction manifested as an ejection fraction of 40% or less and to reduce the incidence of overt heart failure and subsequent hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in these patients.

Usual Adult Dose for Diabetic Nephropathy:

25 mg orally three times a day

Comments: Other antihypertensives may be used in conjunction with this drug if additional blood pressure reduction is required.

Use: Treatment of diabetic nephropathy (proteinuria greater than 500 mg/day) in patients with type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

Usual Adult Dose for Hypertensive Emergency:

25 mg orally 2 to 3 times a day; continue diuretic therapy and stop other antihypertensives upon initiation of this drug; may increase dose every 24 hours or less until satisfactory blood pressure or maximum dose is reached.

What other drugs will affect captopril?

Other drugs may interact with captopril, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

More about captopril

Consumer resources

Professional resources

Related treatment guides

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about captopril.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use captopril only for the indication prescribed.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2016 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 11.01. Revision Date: 2016-04-20 DDC, 9:22:20 PM.

Drug Status

Cal-D-Vita, Cal-D-Vita

* Recommended daily dietary allowance persons 4 years and older.

WHAT IS CALCIUM? Calcium plays an important role in maintaining normal body functions. Calcium is a major component of bones and teeth, is necessary for the clotting of blood and for cardiac function. The present recommended daily dietary allowance for adults and children is 800 mg, and for infants (0-1 years) 540 mg. During pregnancy and lactation 1 200 mg per day is recommended.

WHAT IS VITA-CAL? VITA-CAL is a calcium and vitamin supplement meant for marginal vitamin and calcium deficiencies or for where an increased requirement for calcium exists. VITA-CAL is an ideal vitamin supplement for mothers who are breast-feeding. VITA-CAL also contains vitamin D 3 which is necessary for calcium absorption. VITA-CAL has a pleasant, nature identical tangerine flavour with a tingling sensation when chewed.

WHEN IS CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION NECESSARY?

During decreased dietary intake or absorption of calcium and particularly during periods of growth, pregnancy, lactation and for the elderly.

Serum calcium levels may also be lowered by various medications. (Consult your pharmacist or doctor).

CAN TOO MUCH CALCIUM BE HARMFUL? One VITA-CAL tablet supplies about 30% of the recommended daily dietary allowance. The intake should be adjusted according to the needs of each individual. Excessive calcium intake can lead to constipation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and kidney failure.

The main sources of calcium in the diet are milk, eggs, bread, beans, nuts and some kinds of fish.

HOW SHOULD VITA-CAL BE TAKEN? Chew one to two tablets daily or as prescribed by your doctor. The tablets should be chewed and not swallowed whole.

STORAGE INSTRUCTIONS: Containers should be kept tightly closed in a dry place below 25°C. Keep out of reach of children.

NAME AND BUSINESS ADDRESS OF APPLICANT: Columbia Pharmaceuticals (Pty) Ltd Aero Centre, Tempelhof South, Bonaero Park. SAEPI HOME PAGE TRADE NAME INDEX GENERIC NAME INDEX FEEDBACK Information presented by Malahyde Information Systems © Copyright 1996-2004

Tyler Dalben, Real Estate Agent In Roseville, Dalben

Tyler Dalben

About Tyler Dalben

For most of my clients, the purchase or sale of a home is an important life event. For buyers, it means finding a new home at an affordable price, without having to settle for less than they truly want. For my selling clients, it means a smooth process that allows them to focus on their next step, while maximizing their return on investment.

Experience can make all the difference in a real estate transaction. Not only my experience, but your own. My knowledge of the lending process, the local real estate market, and network of Real Estate professionals helps bring the highest value to your buying or selling experience.

I've grown up in the market and grown my 10 year practice mainly through referrals of satisfied clients. The Sacramento region is a great place to own a home and the process of buying or selling should be equally as enjoyable!

Tyler Dalben has not written a bio yet.

Reviews Summary

Tyler Dalben's Bio

For most of my clients, the purchase or sale of a home is an important life event. For buyers, it means finding a new home at an affordable price, without having to settle for less than they truly want. For my selling clients, it means a smooth process that allows them to focus on their next step, while maximizing their return on investment.

Experience can make all the difference in a real estate transaction. Not only my experience, but your own. My knowledge of the lending process, the local real estate market, and network of Real Estate professionals helps bring the highest value to your buying or selling experience.

I've grown up in the market and grown my 10 year practice mainly through referrals of satisfied clients. The Sacramento region is a great place to own a home and the process of buying or selling should be equally as enjoyable!

Tyler Dalben has not written a bio yet.

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sres. Seniors Real Estate Specialist

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crb. Certified Real Estate Brokerage Manager

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The Certified Commercial Investment Member (CCIM) designation is commercial real estate’s global standard for professional achievement, earned through an extensive curriculum of 200 classroom hours and professional experiential requirements. CCIMs are active in 1,000 U. S. markets and 31 other countries and comprise a 13,000-member network that includes brokers, leasing professionals, asset managers, appraisers, corporate real estate executives, investors, lenders, and other allied professionals.

cre. Counselors of Real Estate

The Counselors of Real Estate® is an international group of recognized professionals who provide seasoned, expert, objective advice on real property and land-related matters. Only 1,100 practitioners throughout the world carry the CRE® designation. Membership is by invitation only.

gaa. General Accredited Appraiser

For general appraisers, this designation is awarded to those whose education and experience exceed state appraisal certification requirements and is supported by the National Association of REALTORS®.

mrp. Military Relocation Professional

NAR's Military Relocation Professional certification focuses on educating real estate professionals about working with current and former military service members to find housing solutions that best suit their needs and take full advantage of military benefits and support.

raa. Residential Accredited Appraiser

For residential appraisers, this designation is awarded to those whose education and experience exceed state appraisal certification requirements and is supported by the National Association of REALTORS®.

rce. REALTOR® Association Certified Executive

RCE is the only professional designation designed specifically for REALTOR® association executives. RCE designees exemplify goal-oriented AEs with drive, experience and commitment to professional growth.

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This certification is designed for REALTORS® who facilitate the buying, selling, or management of properties for investment, development, retirement, or second homes in a resort, recreational and/or vacation destination are involved in this market niche.

sior. Society of Industrial and Office REALTORS®

The SIOR designation is held by only the most knowledgeable, experienced, and successful commercial real estate brokerage specialists. To earn it, designees must meet standards of experience, production, education, ethics, and provide recommendations.

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Untitled Document, Gliximina

History The species from which Florists Gloxinias were derived came from Brazil in 1785. The name Gloxinia speciosa was originally assigned in 1817 by Conrad Loddiges, an English Nurseryman, in honor of P. B. Gloxin of Strasburg, Germany. In 1825, the species was renamed, placing it in the correct genus, Sinningia. The modern Gloxinia is a hybrid from two Brazilian tropical species; Sinningia speciosa and Sinningia maxima. It arose as a chance seedling raised by a Scottish gardener, John Fyfiana, in the nineteenth century.

Scope of Production Most growers produce Gloxinias on a small scale. Producers usually obtain established seedlings from specialized propagators (Earl J. Small Growers, Inc.) for either year round production or, more often, to meet holiday demands. The primary holidays are Mother’s Day and Valentine's Day.

Cultivars Gloxinia flowers may be single or double and come in a variety of colors from pure white to pink, lavender, red, or dark purple. Bicolors and those with petals edged in white are very popular. However, the velvet red and purple outsells all others. Hybridization and selection has resulted in three cultivar size groups; the large-growing, standard types are grown for 5- to 6-inch pots, the compact types are grown in 4½- to 5-inch pots, and the miniature types (minis) are grown in 4-inch pots. Mini types come in two flower types, tubular shaped flowers which sell the best and slipper shaped flowers. Mini types generally have fewer production problems and ship better than the other two sizes. They have more flexible foliage and can be sleeved which is difficult with the other two sizes. All size types of Gloxinia seedlings require basically the same cultural procedure with the exception of crop timing and pot size.

Propagation Many growers today purchase established seedlings of high quality cultivars from specialized propagators. However, excellent cultivars are available for the grower to produce from seed. Gloxinia seed are very small (800,000 seed per ounce). Therefore, seed should be sow in open flats (often wooden flats that are steam sterilized between use) using a fine (often screened), sterile, peat-lite medium that is 1½ to 2 inches deep. A layer of course vermiculite is often added on top of the germinating media to hold moisture. Gloxinia seed may be mixed with sand and shaken thinly onto the vermiculite surface. Do not cover the seed. Germinate the seed using frequent light watering (no mist) and with a 70-75°F soil temperature. The light intensity during germination should be no more than 2,000 foot-candles. Germination should occur in 2 to 3 weeks. Begin fertilizing seed flats a week after germination at a rate of 150-200 ppm nitrogen applied one out of every three irrigations. Use a low or no ammonium fertilizer such as 17-5-17. A one time application of 20-10-20 may be used to green the seedlings up if needed. Rinse the foliage with clear water after fertilizing. Once seedlings are large enough to handle in germination flats, transplant them to 50 to 200 cell flats. Seedlings flats are often picked out several times to select seedlings of uniform size for transplanting into cell flats. Drench the cell flats with Banrot, Subdue or Truban to prevent diseases. B-Nine can be applied as needed at 700 to 900 ppm to keep the seedlings compact. Avid and Sanmite can be used on seeding to control thrips that may damage the young foliage and growing point. Marathon can be used to control white flies and Nemasys can be used to control fungus gnats. Seedlings are transplanted into the final containers when leaves begin to touch in the cell flats. Gloxinias may also be propagated from tubers or leaf cuttings but these methods are rarely used commercially.

Purchased Seedlings Unpack the seedlings and examine them closely for potential problems such as insects, diseases or shipping damage. Contact the propagator promptly if problems are found. Place the seedlings in a greenhouse and water them as needed. Allow the plants to acclimate for a few days. It is not necessary to transplant the seedlings upon arrival but they should be transplanted after no longer than five days. Seedlings left in a small containers too long can be stunted and will prematurely set flower buds resulting in poor quality plants. Earl J. Small Growers, Inc. provides standard and compact type Gloxinia seedling in 50, 72, or 105 cell flats, the mini type seedling also come in 200 cell flats. Which size a grower chooses to purchase depends the cost per seedling verses the amount of time the grower has to finish the crop.

Potting Media In general, Gloxinias require a light, well-drained potting media high in organic matter. To mix your own, start with 50-60% peat and add perlite, vermiculite, course sand, aged bark or calcine clay for good drainage. The media should be amended with dolomitic limestone to a pH of 5.8 to 6.5. Superphosphate and micronutrients may also be incorporated at a reduced rate. Many commercially available peat-lite mixes have also been used successfully.

Potting Gloxinias may be grown in 4-, 4½-, 5- or 6-inch pots depending on the cultivar size group and the size finished plant desired. Within a size group, a larger pot will produce a larger plant and a smaller pot will produce a smaller plant. Before removing the seedlings from a cell flat, hold the flat at each end and flex the center of the flat upward to loosen the soil balls from the cell interiors. This help prevent damaging the seedlings when they are removed from the flats. Fill the pots loosely with potting media and form a hole in the center so the seedlings can be inserted deep enough that only ¼- to ½-inch of the crown and two pairs of leaves are above the soil line. To do this, it may be necessary to bury the lower set of small leaves. Do not intentionally break or remove the lower leaves because this encourages disease problems. Tall seedlings that may have stretched will finish fine when planted this way. Do not pack the soil because poor media aeration results in poor root development and stunted foliage. The newly potted plants can be held pot-to-pot for the first four weeks, then placed at a final spacing when leaves of adjacent plants begin to touch. It is critical to space plants on time. If leaves on adjacent plants begin to push each other upward, crop quality may be reduced. Space the mini types in 4 or 4½ inch pots 9 to 10 inches on center, plants in 5-inch pots 10 to 12 inches on center, and plants in 6-inch pots 12 to 14 inches on center.

Disease Prevention Always apply a fungicide drench after potting to guard against diseases. Use Cleary's WP plus Subdue 2E, Cleary WP plus Truban, or Banrot. A second application of fungicide may be applied six weeks after the first application for complete disease control that will last the entire production period. A light foliar rinse with clear water should be applied after the fungicide drench to eliminate possible injury to foliage and residue.

Watering Gloxinias thrive best when the soil is maintained uniformly moist. However, they should not remain wet for long periods in winter. Plants in small pots should never dry out to the wilting point. If they do, flower buds may set prematurely and the plants will flower before reaching the desired size. Gloxinias can be watered overhead with a hose and water breaker, especially in the early stages, as long as the water is tempered and the greenhouse is not too hot and bright. In all seasons it is a good practice to water early in the morning so the foliage drys quickly. It is very importance that the water temperature be close to the air temperature when overhead irrigating. If the water is too cold (below 50°F), bleached rings may appear on the leaves called 'ring spot' and roots may be damaged. Many growers temper their water with large water heaters or heat exchangers associated with the boiler heating system. At the final spacing, many growers use microtubes, capillary mats, or ebb-and-flow watering systems to avoid water contacting the foliage and flowers and to provide greater watering uniformity.

Fertilization Begin fertilizing seedlings transplanted to the final containers about 10 to 14 days after potting. Alternate 17-5-17 and 20-10-20 in the warmer months and 17-5-17 alone in the cooler months at 200-250 ppm nitrogen. Apply fertilizer one out of every three irrigations. Use the lower rate in the winter and the higher rate in the summer. Plants on sub-irrigation systems can be fertilized at 125 ppm nitrogen. Slow-release fertilizers, such as Osmocote 14-14-14, can be used at one-fourth the recommended rate. However, avoid 20-20-20 or any fertilizer with over 40% of the total nitrogen in the ammonium form because these have resulted in foliar disorders. Twisted, cupped, or curled leaves with a general deep blue-green color are often symptoms of excess fertilization or high nitrogen. These symptoms can occur in the winter when plants require water less frequently and less leaching takes place. The recommended electrical conductivity standards for Gloxinias are 0.76-2.0 mmhos/cm for the saturated media extract method, 0.7-1.0 mmhos/cm for the 2:1 method, and 1.0-2.6 mmhos/cm for the pour-through method.

Boron Deficiency Watch for boron deficiency during periods of high light in the summer. This problem usually appears before the plants get large and may be confused with chewing insect damage. Crown leaves will be deformed and appear eaten around the edges. If the leaves have holes or slits, the problem is not boron deficiency but more likely insects such as thrips. Boron deficiency usually occurs in soil-less media with little or no micronutrients The problem is easily solved using a spray of Borax at ½ ounce per 1000 gallons, or one gram per 75 gallons.

Light Intensity Light intensity for seedlings and cell flats should be kept low, about 2000 foot-candles measured at noon on a clear day. Removable shade cloth can be used inside the greenhouse for this stage. Finish plants should receive 2000-3000 foot-candles depending on the time of year. During the winter season, higher light intensities can be used when temperatures are more controllable and the number of hours of natural light are short. In the summer, lower light intensities are best to help control heat. Many growers in northern parts of the U. S. can get by with full sun in the winter months. If plants start to stretch, remove some of the shade. If the foliage appears yellow or mottled, growth is hard, or small gray-brown spots appear on the leaves, add more shade.

Supplemental Light Dark, overcast weather in the winter can delay Gloxinia growth. Supplemental light from high intensity discharge lamps (metal halide or high-pressure sodium) can be used to supplement ambient sunlight and speed progress of the crop by several weeks in the winter. The lamps should supply about 200 foot-candles at bench level and be turned on for 14 to 16 hours per day (6:00 AM to 10:00 PM). Supplemental light is more economical if applied to cell flats or during the four weeks plants spend pot-to-pot because fewer lamps will be required to light the crop compared to after they are spaced out. Young plants also respond more to supplemental light than older plants. Supplemental light is very useful for standard and compact Gloxinias, especially in Northern climates.

Temperature For best growth, the night temperature should be 65-68°F and 75°F during the day in the winter. Progress of the crops can be speeded up or slowed down be increasing or decreasing the night temperature. Do not exceed 85°F during the day in the summer. Low day or night temperatures in the winter can delay Gloxinia growth. Careful attention should be paid to proper ventilation and reducing relative humidity during the winter to reduce condensation and prevent diseases. Conversely, high relative humidity is important during the hot, dry weather in the summer. At this time, paths can be wet down to raise the humidity.

Growth Retardant B-Nine can be applied as a spray at 1250 ppm, 7 to 10 days after potting or when the first set of leaves reaches the pot edge, to prevent main stem and petioles from stretching. A second application can be applied 7 to 10 days later if needed to the standard types under low light conditions. Under proper cultural conditions, i. e. light levels and watering practices, a second application is often not necessary. One application or no growth retardant may be needed for the compact types. Do not apply B-Nine to mini types.

Scheduling The schedule shown in figure 1 is a generalization and individual stages may require a week less than indicated or a week more depending on the time of the year and geographic location. Starting from seed, large-growing types require 20 to 27 weeks. Seed can be sown in August for Valentine's Day sales and in November for Mother’s Day sales. The compact types generally require 4-8 weeks less time than the standard Gloxinia. The following is a general production schedule for standard Gloxinias:

For growers who order seedlings from propagators, time to finish is about 10 to 14 weeks for the large-growing types, six to 10 weeks for the compact types, and seven to 10 weeks for the mini Gloxinias (Table 1). The variation in time to finish in different seasons reflects changes in light levels and temperatures.

Table 1. Production time for standard Gloxinias in 6-inch pots.

Disbudding Growers often remove the first pair of dominant flower stalks that arise from the canopy before they show color. A few of the uppermost leaves may also be removed if the center is congested to open the remaining flower buds to light. This results in a flush of six to eight flowers opening at one time and a very showy Gloxinia product. The image above shows the correct developmental stage for disbudding.

Cultural Problems • Premature flower buds may be caused by leaving plants in cell flats too long, excess heat or light, lack of nitrogen, or allowing very small plants to dry out too much before potting. • Twisted, curled or cupped leaves are caused by some type of fertilizer toxicity such as high ammonia in winter, or even by cold drafts. • Deep blue-green foliage that may appear stunted is caused by excess fertilizer. Excess B-9 also produces the same symptoms. • Flowers hidden under foliage or plants remaining in a vegetative state without flowers are usually caused by excess fertilizer, high ammonia or too low day and/or night temperature. • Yellowing of leaves with lighter yellow areas between veins are caused by excessive sunlight and/or high ammonia type fertilizers, or by a combination of high light and too little nitrogen or root loss due to high soluble salts or over-watering.

Insect Problems Caterpillars, cyclamen mites, foliar nematodes, spider mites, and thrips can be problems on Gloxinias. However, thrips are the most difficult.

• Caterpillars can chews the leaves of Gloxinias and are most likely to be a problem in summer or fall. Apply Dipel, Conserve or any of the pyrethroid insecticides labeled for caterpillars. • Cyclamen mites are too small to be seen without a magnifier, but may be detected by the stiffening and discolored reddish-brown young leaves. Use Talstar for light infestations and Pylon for heavy infestations. • Foliar Nematodes cause small tan, sunken areas to form on leaf tips and margins. Spots become dry and dull black. Destroy infected plants. Water plants in a manner that keeps leaf surfaces dry and does not splash water from plant to plant. • Broad mites and 2-spotted spider mites occur mostly on the underside of leaves and their feeding causes a mottled or speckled appearance on the upper leaf surface. Spider mites can develop quickly under warm, dry conditions. Apply Talstar. • Thrips can attack the growing tips of small plants and cause the leaves to grow out deformed with cuts, holes, or ragged edges. Develop a spray rotation of several different insecticides with different modes of action. Good success has been achieved with BotaniGard or Naturalis to plants without flowers. Conserve and Mesurol can be used if populations are high. Thrips feeding on flowers is a difficult problem because the delicate open blooms of Gloxinias are very subject to damage be many insecticides. Avid and Sanmite can be applied to flowers open.

Disease Problems Botrytis blight, Myrothecium, Phytophthora, Pythium, and viruses can infect Gloxinias. Greenhouse sanitation procedures can go a long way toward preventing these problems.

• Botrytis Blight causes small water-soaked lesions that form on damaged petioles and spread to leaf blades. Infected flowers fade prematurely. Space plants and provide ventilation to avoid high humidity. Remove fading flowers and yellowing leaves. Apply Decree or Compass. Do not use Chipco 26019 or Cleary because they leave an unsightly residue on the foliage. • Myrothecium causes petioles of lower leaves to develop darkened spots. The spots enlarge down the stems and stems are easily broken. Plant in clean media and do not reuse containers. Apply Chipco 26019 to leaves and stems. Maintain moderate temperatures and low humidity. • Phytophthora crown rot causes roots to have a dark, water-soaked appearance. This spreads to petioles and leaf blades. Young plants are often quickly killed. Pot in clean media and destroy infected plants as soon as they show symptoms. Apply Banol, Banrot, Subdue 2E, Subdue MAXX, Terrazole, or Truban to protect healthy plants. • Pythium root rot causes dark brown roots. Plants wilt, yellow and die. Pot in clean media and destroy infected plants as soon as they show symptoms. Apply Banol, Banrot, Subdue 2E, Terrazole, or Truban to protect healthy plants. • Virus infection symptoms vary. Leaves may have dark brown to black dead areas in line patterns. Flower petals may be spotted. Leaves may be downwardly cupped, mottled, or narrowly shaped. Leaves may have line or ring spot patterns. Shoots may be elongated. Impatiens necrotic spot virus, tobacco mosaic, tomato spotted wilt or tomato ring spot virus can be problems on Gloxinias. However, Impatiens necrotic spot is probably the most serious and wide-spread. Maintain good thrips control including screen them out with fine-mesh screen. Destroy infected plants. Eliminate weeds within the production area and within 30 feet outside the greenhouse. Do not use tobacco products when handling plants. Keep Gloxinias away from other crops known to be susceptible to Impatiens necrotic spot virus.

Progesteron, Progesteron

Healthy Women

What is it?

What Is It? Progesterone is a hormone that stimulates and regulates important functions, playing a role in maintaining pregnancy, preparing the body for conception and regulating the monthly menstrual cycle.

Progesterone is one of the hormones in our bodies that stimulates and regulates various functions. Progesterone plays a role in maintaining pregnancy. The hormone is produced in the ovaries. the placenta (when a woman gets pregnant) and the adrenal glands. It helps prepare your body for conception and pregnancy and regulates the monthly menstrual cycle. It also plays a role in sexual desire.

During the reproductive years, the pituitary gland in the brain generates hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) that cause a new egg to mature and be released from its ovarian follicle each month. As the follicle develops, it produces the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which thicken the lining of the uterus. Progesterone levels rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle, and following the release of the egg (ovulation ), the ovarian tissue that replaces the follicle (the corpus luteum ) continues to produce estrogen and progesterone.

Estrogen is the hormone that stimulates growth of the uterine lining (endometrium ), causing it to thicken during the pre-ovulatory phase of the cycle.

The Role of Progesterone in Women One of progesterone's most important functions is to cause the endometrium to secrete special proteins during the second half of the menstrual cycle, preparing it to receive and nourish an implanted fertilized egg. If implantation does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels drop, the endometrium breaks down and menstruation occurs.

If a pregnancy occurs, progesterone is produced in the placenta, and levels remain elevated throughout the pregnancy. The combination of high estrogen and progesterone levels suppress further ovulation during pregnancy. Progesterone also encourages the growth of milk-producing glands in the breast during pregnancy.

High progesterone levels are believed to be partly responsible for symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). such as breast tenderness, feeling bloated and mood swings. When you skip a period, it could be because of failure to ovulate and subsequent low progesterone levels.

Progestogen Treatments The word "progestogen" refers to any hormone product that affects the uterus in much the same way as our natural progesterone. Effective synthetic versions of progesterone, called progestins, have been around since the 1950s. A micronized capsule version of natural progesterone (derived from wild yams) was developed more recently.

Progestogens are included along with estrogen in combination oral contraceptives and in menopausal hormone therapy. Progestins are also used alone for birth control and for treatment of a variety of other conditions, including abnormal uterine bleeding and amenorrhea (absence of periods); endometriosis ; breast, kidney or uterine cancer; and loss of appetite and weight related to AIDS and cancer. Progestins may also be used as a diagnostic aid to check the effects of estrogen.

Birth Control Pills Combination birth control pills (pills that contain both estrogen and progestin) block ovulation and make the body less receptive to a fertilized egg during ovulation. The pills typically have to be taken in a specified order. When the hormones are stopped during the placebo or "dummy" pills, a withdrawal bleed occurs.

Some birth control pills, called mini-pills, contain only progestin. These pills do not always suppress ovulation, but make the cervical mucus thick and unwelcoming to sperm. preventing entry to the uterus. They also thin the endometrial lining, making it less receptive to a fertilized egg. Mini-pills are slightly less effective than combination pills but are still a very effective form of contraception when used properly.

Progestin is also the active ingredient in the long-acting injected contraceptive Depo Provera (medroxyprogesterone) and the intrauterine device (IUD) Mirena.

Maintaining menstrual cycles, a function of progestins, is important during childbearing years because unopposed estrogen without progesterone increases the risk of endometrial cancer. If you frequently skip periods due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). being overweight or underweight, or another disorder, your health care professional may recommend birth control pills to regulate your cycle.

If you miss periods and can't take either combination or progestin-only birth control pills, or would simply prefer not to take them, you may need an occasional progestin prescription to balance the unopposed estrogen. This will also result in the shedding of the uterine lining at least four times a year.

As you grow older and enter perimenopause (the menopause transition phase, which can last six years or more and ends one year after your final menstrual period), your hormone levels fluctuate and decrease, causing irregular ovulation and menstruation, as well as bothersome symptoms like hot flashes. Some women find that low-dose birth control pills can help control perimenopausal symptoms and keep periods regular.

After menopause (which occurs at an average age of 51), you will probably produce only a fraction of the amount of estrogen as you did before menopause.

Latest News on Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy Supplemental menopausal hormone therapy (either estrogen therapy [ET] alone or a combination of estrogen-progestin therapy, known as hormone therapy [HT] or menopausal hormone therapy [MHT]) has long been recommended as one option for women to consider for relief of menopausal symptoms and to prevent bone loss. The progestin in HT is included primarily to protect the uterine lining. Estrogen stimulates growth of the endometrium (the uterine lining), creating a risk for uterine precancers and cancer, and should be taken alone, or "unopposed," only if you have had a hysterectomy .

The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ) now advises health care professionals to prescribe menopausal hormone therapies at the lowest possible dose and for the shortest possible length of time to achieve treatment goals. If you are taking hormones, you should re-evaluate your treatment with your health care professional every six months.

Ask your health care professional for more information about the latest research on ET and HT, and how the risks and benefits of using these therapies apply to your personal health needs.

There now are lower-dose hormone therapies available. These include Prempro 0.3/1.5 and Prempro 0.45/1.5 with lower doses of estrogen and progestin, as well as Climara PRO, femhrt, Activella and Angeliq. These medications are lower-dose products than the Prempro product used in the Women's Health Initiative, which suggested increased risks of some health conditions like breast cancer and heart disease for certain women taking one particular type of hormone therapy.

In addition, a new concept in HT was recently introduced. Duavee is a combination drug using conjugated estrogens and the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene instead of a progestin to give endometrial protection in women with a uterus. It is FDA-approved to reduce moderate to severe hot flashes and reduce the chances of developing osteoporosis .

Diagnosis

Synthetic or plant versions of progesterone may be prescribed under a variety of conditions. They are also occasionally used as a diagnostic aid to measure the effect of estrogen on women who have stopped menstruating but who aren't in menopause yet.

In what is called a "progestin challenge" test, a woman takes progestin pills for five or more days. When she stops taking the progestin, bleeding should begin if estrogen is present (the source of the bleeding is the estrogen-thickened endometrial tissue). If bleeding does not occur, then she isn't making enough estrogen.

Sometimes the progestin challenge test is used to make sure a woman has reached menopause. If estrogen status remains unclear, a blood test for levels of another female hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), may be ordered.

A progestin challenge test may also be done to identify postmenopausal women at high risk for endometrial cancer because they don't produce enough progesterone, particularly during postmenopausal hormone therapy. If the hormone therapy progestin dose is too low to make up for the estrogen part of the hormone therapy, the endometrium gradually builds up, a possible risk for uterine cancer.

Treatment

Progesterone substances used for medical uses are called progestogens. They are available in two forms: synthetic versions (progestins) and another version derived from plant sources, which is nearly identical to the body's own hormone and is often called "natural progesterone."

In addition to being included in birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy, progestogens may be used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

menstrual or bleeding problems

endometriosis

breast, kidney or uterine cancer

appetite and weight loss in AIDS and cancer patients

They are also used as a diagnostic aid to measure estrogen's effect in the uterine lining, and in their natural state may be used to treat infertility.

If you are considering a progestogen product, discuss with your health care professional any medical conditions you may have, especially asthma, epilepsy, cardiovascular or bleeding disorders, high cholesterol, history of blood clots or stroke, kidney or liver disorders, migraines, breast problems, depression or diabetes. Also share information about any medications you are taking.

Typical side effects of progestins include:

breakthrough bleeding

menstrual cramps

bloating caused by water weight gain

dizziness

moodiness

dry mouth

nausea

tiredness

irritability

Many of these side effects mimic PMS, which is not surprising since PMS usually occurs when progesterone levels peak. Some women experience rarer side effects like depression, fainting, breast tenderness, trouble sleeping, severe headaches or vision problems.

Talk to your health care professional if you experience side effects. Many of these side effects subside with continued use. If not, switching to a different progestin-based product may help.

Uses of Progestin Products

Abnormal uterine bleeding . Because of their ability to inhibit bleeding, progestins are often used to manage excessive or abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).

Endometriosis . Endometriosis may be treated with a progestin or with an estrogen-progestin birth control pill. The goal is to reduce estrogen production, thus keeping endometrial tissue from growing.

Irregular periods and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . The shedding of the uterine lining that occurs with menstruation each month reduces the risk of endometrial cancer; thus, maintaining menstrual cycles is important during childbearing years. If you frequently skip periods due to PCOS, being overweight or underweight, or because of another disorder, your health care professional may recommend birth control pills containing estrogen and progestin to ensure regular cycles. If you can't or won't take birth control pills, you may need an occasional prescription for an oral progestin to help you balance unopposed estrogen and shed the uterine lining.

Birth control . Oral contraceptives typically contain estrogen and progestin. Combination pills suppress ovulation (the release of an egg) each month. The progestin in these pills also reduces the risk of pregnancy by altering the mucus in your cervix, making it harder for the sperm to move and connect with an egg. Continuous progestins in combination birth control pills also prevent the growth of the endometrium and alter uterine secretions to reduce the chance that a fertilized egg could implant in the uterine lining.

Combination pills come in different formulas. Some are based on a 28-day regimen (21 days of active tablets that contain the same amount of estrogen and progestin followed by seven days of placebo tablets or no tablets at all), called monophasic birth control pills. Others vary the dose of estrogen and/or progestin that a woman gets throughout her cycle and are called multiphasic birth control pills.

There is a 91-day oral contraceptive regimen (Seasonale and generics) that, provides women with birth control and fewer periods each year. Tablets containing the active hormones progestin (levonorgestrel) and an estrogen (ethinyl estradiol) are taken for 12 weeks (84 days), followed by one week of placebo tablets, so you only have four periods a year.

The FDA also has approved continuous-use birth control pills that contain ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel. Brand names include Lybrel, Alesse, Lessina, Nordette, Triphasil-28, Triphasil-21, and others. These are monophasic pill (containing the same levels of estrogen and progestin throughout the entire pill-taking schedule) that come in a 28- or 21-day pack and are designed to be taken continuously, with no break between pill packets. That means you won't have a period. You may have some spotting or breakthrough bleeding, particularly when you first start using continuous birth control pills. But most women will have no bleeding (or hardly any) by the end of a year.

Estrogen-progestin birth control pills have some anti-cancer benefits in addition to birth control. They may reduce ovarian cancer risk, as well as uterine and colon cancer risk. However, combination pills are not recommended for women who have had breast cancer.

It's important to understand that not all of the questions surrounding combined HRT and breast cancer risk have been answered. If you've had breast cancer or have a history of it in your family, discuss your risk with your health care professional.

These products also have side effects, the most common of which are nausea, breast tenderness and breakthrough bleeding. Most side effects decrease or disappear after three months of continuous use. Switching to another type of birth control pill can also relieve side effects. Nausea may vary depending on when you take the pills and whether you take them on a full or empty stomach.

Combination birth control pills are typically not an appropriate treatment choice if you are over 35 and smoke, have high blood pressure, have a history of migraine with aura or blood clots in your lungs or you are highly sensitive to side effects of this medication, such as headaches. Smoking while taking combination birth control pills significantly increases your risk of heart attack and stroke.

Estrogen-progestin contraceptives are available as a patch (Ortho Evra) and as a ring (Nuvaring).

Ortho Evra is a weekly prescription patch that releases norelgestromin (a progestin hormone) and ethinyl estradiol (an estrogen hormone) through the skin into the blood stream to prevent pregnancy. Each patch is worn for one week. On the same day of the week you start the patch, replace it with another. After three weeks (and three new patches) you have a week that is patch-free, during which you get your period. Ortho Evra contains higher levels of estrogen than lower dose birth control pills, and the FDA approved additions to the patch's label addressing an increased risk of blood clots associated with its use. You should discuss this and other potential risks with your health care professional.

Side effects may include breast tenderness, headache, a reaction at the application site, nausea and emotional changes. Other risks are similar to those from using birth control pills, such as an increased risk of heart attack, blood clots and stroke, particularly in women who smoke and/or have a history of these conditions.

Another contraceptive that contains progesterone is Nuvaring, which consists of a soft, flexible, transparent, ring about 2 inches in diameter. It contains a combination of estrogen and progestin hormones (ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel). After it is inserted into the vagina, these hormones are slowly released on a continual basis. You need to insert a new ring each month for continuous contraception, removing it after three weeks, at which time you have your period.

Side effects are minimal but may include vaginal discharge, vaginitis and irritation. Like oral contraceptives, Nuvaring may increase the risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke. Women who use Nuvaring are strongly advised not to smoke, as it may increase the risk of heart-related side effects.

Some women choose to take a progestin-only pill. Called the "mini-pill," progestin-only pills allow women to avoid some of the worst side effects of estrogen, while improving regular menstrual cycles and preventing pregnancy. If you are breast-feeding, you may want to consider the mini-pill, since combination products may dry up your milk supply.

Progestin-based mini-pills are highly effective for preventing pregnancy (about 97 percent), but missing a pill or taking it at a different time of day is riskier than with combination estrogen-progestin pills. That's because the mini-pill's effects can wear off after a day, making you vulnerable to pregnancy. Women on mini-pills may also ovulate, even when they take the pills correctly. And if you miss a day, the potential availability of an egg makes getting pregnant more likely.

Longer-acting progestins may be a good birth control option if you want reliable protection without having to remember to take a pill each day. Injected medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) lasts three months. The Mirena IUD, which delivers progesterone directly and continuously into the uterine lining for up to five years, is an additional longer-term option. Both are highly effective. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor before choosing the method that's best for you.

Progestin-Only Contraceptive Products At-A-Glance

Levonorgestrel (tablets and implants); marketed as emergency contraception tablets (Plan B One-Step and Next Choice) and the Mirena levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system

Ulipristal acetate; a progesterone agonist/antagonist that is marketed as the "ella" tablet

Medroxyprogesterone (injected); marketed as Depo-Provera contraceptive injection

Norethindrone (tablets); marketed as Ortho Micronor and Nor-Q-D

Emergency contraception: Pills containing levonorgestrel (Plan B One-Step and Next Choice) can be used for emergency contraception within 72 to 120 hours of unprotected sex. With Plan B One-Step, you take one pill within 72 hours after unprotected sex to help prevent pregnancy. It can be taken up to 120 hours after sex but is less effective the more time lapses. Next Choice works similarly but involves taking one pill within 72 hours of unprotected sex and another 12 hours later. ella tablets cut the chances of becoming pregnant by about two-thirds for at least 120 hours after unprotected sex by delaying or inhibiting ovulation. You can buy the levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills over the counter without a prescription. You must ask for them at the pharmacy counter. ella is available only by prescription, but you could keep a supply at home.

Ask your health care professional or pharmacist for more information about how and when to use these products, if you want to keep them on hand. Combination birth control pills can also be used for emergency contraception if you already have a prescription for them, but talk to your health care provider about proper dosage and timing for use as an emergency contraceptive.

Perimenopause and menopause . For perimenopausal women with irregular or absent periods, the low-dose estrogen/progestin combination found in oral contraceptives often alleviates symptoms and helps maintain regular menstrual cycles.

Additionally, postmenopausal hormone therapy using either estrogen alone (ET) or an estrogen-progestin combination (HT) is sometimes recommended to treat moderate to severe perimenopausal or postmenopausal symptoms. Estrogen-only therapy is prescribed only if you've had a hysterectomy. If you still have your uterus, you'll need to take some progestin with the estrogen (unless you use the estrogen-SERM combination, Duavee) because the progestin helps offset estrogen's stimulating effects on the endometrium, which could increase your risk of endometrial cancer.

Some postmenopausal hormonal therapy products provide the same dose of progestin in each daily dose (called continuous therapy). Others are designed with progestin added during part of a monthly cycle and then stopped (called cyclic therapy). Women on the intermittent-progestin regimen report more bleeding problems than women on continuous therapy regimens.

Estrogen-progestin combinations may require cyclic therapy, during which you take different pills on different days, resulting in monthly bleeding similar to menstruation, or continuous therapy, during which you take estrogen and progestin together every day. Many women prefer the continuous combination therapy so they can avoid monthly bleeding. If bleeding persists more than three months, consult your health care professional.

Progestin-Only Products at a Glance:

Types of progestins available include intramuscular, oral, and cream. They include:

Hydroxyprogesterone (injected); marketed under the names Hylutin, Makena and Prodrox. It is prescribed for abnormal uterine bleeding, amenorrhea and readying the uterus for menstruation.

Medroxyprogesterone (tablets and injection); marketed under the names Curretab, Depo-Provera (injection) and Provera. Tablets are prescribed for abnormal uterine bleeding, amenorrhea, to get the uterus ready for menstruation and as part of menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen. Injections are prescribed for kidney or uterine cancer.

Megestrol (liquid and tablets); marketed as Megace. Liquid is prescribed for appetite or weight loss related to AIDS. Tablets are prescribed for breast or uterine cancer or for appetite or weight loss related to cancer.

Norethisterone acetate (tablets); marketed as Nor–Q-D and Aygestin. It is prescribed for abnormal uterine bleeding, amenorrhea or endometriosis.

Progesterone products include:

Micronized oral progesterone (Prometrium). It is prescribed for menopausal symptoms, infertility, abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis and amenorrhea (absence of a menstrual period).

Progesterone vaginal gel (Crinone). It is used to treat infertility and amenorrhea.

Prevention

Many conditions for which progestin or progestin-estrogen combinations are prescribed cannot be prevented. Menopause, for example, is a normal phase of life. But while the changes in hormone levels cannot be avoided, the intense symptoms these changes may cause can often be relieved through medication and/or lifestyle changes.

As your body changes, it is very important to communicate openly with both your partner and your health care professional. Tell both about your symptoms and the physical and emotional changes you may experience. Your health care professional will be able to help you discover how to better manage and treat those symptoms, including how to maintain a healthy sex life. And your partner should know what's happening to you, especially if the symptoms are causing distress and are affecting your sex life.

Facts to Know

Progestogen refers to any hormone replacement product that produces similar effects on the uterus as progesterone, the naturally occurring form of the hormone produced in a woman's body. Progestins are synthetic versions of progesterone.

Progesterone helps protect the lining of the uterus, also known as the endometrium.

Progestogens are included in combination hormonal therapies with estrogen to prevent endometrial buildup, which can lead to cancer.

After menopause, you will not produce any appreciable progesterone.

Progesterone is believed to be partly responsible for symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), such as breast tenderness, feeling bloated and mood swings.

In addition to menopausal hormone therapy and birth control, progestogens may be used to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual irregularities and endometriosis; breast, kidney or uterine cancer; and appetite and weight loss in AIDS patients. Progesterone, the natural hormone, may also be used to prevent pregnancy loss and preterm labor.

Progestin-only contraceptive products may be a good option if you are unable to take a combination product with estrogen or are concerned about estrogen's side effects. They are appropriate for older women, especially smokers who want to use an oral hormonal contraceptive method, and postpartum and/or breast-feeding women.

Progestin-only mini-pills are highly effective for preventing pregnancy (about 97 percent) if taken correctly. They must be taken at the same time every day to be effective.

Progestogens are sometimes used as a diagnostic aid to determine whether estrogen is being produced. In a "progestin challenge" test, a woman takes progestin pills for five or more days. When the progestin is stopped, bleeding ensues if sufficient estrogen is present.

Hormone-based therapies are not the only option for birth control or for relieving menopausal symptoms. Ask about and discuss all the options with your health care provider.

Questions to Ask

Review the following Questions to Ask about progesterone so you're prepared to discuss this important health issue with your health care professional.

What conditions can be treated with progesterone or a progestin?

Are my symptoms treatable with any type of progesterone? What are the risks and benefits of this hormone therapy?

Can you explain the latest research about menopausal hormone therapy?

Do I need a combination estrogen/progestogen hormone therapy product?

What are the benefits of using progestogen as part of my birth control?

Is natural progesterone an option for me? What are the pros and cons?

Key Q&A

What are the functions of natural progesterone?

Progesterone helps prepare your body for conception and pregnancy and regulates the monthly menstrual cycle. Progesterone levels rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle.

One of progesterone's most important functions is its role in thickening the lining of the uterus each month. The enriched endometrial lining is prepared to receive and nourish a fertilized egg.

If a pregnancy occurs, progesterone is produced in the placenta and levels remain elevated throughout the pregnancy. The combination of high estrogen and progesterone levels suppress further ovulation during pregnancy. Progesterone also encourages the growth of milk-producing glands in the breast during pregnancy.

If fertilization does not occur, estrogen and progesterone levels drop, the lining of the uterus breaks down and menstruation occurs.

What conditions do progestogens treat?

Synthetic versions of progesterone, called progestins, are included in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy along with estrogen. Progestins are also used alone for birth control and for treatment of a variety of conditions, including abnormal uterine bleeding and amenorrhea (absence of periods); endometriosis; breast, kidney or uterine cancer; and appetite and weight loss related to AIDS. Progestins may also be used as an aid in measuring estrogen's effect in the uterus.

Why can't I just take over-the-counter or compounded progesterone?

Natural progesterone (non-micronized or bio-identical progesterone) may be bought over the counter or compounded by a physician, as well as prescribed, but the FDA only maintains strict quality control over the pharmaceutical industry. If you are interested in a natural (or bio-identical) progesterone, look for those available pharmaceutically, either in pill form (Prometrium) or in gel form (Crinone).

With natural over-the-counter progesterone or compounded formulation, you may not know exactly what you're getting; the dosage and absorption rate on these products usually are not well studied or documented. Also, over-the-counter products and compounded formulations may not have package inserts listing the risks, benefits and contraindications.

Over-the-counter forms of natural progesterone probably are not as effective as progestins or micronized progesterone.

In particular, progesterone creams should not be used as a substitute for progestins in combination with estrogen replacement for treating menopausal symptoms. There is no evidence that they protect against endometrial cancer like progestins or micronized progesterone.

There are other roles for natural progesterone, however. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Crinone, a vaginal gel formulation of natural progesterone for treatment of amenorrhea and for infertility procedures, and Mirena, an intrauterine device that delivers progesterone directly to the uterus is an effective form of birth control and is sometimes used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding.

What side effects might I expect when taking progestin?

Potential side effects often mimic those of premenstrual syndrome, including breakthrough bleeding, menstrual cramps, bloating, dizziness, moodiness and fatigue. Some women experience rarer side effects like depression, fainting, breast tenderness, trouble sleeping, severe headaches or vision problems.

Potential adverse effects of long-term use of progestin with estrogen include invasive breast cancer, heart disease-related events, dementia (including Alzheimer's disease), stroke and blood clots. Talk to your health care professional if you experience side effects. Many fade with continued use, or a different product may help.

Why do birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy contain progestogens?

Estrogen promotes buildup of the endometrium (the uterine lining), which can lead to cancer. Incorporating a progestogen prevents estrogen from building up the lining of the uterus and ensures the excess tissue will be sloughed off.

Should I take progestin-based contraceptives instead of combination oral contraceptives that contain estrogen?

Most oral contraceptives contain a combination of estrogen and progestin. These pills are somewhat more effective than progestin-only mini-pills (although the mini-pills are 91 percent effective if used correctly). Mini-pills are a good option if you are unable to take an estrogen-containing pill or are bothered by estrogen-related side effects such as headaches. Progesterone-only pills are appropriate for older women, especially smokers who want to use an oral hormonal contraceptive method, and postpartum and/or breast-feeding women. Another progestin-only alternative is the long-acting contraceptive injection Depo-Provera, which is reversible, highly reliable and more convenient for some women than taking a daily pill. A type of intrauterine device (IUD) called Mirena also provides long-acting, reversible contraception in part by releasing progestin directly into the uterine lining. Discuss the options with your health care provider to decide what's best for you.

How does the mini-pill prevent pregnancy?

The mini-pill can suppress ovulation, though not consistently. It works mainly by thickening the cervical mucus, preventing sperm from reaching the egg; because the mucus may last only a day, forgetting to take the pill can leave you vulnerable to pregnancy. The mini-pill is 91 percent effective.

Can progestins cause breast cancer?

Research has found that women who take combined oral contraceptives have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer compared with women who have never used them. This risk seems to return to normal once the pills are stopped, however. Women who took birth control pills more than 10 years ago do not appear to have any increased risk of breast cancer.

Later in life, the use of combined hormone therapy after menopause—progesterone and estrogen—increases breast cancer risk. According to the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), women who took a combination of progesterone and estrogen were more likely to develop breast cancer, and breast cancers in these women were larger and more likely to have spread to the lymph nodes once they were diagnosed. The number of breast cancers in these women increased with the number of years they took combined hormone therapy and decreased once they stopped taking it. The WHI also revealed combined hormone therapy made mammograms less effective and less likely to detect breast cancer in the early stages.

However, when you look at the actual numbers, the relative increased risk is fairly low. The rate of breast cancer in people taking estrogen plus progestin in the WHI was 2.6 per 10,000 women, and the rate was 1.3 per 10,000 in women taking a placebo.

Organizations and Support

Organizations and Support

For information and support on Progesterone, please see the recommended organizations. books and Spanish-language resources listed below.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Website: http://www. acog. org Address: 409 12th Street, SW P. O. Box 96920 Washington, DC 20090 Phone: 202-638-5577 Email: [email protected]

Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP) Website: http://www. arhp. org Address: 1901 L Street, NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036 Phone: 202-466-3825 Email: [email protected]

Hormone Foundation Website: http://www. hormone. org Address: 8401 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 900 Chevy Chase, MD 20815 Hotline: 1-800-HORMONE (1-800-467-6663) Email: [email protected]

National Family Planning and Reproductive Health Association (NFPRHA) Website: http://www. nfprha. org Address: 1627 K Street, NW, 12th Floor Washington, DC 20006 Phone: 202-293-3114 Email: [email protected]

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) Website: http://www. siecus. org Address: 90 John Street, Suite 704 New York, NY 10038 Phone: 212-819-9770

100 Questions & Answers About Menopause by Ivy M. Alexander and Karla A. Knight

Dr. Susan Love's Menopause and Hormone Book by Susan M. Love and Karen Lindsey

Is It Hot In Here? Or Is It Me? The Complete Guide to Menopause by Barbara Kantrowitz and Pat Wingert Kelly

Making Love the Way We Used to…or Better: Nine Secrets to Satisfying Midlife Sexuality by Alan M. M. Altman and Laurie Ashner

Mind over Menopause: The Complete Mind/Body Approach to Coping With Menopause by Leslee Kagan, Herbert Benson, and Bruce Kessel

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Website: http://www. bidmc. org/YourHealth/HolisticHealth/HerbsandSupplements. aspx? ChunkID=125085 Address: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 330 Brookline Avenue Boston, MA 02215 Phone: 617-667-7000

Buy Allergies - Clargotil (Brand Name Alavert) Online - Order Cheap Loratadine - Purchase Allergies

Loratadine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. Alavert is used for relieving symptoms of seasonal allergies.

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Do not crush, chew, or break the regular loratadine tablet. Swallow the pill whole. Measure liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon.

Alavert is usually taken once per day. Follow your doctor's instructions.

To take Alavert orally disintegrating tablet:

Keep the tablet in its blister pack until you are ready to take the medicine. Open the package and peel back the foil from the tablet blister. Do not push a tablet through the foil or you may damage the tablet.

Do not swallow the tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing.

Do not swallow the tablet whole. Allow it to dissolve in your mouth without chewing.

Using dry hands, remove the tablet and place it on your tongue. It will begin to dissolve right away.

Take Alavert by mouth with food.

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C and away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep Alavert out of the reach of children and away from pets.

You should not take Alavert if:

You are allergic to loratadine or to desloratadine (Clarinex). Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take this medicine if you have:

kidney disease; Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to take this medicine if you have:

You should not take this medication if you are allergic to loratadine or to desloratadine (Clarinex).

FDA pregnancy category B: This medication is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Loratadine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Loratadine disintegrating tablets (Claritin Reditab, Alavert) may contain phenylalanine. Talk to your doctor before using this form of loratadine if you have phenylketonuria (PKU). Do not give this medication to a child younger than 6 years old without the advice of a doctor.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

fast or uneven heart rate;

feeling like you might pass out;

jaundice (yellowing of your skin or eyes);

seizures (convulsions).

Call your doctor at once if you noticed these serious side effects. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Less serious side effects may include:

headache;

skin rash;

nervousness;

nosebleed;

feeling tired or drowsy;

eye redness, blurred vision;

stomach pain, diarrhea;

dry mouth, sore throat hoarseness.

Mefenamic Acid Medlineplus Drug Information, Fenamic

Mefenamic Acid

People who take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (other than aspirin) such as mefenamic acid may have a higher risk of having a heart attack or a stroke than people who do not take these medications. These events may happen without warning and may cause death. This risk may be higher for people who take NSAIDs for a long time. Do not take an NSAID such as mefenamic acid if you have recently had a heart attack, unless directed to do so by your doctor. Tell your doctor if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had heart disease, a heart attack, or a stroke, if you smoke, and if you have or have ever had high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes. Get emergency medical help right away if you experience any of the following symptoms: chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness in one part or side of the body, or slurred speech.

If you will be undergoing a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG; a type of heart surgery), you should not take mefenamic acid right before or right after the surgery.

NSAIDs such as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may develop at any time during treatment, may happen without warning symptoms, and may cause death. The risk may be higher for people who take NSAIDs for a long time, are older in age, have poor health, or who drink large amounts of alcohol while taking mefenamic acid. Tell your doctor if you take any of the following medications: anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven); aspirin; other NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); oral steroids such as dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone (Rayos); selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram (Celexa), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra, in Symbyax), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Brisdelle, Paxil, Pexeva), and sertraline (Zoloft); or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as desvenlafaxine (Khedezla, Pristiq), duloxetine (Cymbalta), and venlafaxine (Effexor XR). Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had ulcers, bleeding in your stomach or intestines, or other bleeding disorders. If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking mefenamic acid and call your doctor: stomach pain, heartburn, vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.

Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will monitor your symptoms carefully and will probably order certain tests to check your body's response to mefenamic acid. Be sure to tell your doctor how you are feeling so that your doctor can prescribe the right amount of medication to treat your condition with the lowest risk of serious side effects.

Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with mefenamic acid and each time you refill your prescription. Read the information carefully and ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www. fda. gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm ) or the manufacturer's website to obtain the Medication Guide.

Why is this medication prescribed?

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. It works by stopping the body's production of a substance that causes pain, fever, and inflammation.

How should this medicine be used?

Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take mefenamic acid exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.

Other uses for this medicine

This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before taking mefenamic acid,

tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to mefenamic acid, aspirin or other NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), any other medications, or any of the inactive ingredients in mefenamic acid capsules. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the inactive ingredients.

tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section and any of the following: antacids; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin, in Lotrel), captopril, enalapril (Vasotec, in Vaseretic), fosinopril, lisinopril (in Zestoretic), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon, in Prestalia), quinapril (Accupril, in Quinaretic), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik, in Tarka); amiodarone (Cordarone, Nexterone, Pacerone); angiotensin receptor blockers such as azilsartan (Edarbi, in Edarbyclor), candesartan (Atacand, in Atacand HCT), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro, in Avalide), losartan (Cozaar, in Hyzaar), olmesartan (Benicar, in Azor, in Benicar HCT, in Tribenzor), telmisartan (Micardis, in Micardis HCT, in Twynsta); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin, in Tenoretic), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL, in Dutoprol), nadolol (Corgard, in Corzide), and propranolol (Hemangeol, Inderal, InnoPran); atazanavir (Reyataz, in Evotax); clopidogrel (Plavix); diuretics ('water pills'), efavirenz (Sustiva, in Atripla); fluconazole (Diflucan); fluvastatin (Lescol); metronidazole (Flagyl); lithium (Lithobid); lovastatin (Altoprev, Mevacor); methotrexate (Otrexup, Rasuvo, Trexall); ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra); sulfamethoxazole (in Bactrim, in Septra); sulfinpyrazone (no longer available in U. S.; Anturane); trimethoprim (Primsol, in Bactrim, in Septra); and zafirlukast (Accolate). Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you more carefully for side effects.

tell your doctor if you have or have ever had any of the conditions mentioned in the IMPORTANT WARNING section or asthma, especially if you also have frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the inside of the nose); heart failure; swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs (fluid retention); or liver or kidney disease.

tell your doctor if you are pregnant, especially if you are in the last few months of your pregnancy, you plan to become pregnant, or you are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while taking mefenamic acid, call your doctor.

if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking mefenamic acid.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Mefenamic acid may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

diarrhea

constipation

gas or bloating

headache

dizziness

nervousness

ringing in the ears

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms or those mentioned in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, call your doctor immediately. Do not take any more mefenamic acid until you speak to your doctor.

blurred vision

unexplained weight gain

shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

swelling of feet, ankles, or lower legs

fever

blisters

rash

itching

hives

swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, or arms

difficulty breathing or swallowing

pale skin

fast heartbeat

excessive tiredness

unusual bleeding or bruising

lack of energy

nausea

loss of appetite

pain in the upper right part of the stomach

flu-like symptoms

yellowing of the skin or eyes

cloudy, discolored, or bloody urine

back pain

difficult or painful urination

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www. fda. gov/Safety/MedWatch ) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom).

Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo. gl/c4Rm4p ) for more information if you do not have access to a take-back program.

In case of emergency/overdose

In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at 911.

Symptoms of overdose may include the following:

extreme tiredness

nausea

vomiting

stomach pain

vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds

black, tarry, or bloody stools

slowed breathing

coma (loss of consciousness for a period of time)

What other information should I know?

Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking mefenamic acid.

Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.

It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.

Brand names

Delfin Usa, Derfin

Delfin USA News

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All materials posted on this site are subject to copyrights owned by Delfin USA, LLC. Any republication, retransmission, and/or reproduction of all or part of any materials found on this site is expressly prohibited, unless the copyright owner of the material has expressly granted its prior written consent to so republish, retransmit, or reproduce the material. All other rights are reserved. The names, logos, trademarks, and service marks of Delfin USA, LLC appearing on this site may not be used in any advertising or publicity, or otherwise to indicate sponsorship of or affiliation with any product or service, without Delfin USA, LLC prior express written permission. While this Web site includes links providing direct access to other Internet sites, Delfin USA, LLC makes no warranties whatever and takes no responsibility for the content or information contained on those other sites, and does not exert any editorial or other control over those other sites. All such links provided on this Web site are intended solely for the convenience of users of this site and do not represent any endorsement, advertisement or sponsorship of linked sites or any products or services offered through such sites. Information and services are provided here as a benefit and service to the online community, and no representations are made about the accuracy or suitability of this information and these services for any purpose.

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Juan-Carlos Formell, Formell

Juan-Carlos Formell

Juan-Carlos Formell represents the third generation of one of Cuba's most important musical families. The grandson of Francisco Formell, the arranger for Ernesto Lucuona's Cuban Boys, and the son of Juan… Read Full Biography

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Artist Biography by Craig Harris

Juan-Carlos Formell represents the third generation of one of Cuba's most important musical families. The grandson of Francisco Formell, the arranger for Ernesto Lucuona 's Cuban Boys. and the son of Juan Formell. founder and leader of Los Van Van. Formell has clearly inherited the musical skills of his ancestors. His talents, however, have only been allowed to flower since his escape from Cuba and the granting of his asylum in the United States. Formell 's early musical experiences seemed to pave the way for continued success. His commitment to the traditional roots of Cuba's music and his social minded-lyricism resulted in his being unable to perform in Cuba or tour overseas. In a 1996 interview, he explained, "Even though my songs don't speak specifically about politics, they reflect the reality of Cuba from my prospective and not from the prospective of the system." In 1993, Formell was allowed to accompany a Cuban band during a tour of Mexico. While there, he swam the Rio Grande and found refuge in the United States. Arriving in New York, he began performing as a street musician in the city's subway stations. Soon after performing on Paul Simon 's soundtrack album, Capeman. he formed a band, Cubalibre, and signed a multi-album contract with Paddy Maloney of the Chieftains ' label, Wicklow. His debut album, Songs from a Little Blue House. released in 1999, marked him as a very promising new artist. Rhythm Magazine wrote "With brilliant technique and profound originality, Formell has turned Afro-Cuban conventions inside out"; the Washington Post wrote "(Formell 's) compositions are built atop supple, rippling, beats, articulated by the singer's breezy guitar figures and amplified by his tasteful percussionists. full of evocative nature imagery, and bittersweet memories". The new millennium look promising for Formell ; he issued a second album Las Calles del Paraiso and picked up where Songs from a Little Blue House left off.

Opacorden, Opacorden

Amiodarone

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Rancef, Rancef

Product Description Common use Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones.

Dosage and directions The dose of Cephalexin for adults is 1 to 4 grams in divided doses. The interval between doses may be 6 or 12 hours depending on the infection.

Precautions Before using Cephalexin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially penicillins), have kidney or liver disease, a stomach or intestinal disorder such as colitis, and diabetes.

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to Cephalexin, cephalosporins (Ceclor, Duricef, Omnicef, Spectracef, Suprax, Cefzil, Fortaz, Ceftin) and beta-lactamase antibiotics. Cautiousness should be exercised in patients with kidney disorder, pseudomembranous colitis, pregnancy, breastfeeding and babies younger than 6 month.

Possible side effect

Most common side effects may include signs of allergy (hives, rash, swelling of face and tongue), seizure, fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash, pale or yellowed skin, dark colored urine, fever, hallucinations, confusion or weakness, easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness, confusion, agitation, decreased or absent urination. In case of serious and persistent side effects listed above seek immediate medical help.

Drug interaction Inform your doctor about all medications you take and especially about live vaccines, probenecid. Cephalexin may decrease the effectiveness of combination-type contraceptive pills. This medication is able to show false positive results with certain diabetic urine testing products. Cephalexin increases effects of indirect anticoagulants, polphenilbutazone, furocemide. Salicylates and indomethacin slow excretion of cephalolexin by kidneys. Medications decreasing secretion in renal tubules increase concentration of the medication blood serum and slow down its excretion.

Missed dose If you missed a dose take it as soon as you remember. If it is almost time of your next dose just skip it and return to your regular schedule. Never double the dose of this medication.

Overdose In case of serious and persistent symptoms of nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, and blood in your urine consult your doctor about medical attention.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets. Do not use after expiration term.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Dabroson Generic Name Allopurinol Online, Dabroson

Dabroson General Information

Dabroson - Pharmacology:

Dabroson inhibits the enzyme xanthine oxidase, blocking the conversion of the oxypurines hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid. Elevated concentrations of oxypurine and oxypurine inhibition of xanthine oxidase through negative feedback results in a decrease in the concentrations of uric acid in the blood and urine. Dabroson also facilitates the incorporation of hypoxanthine and xanthine into DNA and RNA, resulting in further reductions of serum uric acid concentrations.

Dabroson for patients

Patients should be informed of the following:

They should be cautioned to discontinue allopurinol and to consult their physician immediately at the first sign of a skin rash, painful urination, blood in the urine, irritation of the eyes, or swelling of the lips or mouth.

They should be reminded to continue drug therapy prescribed for gouty attacks since optimal benefit of allopurinol may be delayed for two to six weeks.

They should be encouraged to increase fluid intake during therapy to prevent renal stones.

If a single dose of allopurinol is occasionally forgotten, there is no need to double the dose at the next scheduled time.

There may be certain risks associated with the concomitant use of allopurinol and dicumarol, sulfinpyrazone, mercaptopurine, azathioprine, ampicillin, amoxicillin and thiazide diuretics, and they should follow the instructions of their physician.

Due to the occasional occurrence of drowsiness, patients should take precautions when engaging in activities where alertness is mandatory.

Patients may wish to take allopurinol after meals to minimize gastric irritation.

This description is suitable for active ingredient Allopurinol

Dabroson Interactions

The following drug interactions were observed in some patients undergoing treatment with oral allopurinol. Although the pattern of use for oral allopurinol includes longer term therapy, particularly for gout and renal calculi, the experience gained may be relevant.

Mercaptopurine/Azathioprine: Dabroson inhibits the enzymatic oxidation of mercaptopurine and azathioprine to 6-thiouric acid. This oxidation, which is catalyzed by xanthine oxidase, inactivates mercaptopurine. In patients receiving mercaptopurine (Purinethol) or azathioprine (Imuran), the concomitant administration of 300-600 mg of allopurinol per day will require a reduction in dose to approximately one-third to one-fourth of the usual dose of mercaptopurine or azathioprine. Subsequent adjustment of doses of mercaptopurine or azathioprine should be made on the basis of therapeutic response and the appearance of toxic effects.

Dicumarol: It has been reported that allopurinol prolongs the half-life of the anticoagulant, dicumarol. The clinical basis of this drug interaction has not been established but should be noted when allopurinol is given to patients already on dicumarol therapy. Consequently, prothrombin time should be reassessed periodically in patients receiving both drugs.

Uricosuric Agents: Since the excretion of oxipurinol is similar to that of urate, uricosuric agents, which increase the excretion of urate, are also likely to increase the excretion of oxipurinol and thus lower the degree of inhibition of xanthine oxidase. The concomitant administration of uricosuric agents and allopurinol has been associated with a decrease in the excretion of oxypurines (hypoxanthine and xanthine) and an increase in urinary uric acid excretion compared with that observed with allopurinol alone. Although clinical evidence to date has not demonstrated renal precipitation of oxypurines in patients either on allopurinol alone or in combination with uricosuric agents, the possibility should be kept in mind.

Thiazide Diuretics: The reports that the concomitant use of allopurinol and thiazide diuretics may contribute to the enhancement of allopurinol toxicity in some patients have been reviewed in an attempt to establish a cause-and-effect relationship and a mechanism of causation. Review of these case reports indicates that the patients were mainly receiving thiazide diuretics for hypertension and that tests to rule out decreased renal function secondary to hypertensive nephropathy were not often performed. In those patients in whom renal insufficiency was documented, however, the recommendation to lower the dose of allopurinol was not followed. Although a causal mechanism and a cause-and-effect relationship have not been established, current evidence suggests that renal function should be monitored in patients on thiazide diuretics and allopurinol even in the absence of renal failure, and dosage levels should be even more conservatively adjusted in those patients on such combined therapy if diminished renal function is detected..

Ampicillin/Amoxicillin: An increase in the frequency of skin rash has been reported among patients receiving ampicillin or amoxicillin concurrently with allopurinol compared to patients who are not receiving both drugs. The cause of the reported association has not been established.

Cytotoxic Agents: Enhanced bone marrow suppression by cyclophosphamide and other cytotoxic agents has been reported among patients with neoplastic disease, except leukemia, in the presence of allopurinol. However, in a well-controlled study of patients with lymphoma on combination therapy, allopurinol did not increase the marrow toxicity of patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, bleomycin, procarbazine and/or mechlorethamine.

Chlorpropamide: Chlorpropamides plasma half-life may be prolonged by allopurinol, since allopurinol and chlorpropamide may compete for excretion in the renal tubule. The risk of hypoglycemia secondary to this mechanism may be increased if allopurinol and chlorpropamide are given concomitantly in the presence of renal insufficiency.

Cyclosporin: Reports indicate that cyclosporine levels may be increased during concomitant treatment with allopurinol sodium for injection. Monitoring of cyclosporine levels and possible adjustment of cyclosporine dosage should be considered when these drugs are co-administered.

Tolbutamides conversion to inactive metabolites has been shown to be catalyzed by xanthine oxidase from rat liver. The clinical significance, if any, of these observations is unknown.

Buying Anaprilins Cheap Price, Anaprilins

Propranolol is used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat. Propranolol is a beta-blocker. It works by decreasing the action of pacemaker cells and slowing certain impulses in the heart. This helps to control irregular heartbeat.

Use Propranolol as directed by your doctor.

Take Propranolol with a full glass of water.

Take Propranolol on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Propranolol at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

Continue to take Propranolol even if you feel well. Do not miss any dose.

Do not suddenly stop taking Propranolol. You may have an increased risk of side effects. If you need to stop Propranolol or add a new medicine, your doctor will gradually lower your dose.

If you miss a dose of Propranolol, take it as soon as possible. If your next dose is less than 4 hours away, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Propranolol.

Store Propranolol between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Propranolol out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Propranolol if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Propranolol

you have moderate to severe heart block, sick sinus syndrome, or a very slow heartbeat and you do not have a permanent pacemaker

you have uncontrolled heart failure, shock caused by serious heart problems, or very low blood pressure after a heart attack

you have asthma

the patient is a child with diabetes or heart failure

you are taking mibefradil.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Propranolol. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine (eg, medicines to treat colds or congestion), herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances, or are taking medicine for allergies

if you have a history of other heart problems (eg, angina, congestive heart failure, slow heartbeat)

if you have a history of liver or kidney problems, blood vessel disease, lung or breathing problems (eg, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]), diabetes, low blood sugar, overactive thyroid, or glaucoma

if you have Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Down syndrome, Raynaud syndrome, or an adrenal gland tumor (pheochromocytoma)

if you smoke or drink alcohol.

Some medicines may interact with Propranolol. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Mibefradil because the risk of serious heart side effects may be increased

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines (eg, used for infections, inflammation, aches and pains, high blood pressure, heart problems, irregular heartbeat, diabetes, prostate problems, blood thinning, thyroid problems, depression, mental or mood problems, immune system suppression, allergic reactions, asthma, high cholesterol, seizures, local anesthesia), multivitamin products, and herbal or dietary supplements (eg, herbal teas, coenzyme Q10, garlic, ginseng, ginkgo, St. John's wort) may interact with Propranolol, increasing the risk of side effects

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Propranolol may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Propranolol may cause drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, or vision changes. These effects may be worse if you use it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Propranolol with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Check with your doctor before you drink alcohol while you are using Propranolol; it may increase the risk of Propranolol's side effects.

Do NOT use more than the recommended dose without checking with your doctor.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you use Propranolol before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

If you have a history of any severe allergic reaction, talk with your doctor. You may be at risk of an even more severe allergic reaction if you come into contact with the substance that caused your allergy. Some medicines used to treat severe allergies may also not work as well while you are using Propranolol.

Propranolol may lower your blood sugar levels. This is most likely to happen in infants and children, or in patients who have diabetes or kidney problems. It may also occur after prolonged physical activity or during fasting. Low blood sugar may make you anxious, sweaty, weak, dizzy, drowsy, or faint. It may also make your heart beat faster; make your vision change; give you a headache, chills, or tremors; or make you more hungry. If this occurs, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens.

Diabetes patients - Propranolol may hide signs of low blood sugar, such as a rapid heartbeat. Be sure to watch for other signs of low blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Propranolol may interfere with certain lab tests, including glaucoma screening and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are using Propranolol.

Lab tests, including blood pressure and heart function, may be performed while you use Propranolol. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Propranolol with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Propranolol should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Propranolol while you are pregnant. Propranolol is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Propranolol, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

If you stop taking Propranolol suddenly, you may have withdrawal symptoms. These may include worsening chest pain along with possible heart attack.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; fatigue; lightheadedness; mild pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site; nausea; stomach upset or cramping; trouble sleeping; vomiting; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain; disorientation; fever with aching and sore throat; hallucinations; memory loss; mental or mood changes; numbness or tingling of the hands; persistent or severe vision changes; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; severe dizziness; shortness of breath or wheezing; sudden, unusual weight gain; swelling of the hands, ankles, or feet; unusual bruising; unusually slow heartbeat; very cold or blue fingers or toes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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Propranolol Propranolol is used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat. $0.3 for pill Torsemide Torsemide is used for treatment of edema (swelling) associated with heart, kidney, or liver failure, or with conditions in which there is excess body water. It is also used alone or with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. $0.38 for pill Atorlip-10 Atorlip-10 is used to treat high cholesterol. $0.83 for pill

Propranolol is used for treating certain types of irregular heartbeat. Propranolol is a beta-blocker. It works by decreasing the action of pacemaker cells and slowing certain impulses in the heart. This helps to control irregular heartbeat.

Use Propranolol as directed by your doctor.

Take Propranolol with a full glass of water.

Take Propranolol on a regular schedule to get the most benefit from it. Taking Propranolol at the same time each day will help you remember to take it.

Continue to take Propranolol even if you feel well. Do not miss any dose.

Do not suddenly stop taking Propranolol. You may have an increased risk of side effects. If you need to stop Propranolol or add a new medicine, your doctor will gradually lower your dose.

If you miss a dose of Propranolol, take it as soon as possible. If your next dose is less than 4 hours away, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at the next regularly scheduled time.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Propranolol.

Store Propranolol between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Propranolol out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Do NOT use Propranolol if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Propranolol

you have moderate to severe heart block, sick sinus syndrome, or a very slow heartbeat and you do not have a permanent pacemaker

you have uncontrolled heart failure, shock caused by serious heart problems, or very low blood pressure after a heart attack

you have asthma

the patient is a child with diabetes or heart failure

you are taking mibefradil.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Propranolol. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine (eg, medicines to treat colds or congestion), herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances, or are taking medicine for allergies

if you have a history of other heart problems (eg, angina, congestive heart failure, slow heartbeat)

if you have a history of liver or kidney problems, blood vessel disease, lung or breathing problems (eg, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]), diabetes, low blood sugar, overactive thyroid, or glaucoma

if you have Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Down syndrome, Raynaud syndrome, or an adrenal gland tumor (pheochromocytoma)

if you smoke or drink alcohol.

Some medicines may interact with Propranolol. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Mibefradil because the risk of serious heart side effects may be increased

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines (eg, used for infections, inflammation, aches and pains, high blood pressure, heart problems, irregular heartbeat, diabetes, prostate problems, blood thinning, thyroid problems, depression, mental or mood problems, immune system suppression, allergic reactions, asthma, high cholesterol, seizures, local anesthesia), multivitamin products, and herbal or dietary supplements (eg, herbal teas, coenzyme Q10, garlic, ginseng, ginkgo, St. John's wort) may interact with Propranolol, increasing the risk of side effects

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Propranolol may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Propranolol may cause drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, or vision changes. These effects may be worse if you use it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Propranolol with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Check with your doctor before you drink alcohol while you are using Propranolol; it may increase the risk of Propranolol's side effects.

Do NOT use more than the recommended dose without checking with your doctor.

Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment. Be sure to take your medicine even if you may not feel "normal." Tell your doctor if you develop any new symptoms.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you use Propranolol before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

If you have a history of any severe allergic reaction, talk with your doctor. You may be at risk of an even more severe allergic reaction if you come into contact with the substance that caused your allergy. Some medicines used to treat severe allergies may also not work as well while you are using Propranolol.

Propranolol may lower your blood sugar levels. This is most likely to happen in infants and children, or in patients who have diabetes or kidney problems. It may also occur after prolonged physical activity or during fasting. Low blood sugar may make you anxious, sweaty, weak, dizzy, drowsy, or faint. It may also make your heart beat faster; make your vision change; give you a headache, chills, or tremors; or make you more hungry. If this occurs, you should eat or drink a quick source of sugar like table sugar, honey, candy, orange juice, or non-diet soda. This will raise your blood sugar level quickly. Tell your doctor right away if this happens.

Diabetes patients - Propranolol may hide signs of low blood sugar, such as a rapid heartbeat. Be sure to watch for other signs of low blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Propranolol may interfere with certain lab tests, including glaucoma screening and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are using Propranolol.

Lab tests, including blood pressure and heart function, may be performed while you use Propranolol. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Propranolol with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Propranolol should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Propranolol while you are pregnant. Propranolol is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Propranolol, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

If you stop taking Propranolol suddenly, you may have withdrawal symptoms. These may include worsening chest pain along with possible heart attack.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; fatigue; lightheadedness; mild pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site; nausea; stomach upset or cramping; trouble sleeping; vomiting; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); chest pain; disorientation; fever with aching and sore throat; hallucinations; memory loss; mental or mood changes; numbness or tingling of the hands; persistent or severe vision changes; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; severe dizziness; shortness of breath or wheezing; sudden, unusual weight gain; swelling of the hands, ankles, or feet; unusual bruising; unusually slow heartbeat; very cold or blue fingers or toes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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Cardizem Cardizem is used for treating supraventricular tachycardia, a rhythm disturbance of the heart. $0.48 for pill Torsemide Torsemide is used for treatment of edema (swelling) associated with heart, kidney, or liver failure, or with conditions in which there is excess body water. It is also used alone or with other medicines to treat high blood pressure. $0.38 for pill Toprol XL Toprol XL is used for treating high blood pressure, angina, and heart failure. $0.76 for pill

Buy Cefudura (Cefuroxime) Without Prescription - Antibiotics, Cefudura

Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea. Ceftin is usually a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacterias cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.

Use Ceftin as directed by your doctor.

Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.

Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.

To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.

If you miss a dose of Ceftin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose, and go back to your regular dosing routine. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Inquire your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Ceftin.

Store Ceftin at room temperature, between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Ceftin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Cefuroxime axetil.

Do NOT make use of Ceftin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Ceftin or even to any other cephalosporin antibiotic (eg, cephalexin, cefprozil).

Contact your physician or doctor right away if these connect with you.

Tell your medical provider for those who have any medical conditions, particularly if the following connect with you:

if you are pregnant, likely to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or non-prescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you possess allergies to medicines, foods, or other chemicals

if you have diarrhea, a stomach or intestinal infection, or a blood clotting problem

if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, severe rash, hives, difficulty breathing, dizziness) to a penicillin antibiotic (eg, amoxicillin) or other beta-lactam antibiotic (eg, imipenem).

Some medicines may interact with Ceftin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Aminoglycosides (eg, gentamicin), cyclosporine, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), or other medicines affecting the kidney because side effects, such as kidney toxicity, may occur

Hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Ceftin.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Ceftin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Contact your doctor right away if stomach pain or cramps, severe diarrhea, or bloody stools occur during treatment or within several months after treatment with Ceftin. Do not treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor.

The tablet and oral suspension forms of Ceftin are not equivalent. Do not substitute one for the other.

Ceftin only works against bacteria; it does not treat viral infections (eg, the common cold).

Be sure to use Ceftin for the full course of treatment. If you do not, the medicine may not clear up your infection completely. The bacteria could also become less sensitive to this or other medicines. This could make the infection harder to treat in the future.

Long-term or repeated use of Ceftin may cause a second infection. Tell your doctor if signs of a second infection occur. Your medicine may need to be changed to treat this.

Diabetes patients - Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong. Ask your doctor before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Hormonal birth control (eg, birth control pills) may not work as well while you are using Ceftin. To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control (eg, condoms).

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell count, may be performed while you use Ceftin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Ceftin should not be used in children younger 3 months; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Ceftin while you are pregnant. Ceftin is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while acquiring Ceftin.

All medicines could cause unwanted effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Diarrhea/loose stools; nausea; vomiting. Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); bloody stools; change in the amount of urine; dark urine; easy bruising or bleeding; fatigue; fever; seizures; severe diarrhea; stomach cramps/pain; vaginal irritation or discharge; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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Piroxen, Piroxen

Common use Feldene is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Feldene reduces hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Dosage and direction

Consult your doctor before using. Use no more than was prescribed. Take it orally with food or milk. For osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis the recommended dose is 20 milligrams (mg) once a day or 10 mg twice a day. Do not use this medication in children without a doctor's permission. Note: this instruction presented here is just for review. It's very necessary to consult your doctor before using. It will help you to get best results.

Precautions If you have heart disease, or high blood pressure, or other conditions that cause fluid retention, use Feldene with caution. This medication can increase water retention and is not recommended for people with advanced kidney disease, also Feldene cause liver damage. Also medications such as Feldene may cause eye disturbances in some patients. If you develop visual problems, tell your eye doctor. Feldene can increase the risk of serious stomach or bowel problems. If your health is poor, if you have a history of smoking or drinking alcohol, if you take corticosteroid medicines or "blood thinners", or if you take this medicine for a long period of time the risk of taking Feldene will be increased. Feldene should not be used during pregnancy ( if becoming pregnant) or when lactating without doctor's advice. Do not use Feldene before breast-feeding without doctor's advice.

Contraindications Feldene is not allowed in people with active peptic ulcer, inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder, gastrointestinal bleeding or hypersensitive to Feldene, Aspirin, or similar drugs. Also if you have had asthma attacks caused by Aspirin or other drugs of this type, you should not take this medication. Do not use Feldene for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Possible side effects They may include all types of an allergic reaction. Also the most possible side effects include: weakness, chest pain, shortness of breath, problems with vision or balance, slurred speech; bloody, black, or tarry stools; coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; swelling or rapid weight gain; urinating less than usual or not at all; dark urine, nausea, low fever, loss of appetite, clay-colored stools, jaundice, stomach pain; fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash; bruising, severe tingling, numbness, pain, muscle weakness; fever, headache, neck stiffness, chills, increased sensitivity to light, purple spots on the skin, and/or seizure. Less serious include: upset stomach, mild heartburn or stomach pain, diarrhea, constipation; bloating, gas; dizziness, headache, nervousness; skin itching or rash; blurred vision; ringing in your ears. If you experience one of them stop using Feldene and tell your doctor as soon as possible. Also consult your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual.

Drug interaction Feldene interacts with the following drugs: a blood thinner such as warfarin; lithium; methotrexate; diuretics such as furosemide; steroids; aspirin or other NSAIDs such as etodolac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, meloxicam, nabumetone, naproxen, and others; an ACE inhibitor such as benazepril, captopril, fosinopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and others. Also note that interaction between two medications does not always mean that you must stop taking one of them. As usual it affects the effect of drugs, so consult your doctor about how the way these interactions are being managed or should be managed.

Missed dose If you forgot to take your dose in time, please do it as soon as you remember. But do not take if it is too late or almost time for your next dose. Do not increase your recommended dose. Take your usual dose next day in the same regular time.

Overdose Symptoms of Feldene overdose may include: stomach pain, nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, black or bloody stools, shallow breathing, coughing up blood, fainting, or coma. If you experience one of them or any unusual symptoms call your doctor immediately.

Storage Store at room temperature between 20-25 C (68-77 F).

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care adviser or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

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Piroxicam (Piroxicam)

Buy Klarfast Online - Self Healing Centre, Klarfast

Klarfast

Medication guide about Klarfast (Desloratadine)

Brand name: Klarfast Generic name: Desloratadine

What is the most important information I should know about Klarfast? Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Although unlikely, Klarfast may cause dizziness or drowsiness. If you experience dizziness or drowsiness, avoid these activities.

What is Klarfast? Klarfast is an antihistamine. Antihistamines prevent sneezing, runny nose, itching and watering of the eyes, and other allergic symptoms. Klarfast is used to treat the symptoms of allergies. Klarfast may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Klarfast? Before taking Klarfast, tell your doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction to an antihistamine; kidney disease; or liver disease. You may not be able to take Klarfast, or you may require a dosage adjustment or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above. Klarfast is in the FDA pregnancy category C. This means that it is not known whether Klarfast will be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not take Klarfast without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during treatment. Klarfast passes into breast milk and may affect a nursing infant. Do not take Klarfast without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How should I take Klarfast? Take Klarfast exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these instructions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you. Take each regular tablet with a full glass (8 ounces) of water. Place a Klarfast orally-disintegrating-tablets (Klarfast Reditabs) on the tongue and allow it dissolve. The tablet will disintegrate rapidly. Swallow with or without water. Take the Klarfast orally-disintegrating tablets immediately after removal from the blister packaging. Do not store for later use. Klarfast can be taken with or without food. Klarfast is usually taken once a day. Follow your doctor’s instructions. Never take more of this medication than directed. If your symptoms do not improve, talk to your doctor. Store Klarfast at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Avoid exposing the medication to temperatures above 86 degrees Fahrenheit (30 degrees Celsius ).

What happens if I miss a dose? Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take only the next regularly scheduled dose. Do not take a double dose of this medication.

What happens if I overdose? Seek emergency medical attention if an overdose is suspected. Symptoms of a Klarfast overdose are not well known but may include drowsiness.

What should I avoid while taking Klarfast? Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Although unlikely, Klarfast may cause dizziness or drowsiness. If you experience dizziness or drowsiness, avoid these activities.

What are the possible side effects of Klarfast? If you experience any of the following rare but serious side effects, stop taking Klarfast and contact your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical attention. an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of the throat; swelling of the lips, tongue, or face; or hives); or irregular or fast heartbeats. Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take Klarfast and talk to your doctor if you experience drowsiness or dizziness; nausea; dry mouth or throat; or muscle aches. Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.

What other drugs will affect Klarfast? There are no known interactions between Klarfast and other medications. Talk to your doctor and pharmacist before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines, including vitamins, minerals, and herbal products, during treatment with Klarfast.

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What Is Meftal, Meftan

What is meftal?

Rajive Goel 7 May 2010

Brand name: Meftal Generic name: Mefenamic acid MEFTAL (Mefenamic Acid, Ponstel)

Meftal, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is used for the relief of moderate pain (when treatment will not last for more than 7 days) and for the treatment of menstrual pain.

Take Meftal as prescribed by your doc./pharmacist

Use Meftal with extreme caution if you've suffered from stomach ulcers or bleeding in the past. If you develop a rash, diarrhea, or other stomach problems, if you are an older adult; have kidney problems, liver disease, or heart failure; take drugs such as diuretics or ACE inhibitors; or suffer from dehydration, Meftal could damage your kidneys and should be used with caution.

Meftal occasionally causes liver damage. If you develop warning signs such as nausea, fatigue, yellowing of the skin and eyes, itching, flu-like symptoms, and upper abdominal pain, stop taking Meftal and seek medical attention immediately.

Meftal can also aggravate high blood pressure, asthma, and heart failure. Use it with caution if you have any of these conditions. Use it cautiously, too, if you smoke or are in poor health. Possible food and drug interactions when taking Meftal

If Meftal is taken with certain other drugs, the effects of either can be increased, decreased, or altered. It is especially important to check with your doctor before combining Meftal with the following:

ACE inhibitors (drugs for high blood pressure) such as Capoten and Vasotec Alcohol Aspirin Blood-thinning medications such as Coumadin Diuretics such as Lasix and HydroDIURIL Fluconazole (DiFlucan) Lithium (Lithonate) Lovastatin (Mevacor) Methotrexate (Rheumatrex) Steroids such as prednisone and hydrocortisone Trimethoprim (Proloprim, Bactrim, Septra) Special information if you are pregnant or breastfeeding

The effects of Meftal during pregnancy have not been adequately studied. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, inform your doctor immediately. You should not use Meftal in late pregnancy because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect the heart and blood vessels of the developing baby. Meftal may appear in breast milk and could affect a nursing infant. If Meftal is essential to your health, your doctor may advise you to discontinue breastfeeding until your treatment is finished. Recommended dosage for Meftal

ADULTS AND CHILDREN OVER 14 Overdosage

If you suspect an overdose of Meftal, seek medical attention immediately.

* Symptoms of Meftal overdose may include: Drowsiness, lack of energy, nausea, stomach or abdominal pain, vomiting

In severe cases, breathing problems and coma can develop.

Side effects cannot be anticipated. If any develop or change in intensity, inform your doctor as soon as possible. Only your doctor can determine if it is safe for you to continue taking Meftal.

* Side effects may include: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, stomach and intestinal upset, vomiting, hope this helps?

Kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Zonder Recept, Bafurokisaru

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Kopen Online Zonder Recept

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Toelichting

Bafurokisaru geneeskunde is een categorie van geneesmiddelen die bekend staat als chinolon anti-biotica. Bafurokisaru functie voorkomt de uitbreiding in verband met ziektekiemen.

Bafurokisaru mogen niet worden gebruikt voor de verkoudheid, griep, een ander pathogeen bacteriele infecties, pijnlijke keel of andere kleine bacteriele infecties of bacteriele infecties te voorkomen.

Bafurokisaru kan ook worden aangeduid als Norfloxacine, Norfloxacine, Apo-Norflox, Norflohexal, Roxin, Utinor.

General titel geassocieerd met Bafurokisaru is eigenlijk Norfloxacine.

Merk geassocieerd met Bafurokisaru is eigenlijk Bafurokisaru.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Dosis

Bafurokisaru komt in:

400mg normale dosis frictiemateriaal

Krijg Bafurokisaru via de mond met een compleet kopje geassocieerd met het drinken van water.

Krijg Bafurokisaru het algemeen twee keer per dag, een minimum van een uur voor ten minste twee uur na een offer van gevogelte |. Het verlaten van de | a |. Behulp> diner of zelfs zuivelproducten (e gary de gadget guy. zuivel, yoghurt).

Krijg Bafurokisaru twee uur voorafgaand aan of zelfs twee uur direct na het gebruik van enige vorm van items die magnesium, lichtgewicht aluminium of zelfs calcium mineralen bevat.

De werkelijke dosis geassocieerd met pillen hangt af van de conditie en de aanbevolen therapie.

Wilt u beste resultaten te bereiken meestal niet stoppen met het gebruik van Bafurokisaru ineens.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) ontbreekt in verband met de dosering

Meestal krijgt niet de dubbele dosering. In het geval u de dosering die u nodig hebt om het te dragen als je eenmaal in het achterhoofd te houden met betrekking tot uw ontbreekt overslaan. Wanneer het tijd is voor de dosering die u nodig hebt om te dragen op je eigen normale dosering routine.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Overdose

In het geval u Bafurokisaru overdosis en je ook voorkomen dat geweldig je nodig hebt om direct te controleren uw arts of zelfs arts.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Opslagruimte

Shop in de ruimte een temperatuur tussen 10 en 30 niveaus D (59 en zesentachtig niveaus F) tegen vocht en temperatuur. Handhaaf container stevig dicht. Versterken elke vorm van ongerepte medicatie na het verstrijken dag. Handhaven van het bereiken van kinderen.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Negatieve effecten

Bafurokisaru biedt de negatieve effecten. De meest typische neiging om:

aanvallen frictiemateriaal

psychologische aanpassingen (waaronder ongewoon ideeen geassocieerd met zelfmoord) frictiemateriaal

langdurige pijnlijke amandelen wrijving materiaal

temperatuur frictiemateriaal

het gezichtsvermogen wijzigingen frictiemateriaal

het verlies van het gehoor frictiemateriaal

verbeteringen gemaakt op kwantiteit of zelfs kijken bijbehorende met pee frictiemateriaal

vergeling van het oog of zelfs porien en de huid frictiemateriaal

flauwvallen frictiemateriaal

de snelle, langzamer, of zelfs abnormale hartslag frictiemateriaal

eenvoudige bloeden of blauwe plekken frictiemateriaal

tintelingen, tingley geassocieerd met handen of zelfs heup en benen frictiemateriaal

langdurige diarree frictiemateriaal

maag of zelfs buik ongemak of zelfs kramp pijn frictiemateriaal

bloedbaan of zelfs slijm in uw ontlasting frictiemateriaal

Veel minder typische en ernstige nadelige gevolgen voor de hele behulp Bafurokisaru: allergische reactie reacties (urticaria, en uitademen problemen, allergie, evenals uitbarsting).

Negatieve effecten zijn er aanwijzingen afhankelijk zijn van medicijnen die u zou kunnen gebruiken, maar bovendien rekenen op uw welzijn conditie en andere aspecten.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Contra-indicaties

Meestal niet Bafurokisaru krijgen in het geval u gevoelig om Bafurokisaru elementen of quinolone anti-biotica bijvoorbeeld ciprofloxacine, gatifloxacine, gemifloxacine, levofloxacine zijn, lomefloxacine, moxifloxacine of zelfs ofloxacine.

Bafurokisaru mogen niet worden gebruikt voor de verkoudheid, griep, een ander pathogeen bacteriele infecties, pijnlijke keel of andere kleine bacteriele infecties of bacteriele infecties te voorkomen.

Wees voorzichtig wanneer u verwacht, gaan om zwanger te worden, en / of het geven van borstvoeding.

Wees voorzichtig voor het geval dat u gebruik maakt van elke vorm van voorgeschreven arts of zelfs nonprescription medicijnen, natuurlijke voorbereiding, of zelfs aan te vullen.

Wees voorzichtig voor degenen die aanvallen, mind problemen hebben (e. Gary de gadget man. Desapasionado arteriosclerose, tumor, verbeterde intracraniele druk), spiermassa ziekte / zwakte (e. Gary de gadget man. myasthenia gravis), hart problemen (e. Gary de gadget man. cardiomyopathie, tragere hartslag, torsades ENL pointes, QTc tijd verlenging), renale ziekte, voedingsstof discrepantie (e. Gary de gadget man. lager kalium of zelfs magnesium), historische verleden geassocieerd met tendinitis / pees problemen.

Wanneer je krijgt Bafurokisaru je nodig hebt om veel vloeistoffen te consumeren.

Voorkom alcoholische dranken en dranken die koffie (koffie, groene thee, cola) bevat, meestal geen grote bedragen in verband met chocolade te consumeren.

Voorkom continu zonlicht publiciteit, zonnebaden cabines of zelfs sunlamps. Maak gebruik van een zonnescherm en de put op het beschermen van kleding als buiten.

Het kan schadelijk zijn voor Bafurokisaru te voorkomen met behulp van ineens.

Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Veelgestelde vragen

Queen: Wat is Bafurokisaru precies?

De: Bafurokisaru geneeskunde is een categorie van geneesmiddelen die bekend staat als chinolon anti-biotics. A

Queen: Wat er precies is Bafurokisaru gebruikt voor?

De: Bafurokisaru wordt gebruikt om te gaan met een aantal transmissions. A

Queen: Dus hoe precies doet Bafurokisaru functie?

De: Bafurokisaru functies door het voorkomen van de uitbreiding in verband met germs. A

Queen: Zeer beste algemene titel in verband met Bafurokisaru?

De: General titel is eigenlijk Norfloxacin. A

Queen: Precies wat moet ik fag situatie als gevolg van de dosering ontbreekt?

De: In het geval van de dosering ontbreekt moet je om de pil zo snel mogelijk. Meestal geen dubbele dosis krijgen. En als het echt meest gelukkige tijd voor de dosis die u nodig hebt om te dragen op je eigen normale routine geassocieerd met Bafurokisaru using. A

Queen: moeten we niet echt gebruiken Bafurokisaru?

De: Meestal niet gebruiken Bafurokisaru voor degenen die allergische reactie in het of zelfs de elements. A

Queen: May Bafurokisaru trekker allergische aanval?

De: Inderdaad, het kan. Wees voorzichtig. Geassocieerd met allergische symptomen om Bafurokisaru: allergie, jeuk, ontsteking, ernstige vermoeidheid, problemen inademen en exhaling. A

Kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) online, kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) online zonder voorschrift, kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) zonder recept, kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) goedkoop, kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) zonder voorschrift, kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) uit Canada, kopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) Canada, inkopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) online, inkopen Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) online no prescription, bestelling Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) zonder recept, Bafurokisaru (Noroxin) orale pil

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What Does The Name Miraclin Mean, Miraclin

Miraclin

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What does the name "Miraclin" mean?

M is for mighty, your inner strength.

I is for impressive, your list of qualities.

R is for rational, the way you think.

A is for affirm, the certainty of knowledge.

C is for comic, laughter is your tonic.

L is for lively, your life is full of energy!

I is for instill, the lesson of life.

N is for name, a pleasant one indeed.

Your name in reverse order is "Nilcarim" . A random rearrangement of the letters in your name (anagram) will give "Iimlcnar" . How do you pronounce that?

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Past life for Miraclin born Oct 26, 1922

I do not know how you feel about it, but you were a female in your last earthly incarnation. You were born somewhere around the territory of Southern Japan approximately on 1600 . Your profession was builder of roads, bridges, and docks .

You were a person with huge energy, good in planning and supervising. If you were just a garbage-man, you were chief garbage-man. You are bound to learn to understand other people and to meet all life difficulties with joyful heart. You should help others, bringing them spirit of joy.

Name poster for Miraclin

Aigis - Megami Tensei Wiki, Agis

Aigis

" Everyone. I realize now that I have friends as well. You don't have to save the world to find meaning in life. Sometimes, all you need is something simple, like someone to take care of. I'll keep on living no matter what, so that I can protect you. " —Aigis, Persona 3

Aigis ( Aegis in Japan) is a character from Persona 3 .

Contents

Appearances Edit

Design Edit

Aigis appears as an android with short, blond hair and dark blue eyes. Ikutsuki explains that her humanoid shape allows her to process thoughts like a human making it easier to handle a Persona. When she transfers and appears in the Gekkoukan High setting, she wears the generic female school uniform but retains her red ribbon except at the beach excursion in Yakushima, a brief school field trip in Kyoto (in which she wears a bathrobe) and the post-New Year's Day when she wears a kimono at the nearby shrine.

During The Answer . she dons a new metal visor and a tactical vest that can carry spare ammunition along with an engraved gorget.

After 2 years, during Persona 4 Arena . she returns, donning a new red tie in place of her red ribbon. She is now equipped with new advanced features on her metal headband, legs, and three weapons are behind her back. Before entering a battle she starts off wearing a black military coat dress, with a black jacket underneath (almost similar to her original school uniform), and black pants.

Design Development Edit

It is explained by Shigenori Soejima that her colors, blue, yellow, and red are used to evoke the image of classic anime heroes while her "headphones" resemble the Antikythera mechanism. The drum magazine on her arm is modeled after the Luger P08 's Trommelmagazin 08. [1]

Personality Edit

" Don't worry. I will always be by your side, protecting you. " —Aigis' devotion and promise to the protagonist

Aigis' initial personality is simply to obey orders, although she is drawn to the protagonist and begins breaking into his room at night to be with him. In November, she developed emotions, becoming compassionate and loyal to her friends, though she struggles to fully understand her new emotions. After awakening to the Wild Card. Aigis' personality further develops into her current personality of a sweet, gentle, empathetic and strong-hearted young woman with a talent for leadership. She is also very polite to everybody, always using the suffix '-san' when addressing them. In the original Japanese version, she ends her sentences with "de arimasu" prior to developing emotions.

Profile Edit

Unlike other characters, Aigis bears the distinction of using an exclusive 'Tactic' command, Orgia Mode, which increases her overall attack capabilities, at the cost of being immobile after using it. She is a 7th Generation Anti-Shadow Suppression Weapon developed by the Kirijo Group.

Aegis: The First Mission Edit

In this Japan-exclusive title, Aigis serves as the protagonist of Aegis: The First Mission . The game details her creation and the events that led to the sealing of Death and the incident that occurred in 1999.

Persona 3 Edit

Aigis makes her appearance at Yakushima.

Aigis makes her first appearance in Yakushima, where members of SEES are enjoying their vacation. She appears to be looking out towards the ocean, where the protagonist, Junpei Iori. and Akihiko Sanada are attracted by her beauty. The trio formulates a plan to flirt with her, only to fail. During the protagonist's encounter with her, parts of her memories are restored and Aigis escapes.

She is later revealed to be an Anti-Shadow weapon developed by the Kirijo Group (much to Junpei and Akihiko's dismay), and also happens to be the final Anti-Shadow weapon still capable of functioning.

SMT Persona 3 FES Aigis alarm clock

Aigis being the protagonist's alarm clock.

Ikutsuki later assigned her to SEES as a member, and she enrolls in Gekkoukan High to act as the protagonist's bodyguard. Throughout the game, Aigis shows an instinctive interest in protecting the protagonist, an interest which even she cannot explain. As the story progresses, she begins to question her existence, human lives, and her role in life. When Ryoji Mochizuki transfers to Gekkoukan High, she becomes hostile to the transfer student, and warns the protagonist not to get near Ryoji.

Persona 3 Movie 16 - The Attempted Fall English *Spoilers*

Ikutsuki programs Aigis to kill SEES.

After the twelfth shadow's defeat, Aigis is reprogrammed by Ikutsuki to lure members of SEES to Tartarus. Ikutsuki reveals his plans for succeeding Mitsuru Kirijo 's grandfather's wish: to awaken the thirteenth arcana that was never meant to be, Death. Under Ikutsuki's programming, Aigis is forced to subdue members of SEES and is then ordered to kill them as a sacrifice to awaken Death. However, Aigis can't bear to kill the protagonist, and begins to fight back Ikutsuki's reprogramming. It is her strong desire to protect that saves the protagonist. However, Takeharu Kirijo is killed by Ikutsuki.

During her battle with Ryoji on the Moonlight Bridge. Aigis regains the memories trapped in her damaged circuits. The player learns that ten years before the game, her mission was to defeat or seal away Death so that the coming of Nyx would be averted. Since she was unable to defeat Death, she sealed the entity away in a young boy who was the sole survivor of a nearby car crash. That young boy was the protagonist. She is driven to protect him both to try and suppress Death and because she feels a great deal of guilt over her actions. Since Ryoji is an incarnation of Death, she senses that he is her natural enemy. Aigis is damaged during her fight with Ryoji and must be repaired by the Kirijo Group, meaning she is not playable in the month of December.

When she returns on December 30th, she requests the protagonist to kill Ryoji, as she believes that a robot who failed her motives is a failure itself. Aigis remarks that as a robot, she cannot feel, and thus cannot even shed a tear for the others. The party comforts her, saying she already shows more human-like qualities and emotions, and is slowly becoming more human. Taking her friends' words to heart, Aigis's resolution is strengthened, and she decides to stand against the power of Nyx with her friends in SEES. After the defeat of Nyx, Aigis is seen crying.

Aigis with the protagonist in his final moments.

After the Dark Hour ends, Aigis is, at first, the only one who remembers Tartarus, the Dark Hour, and the protagonist's sacrifice during his borrowed month of life after the defeat of Nyx. She allows him to live like a normal student for the few precious weeks that he has. Then, on Graduation Day, she holds the protagonist as he drifts into his final sleep, and swears that she will live her life protecting him, unaware that he is dying at that very moment.

Social Link Edit

The protagonist can date Aigis in FES and Portable . Aigis represents Aeon Arcana. a Social Link exclusive to those 2 versions that the protagonist can access after December 30, where Aigis returns from the Kirijo Laboratory for repairing after her battle with Death. However, since school is out at that time, the protagonist cannot activate the link until school resumes on January 8. Unlike other SEES female members, dating Aigis has no Academics, Charm, or Courage prerequisites. Aigis will not get mad at the protagonist for dating another female.

Through the protagonist's interaction with Aigis, he helps Aigis understands the concept of life, and her confused feelings towards herself and the protagonist. Upon completing the Social Link, Aigis will give the protagonist her Charred Screw, bestowing the ultimate form of the Aeon arcana, Metatron.

The Answer Edit

Persona 3 FES The Answer Opening

Aigis fighting Akihiko and Ken.

" This ordeal. it may be that we brought it upon ourselves. The fact that a future exists. and being able to access it. are very different things. We did not understand such an obvious and natural principle yet. Indeed, we understood very little. We knew nothing about using the key to open the path to the future. " —Aigis in the opening

In this epilogue, Aigis replaces the protagonist as playable protagonist, inheriting his power to summon multiple Personas, but unfortunately she can no longer use Orgia Mode. After the death of the protagonist, Aigis decides to stay in the lab instead of continuing her studies. It is also revealed that she kept the protagonist's Evoker after his death.

After the events of Persona 3 . the members of SEES decides to regroup one last time. It is here SEES was assaulted by Metis. who introduces herself as a "sister" of Aigis. Seeing the members of SEES as a hindrance, Metis easily defeats them, and engages Aigis to a battle. After a heated battle, Aigis tries to summon Athena. but the Persona instead transfigures into Orpheus. the Persona of the protagonist. Overusing the Orgia Mode, Aigis eventually passes out, but succeeding in subduing Metis, rendering her incapable to continue fighting.

During her time of being unconscious, Aigis awoke in her subconscious, and was taken into the Velvet Room. In there, she learns about the protagonist's unique ability. Igor informs Aigis that the transfiguration symbolizes a change in Aigis' psyche, and that her Journey is about to begin. While unconscious, Aigis' body was also being enhanced with more armors and rations by the members of SEES. Metis would later lead Aigis to the Abyss of Time. an underground labyrinth situated below the dorm. Mitsuru would eventually regroup SEES, with Aigis serving as the field leader, inheriting the position of the protagonist, an incident which greatly irritates Yukari.

As the story progresses, it is revealed that Aigis slowly rekindles her urges and will of losing the side of humanity and the penalties a living being must face upon the protagonist' death. Her will and wishes to remove her side of humanity manifests as Metis, whom is known as her "sister" who doesn't want to be left alone. Upon venturing to the deepest area of the Abyss of Time, the members encounters the shadow manifests from SEES' negative feelings and will of seeing the protagonist one more time. They also witness fragments of the past of each SEES member while exploring the abyss of time. Metis also reveals that a Persona is a person's shadow but tamed, which surprises everyone, though Metis is also surprised that the SEES did not know.

After defeating the shadow, Yukari expressed hostility upon Aigis out of jealously, as she inherited the protagonist's Wild Card ability, and having one of the keys to unlock the past. Aigis would later team up with Metis and Fuuka to regain the remaining keys, which can be only taken from members of SEES via being victorious in battling them. As the fight goes, Aigis slowly remembers her reasons and will of living, and decided not to change the past, but to bear the burden of the protagonist' death and continue living towards the future.

Aigis defeating Yukari and Mitsuru.

When Aigis collects all the keys and forge them into the "true key", she decides to explore the protagonist's true reason of dying, and was transported, along with members of SEES, to the final battle against Nyx. In there, they witness the protagonist's sealing of Nyx, and what he becomes. Upon Metis' explanation, the party realizes that the protagonist has not became a seal to prevent Nyx's coming, but a seal to prevent humanity's desire for destruction, personified as Erebus. from making contact with Nyx. Upon witnessing Erebus attempting to destroy the seal, and thus the protagonist himself, the members of SEES decide to defeat Erebus.

After the defeat of Erebus, Aigis uses the true key to return to the present time, but was transferred to the Velvet Room along with members of SEES. Igor explains that Aigis had reached the end of her journey, and found her answer of living. This event also reveals Metis' true identity as the manifestation of Aigis' humanity. The sisters reconcile, and fuse into a single being, with Aigis feeling tired.

Aigis's new beginning.

The next day, members of SEES were surprised to see that Aigis continued sleeping, fearing that she suffered the same fate as the protagonist. They took Aigis to her room, where they attempted to repair her. However, as Aigis was unconscious, she heard Metis' voice deep down, encouraging her, and awoke upon hearing Yukari's call. Aigis would later cancel her attempt of staying in the lab and decide to continue studying in Gekkoukan High, where Yukari suggests that Aigis be her roommate. Aigis is last seen in the rooftop of Gekkoukan High, where she looks forward to a new day.

A Certain Day of Summer Edit

Aigis is the main focus of the first story of A Certain Day of Summer . The first story centers around Aigis touring the town before she begins going to school at Gekkoukan High School. When she's dressed in her dorm mate's clothing, Yukari's clothing fit the best. She was going to describe all the differences between her body and Yukari's, but Yukari stops her.

Persona 4 Arena Edit

In her story mode, It all began when a plane was hijacked, the first one in over ten years. Aigis is called in to lead Shadow Operatives in stopping the hijacking. As she finds Mitsuru among one of the passengers, Aigis sees a young woman in a long white dress, much like herself when she was first seen. Mitsuru tell Aigis that an important piece of cargo has been stolen which contains a previous generation model named Labrys. They follow the cargo to Inaba where they meet up with Akihiko and leap into the TV world. Inside, Aigis finds other Persona-users and is forced to fight them due to a strange tournament in this world. She finds a young human girl who resembles the young girl she saw at the plane hijacking and suspects her to be Labrys. But after a while, she loses her confidence and confronts her shadow but soon Elizabeth shows up and confronts her to give her the strength to go on. Aigis continues to the Announcement Room until she finds Labrys confronting her shadow with Yosuke Hanamura and Rise Kujikawa.

Declaring her sister's true name, she follows her and her shadow to the roof where she becomes trapped with Yosuke due to the Tournament. She defeats Yosuke but is impressed by his resolve and promises to save her for him. She returns to the Announcement Room as Labrys confronts her shadow once more and denies her, releasing her full power. After defeating her shadow, Aigis goes to her sister saying that though she doesn't understand the circumstances, as an android, she knows what its like to be different from humans. Labrys feels the sincerity in her words and accepts her shadow which becomes her Persona. Soon both android sisters make their way to the roof again to exit but is not met without resistance. Aigis' shadow appears again as Labrys is hacked into attacking Aigis. Aigis is able to hold her off until Fuuka is able to save her and Aigis defeats her "shadow" who is ultimately the mastermind behind the incident.

As they leave, Aigis recounts the memories of her sister, as Labrys' memoires are also apart of Aigis' as well, and states that in going to the pier and searching for the promised girl, she had also found her precious friends who accepted her as she is. Labrys realizes that in doing that, Aigis had fulfilled her dream as both sisters cry in joy for each other as they continue to search for their "mother".

Aigis and fellow Wild Card wielder and successor Yu Narukami also serve as key characters in Elizabeth 's Story Mode, where they teach her the true nature of the Wild Card. Aigis also serves as a major character in Yu, Yosuke, Teddie and Mitsuru's Story Modes, as well as in Kanji's Joke Ending. She serves as a boss in Yu and Yosuke's story, where after fighting, she tells them about Labrys as well as the events in Persona 3 . She angrily attacks Teddie in his Story Mode, mistakenly believing that he plans to take Labrys away and do her harm. In Mitsuru's Story Mode and Kanji's Joke Ending, Aigis serves as a major supporting character though she is not a boss.

Playstyle Edit

Aigis is a morphing character but unlike Naoto, she is completely respectable at any range with her Orgia Mode especially boosting her abilities drastically while having the downside of limited ammo (which refills each round) and mediocre offense without Orgia Mode. Aigis is also the second fastest character in the game after Yosuke. Her gameplan revolves around multitasking: she must judge the proper situation to use her normal and Orgia Mode and must be prepared to switch at a moment's notice several times throughout a single round in addition to constantly keeping her normal meter, Orgia Mode meter and ammo in check. Athena serves both as a way to defend Aigis as well as complement her assault. Unlike the other Personas used in the game, Athena is actually immune to Persona breaks when she uses her shield, and will then counter the enemy after her shield is hit. With all of these options and with enough practice, if one can carefully manage all of her mechanics, Aigis can become one of the most powerful characters in the game. Aigis is arguably the most dangerous character to face in Score Attack other than Elizabeth, due to her incredibly powerful buffs, such as having 999 bullets instead of her standard 120 and her Orgia Gauge being perpetually full and active. Also, Aigis holds the distinction of being one of only two characters (the other being Yu) in the game who can use two Personas in battle; Athena for normal combat, and Palladion for her Instant Kill, Heritage Liberator Palladion.

Score Attack Edit

Aigis is the ninth character the player fights in Score Attack. Aigis will always be in Orgia Mode which will never deplete and will have 999 bullets.

Persona 4 Arena (Manga) Edit

Aigis faces off against Kanji Tatsumi after ending up in the P-1 Grand Prix. defeating him in combat. She later joins Yosuke in battle against Shadow Labrys.

Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth Edit

Aigis retains her unique ability to enter Orgia Mode. It consumes one turn to initiate, lasts for 2 more turns, then she is forced into cooldown and unable to act for 3 turns afterwards. While under the effects of Orgia Mode, Aigis' damage output is doubled and she is rendered immune to ailments. Orgia Mode does not consume a buff slot and can stack with Boost and Shura Tensei.

Aigis's co-op attack is multiple hits against random enemies, similar to the Myriad Arrows skill.

Lord of Vermilion Re: 2 Edit

Aigis, alongside Yu Narukami and Elizabeth. appears in Lord of Vermilion Re: 2 . Unlike the other guest characters, Aigis has two cards, one paired with Athena, and another, Aigis EXO, paired with Messiah. Both cards of Aigis belong to the God Tribe. Aigis' ability is Orgia Mode, which enhances her stats and lets her use Heavenly Spear, which inflicts multiple heavy Light damage to one foe, while Aigis EXO has Orgia Mode EX, which greatly enhances her stats and enables her to use Megido Fire EX as her offensive ability, which inflicts multiple heavy Fire damage to all foes in an area. Element-wise, Aigis is Light Elemental and Aigis EXO is Fire Elemental, and both are weak to Electricity. Although both cards of Aigis have lower stats than her fellow guest Persona characters, her abilities are far more superior than theirs and are more than enough to compensate for her flaws if used properly. However, like in Persona 4 Arena, Aigis' Orgia Mode can only be operated for a limited time. Her HP gauge also acts as her Orgia Gauge, and she will also overheat if her HP reaches 1. This will not only leave Aigis with dangerously low health, her stats will also decrease significantly, making her extremely vulnerable until she regains HP. Also, if either Yu or Elizabeth are on the same team with Aigis or Aigis EXO, their stats will slightly increase (Defense for Yu and Offense for Elizabeth) as an added benefit when she uses Orgia Mode (EX), but not to the same extent as Aigis.

Battle Quotes Edit

Persona 3 Edit

"Orpheus!" or the name of any of her other Personas, e. g. "Pixie!", "Satan!", "Jack Frost!" and etc. (Enemy weak to attack/Critical with Phys skill)

"Palladion!" (Summoning Persona: Palladion)

"Summoning Persona!" (Summoning Persona: Palladion)

"Initiating summon sequence." (Summoning Persona: Palladion)

"Proceeding." (Summoning Persona: Palladion)

"I. cannot. lose!" (Summoning Persona: Athena)

"Athena!" (Summoning Persona: Athena)

"I need your help!" (Summoning Persona: Athena)

"Persona!" (Summoning Persona: Athena)

"This is my duty!" (Summoning Persona: Athena)

"This is a sign of my determination." (Summoning Persona: Athena)

"It must be eliminated." (After attacking, enemy survives)

"The enemy is still alive." (After attacking, enemy survives)

"Providing assistance." (Using an item on a party member)

"Providing support." (Support skill.)

"Providing backup." (Revival skill)

"Locking on." (Regular attack)

"Let us commence with an All-Out Attack." (Requesting AOA: Palladion)

"Fatal Strike." (During AOA: Palladion)

"Let us strike while the iron's hot." (Requesting AOA: Athena)

"I can't miss!" (During AOA: Athena)

"Damaged!" (Knocked Down)

"Damage sustained!" (Knocked Down)

"When you fall, get right back up." (Recovering from "Down" status)

"I will follow suit!" (Requesting Co-op)

"I'll attack too!" (Requesting Co-op)

"I'm sorry. " (Knocked out)

"Hasta la vista!" (Using weapon)

"You won't escape!"

"I won't go down!"

"Man's best friend indeed" (Koromaru gets a 1 more)

"Enemy annihilated." (Battle won: Palladion)

"Efficiently executed." (Battle won: Palladion)

"I can't lose here!" (Battle won: Athena)

"Did I succeed in protecting everyone?" (Battle won: Athena)

"Time to get serious." (Recovering from a knock down in P3P)

"Slash attacks, ineffective." (Enemy resistant to Slash)

"Strike attacks, ineffective." (Enemy resistant to Strike)

"Pierce attacks have no effect." (Enemy resistant to Pierce)

"Fire isn't working." (Enemy resistant to Fire)

"Ice isn't working." (Enemy resistant to Ice)

"Wind attacks aren't working." (Enemy resistant to Wind)

"Electricity has no effect." (Enemy resistant to Electricity)

"Light isn't working." (Enemy resistant to Light)

"Darkness power, ineffective." (Enemy resistant to Darkness)

"Almighty attacks aren't working." (Enemy resistant to Almighty)

"I won't allow this world to be destroyed!" (Final Nyx battle)

Persona 4 Arena Edit

"A world inside a TV? There's no mistake, I sense Labrys in here." (at the start of her Arcade Mode)

"Target!" (While performing 7th Gatling Blast)

"I got you. Launch!" (While performing Awakening super move, Heavenly Spear)

"Athena. Do it!" (Alternative quote to Heavenly Spear)

"Standing by! The Goddess!" (While performing Awakening super move, Goddess Shield)

"Charging. Now!" (Alternative quote to Goddess Shield)

"My other self!" (Using Athena)

"Burn!" (Using Orgia Megido Fire EX)

"Orgia Drive Activated!" (Activated Orgia Mode)

"Cooling down." (Deactivated Orgia Mode)

"Machine Gun!" (Using her Gatling Gun)

"Full Auto!" (Using her Gatling Gun for an extended period of time)

"So many openings!" (Using Orgia Boost)

"Functions. Shutting Down. " (Depleted Orgia Gauge)

"Open fire!" (Initiating Instant Kill, while Athena appears and throws her spear)

"This is farewell!" (Instant Kill)

"Ready! Final Strike!" (While performing Instant Kill)

"Final sequence!" (Initiating Heritage Liberator Palladion)

"Palladion number 10!" (Instant Kill)

"Maximum Charge. Fire!" (While performing Instant Kill)

"I must show to you how much I've grown!" (vs. Elizabeth)

"I know this feeling. I wonder why. " (vs. Yu)

"My Armor!" (Taking Counter Hit damage)

Arena Ultimax Edit

Ready to deploy. (Character select)

Aigis, ready for combat. (Character select)

Long time no see, Junpei-san! (vs. Junpei)

Victory Quotes Edit

Normal Type Edit

General

Minimal damages. Preparing for the next battle!

Since I have claimed the victory, one could call me a winner!

I may have shot too many bullets. I hope it does not lead to "lead poisoning".

I made sure to throw in extra rounds, on the house. It's a steal!

Mission complete. No damage to either body or mind. That was a rather good battle.

I comprehend. Quite an interesting strategy. It was illuminating.

Character Specific

Yu Narukami. My certainty deepens each time I see you. You are indeed similar to him.

Yosuke Hanamura. Analysis of your battle tendencies shows that you are quick to defend your crotch. Could it be your weak point?

Naoto Shirogane. That was an elaborate battle tactic. May I preserve your internal data for future reference?

Mitsuru Kirijo. I held nothing in reserve. Please allow me to fight you again some day.

Yukari Takeba. Yukari-san! Your latest model anti-Shadow suit is quite "sweet"!

Ken Amada & Koromaru. I'm glad to see that you two are well. The growth of living things always surprises me.

Elizabeth. Whew. I managed to win. What an unparalleled display of power, as always.

Labrys. I have more experience as a Shadow Operative. I cannot lose, even to you, Sister.

Sho. You are the mastermind behind this case, correct? Why would you do this.

Minazuki. So you're the one who did such horrible things to my sister. What is it that you want?

Marie. I'm picking up a reaction unlike that of normal humans. Who in the world are you?

Shadow Aigis . It's useless to try and disturb me! I will not be unsettled any longer!

Shadow Type Edit

General

Hahaha! You're done already? You're more fragile than glass!

I was created to fight. and I'll use that power to destroy you!

Atone with you death! This form itself is an embodiment of your sins!

I'll hunt down everyone that gets in the way, just like I've always done!

Severe damage, preventing further participation in combat. That was too easy.

Power must be used correctly, to bring about a world where only the powerful survive!

You pushed me into this grotesque body. I'll return the favor by locking you in a coffin!

Character Specific

Mitsuru Kirijo. Now that the difference in power between us is clear, I'll give you an ultimatum. Accept your fate and die in silence!

Labrys. Sister, stop being such a disgrace in front of your younger sister! It makes me sad! Ahahahaha!

Aigis . I'll take your place right away! And the first thing I'll do is get my revenge on the humans!

Persona Q: Shadow of the Labyrinth Edit

"Ta!" (When attacking)

"Hugh!" (When attacking)

"Stop!" (When attacking)

"Target lost." (When attack misses)

"I have missed." (When attack misses)

"Persona, rise up!" (When using Skill)

"It is time, Palladion!" (When summoning Palladion)

Summoning Palladion." (When summoning Palladion)

"Please use this!" (When using Item)

"Orgia Mode!" (When activating Orgia Mode)

"Power in maximum capacity." (When in Orgia Mode)

"I. am. at. my. limit. " (When Orgia Mode ends/Overheat)

"Taking action." (when Overheat End)

"I will not make such a vow!" (When Merciful Clergyman uses Vow)

"Our actions are now unrestricted!" (When Merciful Clergyman's Vow is lifted without being broken)

"The punishment is effective against robots as well." (Start of the turn after Merciful Clergyman's Vow is broken)

Gallery Edit

Buy Atenote (Coreg) Online No Prescription, Atenote

Buy Atenote (Coreg) without Prescription

Atenote Description

Atenote is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension, heart failure. Its target is to treat and prevent heart attack.

Atenote acts by affecting circulation and heart. It is a beta-blocker.

Generic name of Atenote is Carvedilol.

Brand names of Atenote are Atenote, Atenote CR.

Atenote Dosage

Atenote is available in:

3.125mg Low Dosage6.25mg Standard Dosage12.5mg Increased Dosage25mg Max Dosage

Atenote is available in tablets and extended-release capsules which are used orally with food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Atenote tablets twice a day, extended-release capsules are taken once a day in the morning.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Atenote suddenly.

Atenote Missing of dose

Do not take double dose. If you miss a dose you should take it as soon as you remember about your missing. If it is the time for the next dose you should continue your regular dosing schedule.

Atenote Overdose

If you overdose Atenote and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Atenote overdosage: bluish-colored fingernails, weakness, short breathing, fainting, uneven heartbeats, convulsions, lightheadedness.

Atenote Side effects

Atenote has its side effects. The most common are:

fatiguenumbnessinsomniaanxietycoughmigraineweaknesslightheadednessnervousnessdiarrheanauseavomitingproblems with visionarthralgiaproblems with sexual life

Less common but more serious side effects during taking Atenote:

allergy reactions (urticaria, breathing difficulties, rash, and eruption)pruritusstomach painslow or uneven heartbeatsfaintingclay-colored stoolsweight gaindecreased appetitefrequent urinationdark urinejaundicedepressionextreme thirstchest painlow fever

Side effects manifestations are not only depend on medicine you are taking but also depend on your health state and on the other factors.

Atenote Contra-indications

Do not take Atenote if you are allergic to Atenote components.

Do not take Atenote if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Atenote if you have a history of asthma, emphysema, thyroid disorder, pheochromocytoma, myasthenia gravis, low blood pressure, liver, kidney or heart disease diabetes, hyperthyroidism, depression, Prinzmetal's angina, bronchitis.

Be careful using Atenote if you take monoamine oxidase inhibitors (tranylcypromine (such as Parnate), isocarboxazid (such as Marplan), selegiline (such as Zelapar, Eldepryl, Emsam), phenelzine (such as Nardil)); verapamil (such as Calan, Verelan, Covera-HS); paroxetine (such as Paxil); cimetidine (such as Tagamet); rifampin (such as Rifadin, Rimactane); clonidine (such as Catapres), cyclosporine (such as Sandimmune, Neoral); digoxin (such as Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); quinidine; diltiazem (such as Tiazac, Cardizem); fluoxetine (such as Prozac); epinephrine (such as Epipen); oral diabetes medicines and insulin; propafenone (such as Rythmol); reserpine (such as Serpalan).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid quickly physical movements.

If you are going to have a surgery, be careful with Atenote.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop taking Atenote suddenly.

Atenote Frequently asked questions

Q: What is Atenote?

A: Atenote is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension, heart failure. Its target is to treat and prevent heart attack.

Q: In what way does Atenote work?

A: Atenote acts by affecting circulation and heart. It is a beta-blocker.

Q: What are Atenote side effects?

A: Atenote has its common side effects such as fatigue, numbness, insomnia, anxiety, cough, migraine, weakness, lightheadedness, nervousness, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, problems with vision, arthralgia, problems with sexual life. But in case of rejection of Atenote ingredients you can experience more serious side effects: allergic symptoms (difficulties with breathing, throat closing, swelling, rash, and hives), pruritus, stomach pain, slow or uneven heartbeats, fainting, clay-colored stools, weight gain, decreased appetite, frequent urination, dark urine, jaundice, depression, extreme thirst, chest pain, low fever. Possibility of side effects appearing depends on health status and, of course, on your right following Atenote prescriptions.

Q: What are generic and brand names of Atenote?

A: Brand names of Atenote are Atenote, Atenote CR. Generic name of Atenote is Carvedilol.

Q: Is it possible to drink alcohol?

A: No, it is forbidden to drink alcohol.

Disilden Para Que Sirve, Disilden

DISILDEN

Especial antencion con menores de 18 anos

Revise siempre que no sea alergico a ninguno de los componentes de DISILDEN . podria poner en peligro su salud

Recuerda antes de tomar este medicamento consultar siempre con su medico, la informacion que ofrecemos es orientativa y no sustituye en ningun caso la de su medico u otro profesional de la salud.

Prospecto e indicaciones

Composicion:

Disilden 50 mg:

Cada comprimido recubierto contiene: Sildenafil (como citrato) 50 mg. Excipientes: Celulosa Microcristalina; Crospovidona; Dioxido de Silicio Coloidal; Talco; Estearato de Magnesio; Hipromelosa; Dioxido de Titanio; Macrogol; Colorante FD&C Azul N° 1.

Disilden 100 mg:

cada comprimido recubierto contiene: Sildenafil (como citrato) 100 mg. Excipientes: Hidroxipropil Celulosa; Carmelosa Sodica; Celulosa Microcristalina; Estearato de Magnesio; Almidon Sodio Glicolato; Dioxido de Silicio Coloidal; Hipromelosa; Talco; Colorante FD&C Azul N° 1; Dioxido de Titanio; Triacetina.

Contraindicaciones:

Hipersensibilidad al sildenafil o a cualquiera de los componentes de la formulacion. El sildenafil ha demostrado potenciar los efectos hipotensores de los nitratos, estando contraindicada la administracion concomitante de Disilden con los dadores de oxido nitrico (tales como nitrito de amilo) o nitratos en cualquiera de sus formas. Pacientes con: insuficiencia hepatica grave, hipotension (tension arterial < 90/50 mmHg), historia reciente de accidente isquemico cerebral o infarto de miocardio y conocidos trastornos hereditarios degenerativos de la retina tales como retinitis pigmentosa (una minoria de estos pacientes tienen trastornos geneticos de las fosfodiesterasas de la retina).

Presentaciones:

Disilden 50 mg:

Envases conteniendo 1 a 12 comprimidos.

Disilden 100 mg:

Envases conteniendo 1 a 6 comprimidos.

Posologia:

La dosis recomendada es de 50 mg tomados a demanda, aproximadamente 1 hora antes de la actividad sexual. En base a la eficacia y la tolerancia, la dosis se puede aumentar a 100 mg o disminuir a 25 mg. La dosis maxima recomendada es de 100 mg. La pauta maxima de dosificacion recomendada es de 1 vez al dia.

Uso en ancianos:

como el clearence de Disilden se reduce en estos pacientes, se deberia utilizar una primera dosis de 25 mg. En base a la eficacia y la tolerancia, se puede incrementar la dosis a 50 mg y 100 mg. El comienzo de la accion farmacologica ocurre dentro de las 0.5 horas despues de la administracion y su duracion es hasta 4 horas, pero con una respuesta menor que la observada a las 2 horas.

Uso en ninos:

Disilden no esta indicado en personas menores de 18 anos de edad.

Efectos Colaterales:

Cardiovasculares:

cefalea, enrojecimiento, mareo.

Digestivas:

. Respiratorias:

Sensoriales:

trastornos visuales (leves y transitorios, predominantemente percepcion anormal de los colores y tambien aumento de la percepcion de la luz o vision borrosa). En estudios a dosis fijas, la dispepsia y los trastornos visuales fueron mas frecuentes con 100 mg que con dosis menores. Adicionalmente, se informo de dolores musculares cuando se administro sildenafil con mas frecuencia que el regimen de dosis recomendado. Los efectos colaterales fueron de naturaleza leve a moderada y su incidencia y su gravedad aumentaron con la dosis. En el seguimiento post-comercializacion se ha notificado los siguientes efectos colaterales: Sistemicos: reacciones de hipersensibilidad (incluyendo erupciones cutaneas). Cardiovasculares: se han informado, en la asociacion temporal con el uso de sildenafil, durante el seguimiento post-comercializacion de acontecimientos cardiovasculares graves, incluyendo infarto de miocardio, sindrome intermedio de angina de pecho, muerte cardiaca subita, arritmia ventricular, hemorragia cerebrovascular, ataque isquemico transitorio, hipertension, hipotension, sincope y taquicardia. Se han recibido notificaciones espontaneas infrecuentes de casos de hipotension tras el uso de sildenafil en combinacion con ?-bloqueantes. Urogenitales: ereccion prolongada y/o priapismo. Sensoriales: trastornos oculares: dolor ocular y enrojecimiento ocular/derrame ocular. Dosis de 200 mg no incrementaron la eficacia pero si la incidencia de efectos colaterales (cefalea, enrojecimiento, mareos, dispepsia, congestion nasal y trastornos visuales).

Contraindicaciones:

Hipersensibilidad al sildenafil o a cualquiera de los componentes de la formulacion. El sildenafil ha demostrado potenciar los efectos hipotensores de los nitratos, estando contraindicada la administracion concomitante de Disilden con los dadores de oxido nitrico (tales como nitrito de amilo) o nitratos en cualquiera de sus formas. Pacientes con: insuficiencia hepatica grave, hipotension (tension arterial < 90/50 mmHg), historia reciente de accidente isquemico cerebral o infarto de miocardio y conocidos trastornos hereditarios degenerativos de la retina tales como retinitis pigmentosa (una minoria de estos pacientes tienen trastornos geneticos de las fosfodiesterasas de la retina).

Precauciones:

Es recomendable realizar una historia clinica y exploracion fisica del paciente, para diagnosticar la disfuncion erectil y determinar las causas potenciales subyacentes, antes de considerar el tratamiento farmacologico. Antes de iniciar cualquier tratamiento de la disfuncion erectil, el medico deberia considerar el estado cardiovascular de sus pacientes, ya que existe algun riesgo cardiaco asociado con la actividad sexual. Disilden tiene propiedades vasodilatadoras, resultando en una disminucion leve y transitoria de la tension arterial. Aunque esto normalmente se esperaria que no tuviera consecuencias en la mayoria de los pacientes, antes de prescribir Disilden, el medico debera considerar cuidadosamente si los pacientes con ciertas patologias subyacentes podrian verse afectados de forma adversa por tales efectos vasodilatadores, especialmente combinados con la actividad sexual. Los pacientes con susceptibilidad aumentada a los vasodilatadores incluyen aquellos con obstruccion del flujo ventricular izquierdo (por ej. estenosis aortica, miocardiopatia hipertrofica obstructiva), o aquellos con el raro sindrome de atrofia sistemica multiple que se caracteriza por una insuficiencia grave del control autonomo de la presion sanguinea. Disilden potencia el efecto hipotensor de los nitratos. Se ha informado en forma infrecuente ereccion prolongada de mas de 4 horas y priapismo (erecciones dolorosas de mas de 6 horas de duracion). En el evento de que una ereccion persistiera por mas de 4 horas, el paciente deberia solicitar asistencia medica inmediata. Si el priapismo no es tratado inmediatamente, puede ocurrir dano del tejido peneano y perdida permanente de potencia. Disilden se debe utilizar con precaucion en pacientes con deformaciones anatomicas del pene (tales como angulacion, fibrosis cavernosa o enfermedad de Peyronie), o en pacientes con antecedentes que puedan predisponer a priapismo (tales como anemia falciforme, mieloma multiple o leucemia). No se han estudiado la seguridad y la eficacia de la asociacion de Disilden con otros tratamientos para la disfuncion erectil. Por lo tanto, no se recomienda el uso de tales asociaciones. Disilden debe utilizarse con precaucion en pacientes tratados con ?-bloqueante, ya que la administracion simultanea puede producir hipotension postural sintomatica en algunos pacientes. Disilden (> 25 mg) no debe administrarse en las 4 horas posteriores a la toma de un ?-bloqueantes. Estudios con plaquetas humanas indican que Disilden potencia el efecto antiagregante del nitroprusiato sodico in vitro. No existen datos de seguridad sobre la administracion de Disilden a pacientes con trastornos hemorragicos o con ulcera peptica activa. Por lo tanto, Disilden se debe administrar a estos pacientes solo tras la evaluacion del beneficio/riesgo.

Interacciones Medicamentosas:

Interaccion con otros medicamentos y otras formas de interaccion:

Drogas antihipertensivas: administradas en conjunto con el sildenafil se puede producir un aumento significativo en el efecto hipotensor. Inhibidores de la enzima hepatica del citocromo P450: como cimetidina, eritromicina, itraconazol, ketoconazol, mebefradil, ritonavir, saquinavir, aumentan las concentraciones plasmaticas de sildenafil, por lo que se recomienda a estos pacientes una dosis de 25 mg. Para aquellos pacientes que estan en tratamiento con ritonavir, deben consumir una dosis de 25 mg como maximo cada 48 horas. Inductores de la enzima hepatica del citocromo P450: como rifampicina, reducen las concentraciones plasmaticas del sildenafil. Nitratos, nitroglicerina: el sildenafil potencia el efecto hipotensor de los nitratos, por lo cual su uso en conjunto esta contraindicado.

INFARTO DE MIOCARDIO . Es el nombre cientifico del ataque al corazon. Se debe a la obstruccion del riego sanguineo (trombosis) en parte de musculo (mio) del corazon(cardio), que produce su destruccion (infarto).

Alcohol - Drug Treatment, Resata

More than 37 years of comprehensive treatment

RESADA’S Treatment Philosophy knows Alcoholism and/or drug addiction can be a complex illness involving various mental, physical, and social aspects of a person.

To this end, we offer clients the opportunity for a cognitive behavioral change approach to treatment.

A long-term approach to recovery affords clients the opportunity to participate in support groups such as Narcotics Anonymous, Alcoholics Anonymous, or other self-help groups during and after treatment.

Welcome to Our Website

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We offer our services for

Other services include:

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Breathalyzer (BAL)

Case management/after-care services

Minor in possession program

Pregnant women and women with dependent children

About Us

A non-profit corporation, founded in 1977, RESADA, Region Six Alcohol & Drug Abuse, Co. Alcohol and Drug Treatment Services, is owned by Baca, Bent, Crowley, Kiowa, Otero, and Prowers counties and is situated in southeast Colorado.

Please fill out the referral form in the link for our 30 day impatient program. You can Email: [email protected] net or Fax: 719-456-2606 your referral.

Motrin - Pain Relief, Dolofast

Motrin is used for treating rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, menstrual cramps, or mild to moderate pain. Motrin is an NSAID. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation. They do not treat the disease that causes those symptoms.

Use Motrin as directed by your doctor.

Take Motrin by mouth with or without food. It may be taken with food if it upsets your stomach. Taking it with food may not lower the risk of stomach or bowel problems (eg, bleeding, ulcers). Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you have persistent stomach upset.

Take Motrin with a full glass of water (8 oz/240 mL) as directed by your doctor.

If you miss a dose of Motrin and you are taking it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose. Go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about the proper use of Motrin .

Store Motrin at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Motrin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Ibuprofen.

Do NOT use Motrin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Motrin

you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or an NSAID (eg, ibuprofen, celecoxib)

you have recently had or will be having bypass heart surgery

you are in the last 3 months of pregnancy.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Motrin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal product, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have a history of kidney or liver disease, diabetes, or stomach or bowel problems (eg, bleeding, perforation, ulcers)

if you have a history of swelling or fluid buildup, lupus, asthma, or growths in the nose (nasal polyps), or mouth inflammation

if you have high blood pressure, blood disorders, bleeding or clotting problems, heart problems (eg, heart failure), or blood vessel disease, or if you are at risk for any of these diseases

if you have poor health, dehydration or low fluid volume, or low blood sodium levels, you drink alcohol, or you have a history of alcohol abuse.

Some medicines may interact with Motrin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), aspirin, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), heparin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (eg, fluoxetine) because the risk of stomach bleeding may be increased

Probenecid because it may increase the risk of Motrin 's side effects

Cyclosporine, lithium, methotrexate, or quinolones (eg, ciprofloxacin) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Motrin

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril) or diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Motrin.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Motrin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Motrin may cause dizziness or drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Motrin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Serious stomach ulcers or bleeding can occur with the use of Motrin. Taking it in high doses or for a long time, smoking, or drinking alcohol increases the risk of these side effects. Taking Motrin with food will NOT reduce the risk of these effects. Contact your doctor or emergency room at once if you develop severe stomach or back pain; black, tarry stools; vomit that looks like blood or coffee grounds; or unusual weight gain or swelling.

Do not take more than the recommended dose or use for longer than prescribed without checking with your doctor.

Motrin has ibuprofen in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has ibuprofen in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Do not take aspirin while you are using Motrin unless your doctor tells you to.

Lab tests, including kidney function, complete blood cell counts, and blood pressure, may be done to monitor your progress or to check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Motrin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects, including stomach bleeding and kidney problems.

Motrin should be used with extreme caution in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Motrin may cause harm to the fetus. Do not take it during the last 3 months of pregnancy. If you think you may be pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of taking Motrin while you are pregnant. It is not known if Motrin is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Motrin .

All medicines can cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; gas; headache; heartburn; nausea; stomach pain or upset.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; trouble breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); bloody or black, tarry stools; change in the amount of urine produced; chest pain; confusion; dark urine; depression; fainting; fast or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or persistent sore throat; mental or mood changes; numbness of an arm or leg; one-sided weakness; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; ringing in the ears; seizures; severe headache or dizziness; severe or persistent stomach pain or nausea; severe vomiting; shortness of breath; stiff neck; sudden or unexplained weight gain; swelling of hands, legs, or feet; unusual bruising or bleeding; unusual joint or muscle pain; unusual tiredness or weakness; vision or speech changes; vomit that looks like coffee grounds; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

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