Predicort-50 And Alcohol, Predicort

Predicort-50 (prednisolone) and Alcohol / Food Interactions

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

corticosteroids - fluid retention

Corticosteroids may cause hypernatremia, hypokalemia, fluid retention, and elevation in blood pressure. These mineralocorticoid effects are most significant with fludrocortisone, followed by hydrocortisone and cortisone, then by prednisone and prednisolone. The remaining corticosteroids, betamethasone, dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone, have little mineralocorticoid activities. However, large doses of any corticosteroid can demonstrate these effects, particularly if given for longer than brief periods. Therapy with corticosteroids should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting fluid retention, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and/or renal dysfunction. Dietary sodium restriction and potassium supplementation may be advisable.

References

Klepikov PV, Kutyrina IM, Tareyeva IE "Steroid-induced hypertension in patients with nephrotic syndrome." Nephron 48 (1988): 286-90

"Product Information. Kenalog (triamcinolone)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.

Pang S, Clark AT, Freeman LC, Dolan LM, Immken L, Mueller OT, Stiff D, Shulman DI "Maternal side effects of prenatal dexamethasone therapy for fetal congenital adrenal hyperplasia." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75 (1992): 249-53

View all 18 references

High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

corticosteroids - hyperlipidemia

Corticosteroids may elevate serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels if used for longer than brief periods. Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during prolonged corticosteroid therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen.

References

"Product Information. Florinef Acetate (fludrocortisone)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.

"Product Information. Kenalog (triamcinolone)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.

"Product Information. Hydeltrasol (prednisolone)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.

View all 10 references

Predicort-50 (prednisolone) drug Interactions

There are 721 drug interactions with Predicort-50 (prednisolone)

Predicort-50 (prednisolone) disease Interactions

There are 23 disease interactions with Predicort-50 (prednisolone) which include:

See also.

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.

Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.

Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.

Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Multum is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. Multum's information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Multum Information Services, Inc. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. Copyright 2000-2016 Multum Information Services, Inc. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

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Ethambutol Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings - Dosing, Ethambutolum

ethambutol

Uses

Ethambutol is used with other medications to treat tuberculosis (TB). Ethambutol is an antibiotic and works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold. flu ). Unnecessary use or misuse of any antibiotic can lead to its decreased effectiveness.

OTHER USES: This section contains uses of this drug that are not listed in the approved professional labeling for the drug but that may be prescribed by your health care professional. Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.

This drug may also be used with other medications to help treat a certain serious infection (Mycobacterium avium complex-MAC). It may also be used with other medications to prevent the MAC infection from occurring again in people with advanced HIV disease.

How to use ethambutol

Take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually once daily or as directed by your doctor. This medication may sometimes be taken twice weekly. Take this medication exactly as directed by your doctor.

If you also take antacids that contain aluminum, take this medication at least 4 hours before the antacid.

The dosage is based on your age, weight. medical condition, and response to treatment.

Antibiotics work best when the amount of medicine in your body is kept at a constant level. Therefore, take this drug at evenly spaced intervals. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.

Continue to take this medication (and other TB medications) until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear. Stopping the medication too early or skipping doses may allow the bacteria to continue to grow, which may result in a return of the infection and cause the infection to be more difficult to treat (resistant).

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens.

Side Effects

Headache. loss of appetite, upset stomach. or nausea/vomiting may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: vision changes (such as blurred/decreased vision. color blindness ), symptoms of liver disease (such as persistent nausea/vomiting, unusual tiredness/weakness. severe stomach /abdominal pain. yellowing eyes /skin. dark urine), numbness/tingling of arms/legs, toe/joint pain .

Tell your doctor right away if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: mental/mood disorders (such as confusion, hallucinations ), signs of a new infection (such as fever, persistent sore throat ), easy bleeding/bruising.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction. including: rash. itching /swelling (especially of the face/tongue /throat), severe dizziness. trouble breathing .

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www. fda. gov/medwatch.

In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Precautions

Before taking ethambutol, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: eye problems (such as optic neuritis. cataracts. diabetic retinopathy ), liver disease, kidney disease. alcohol use.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Alcohol may increase the risk of liver disease. Avoid alcoholic beverages while using this medication.

During pregnancy. this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

This medication passes into breast milk but is unlikely to harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast - feeding. If you have HIV disease, do not breast-feed because breast milk can transmit HIV.

Interactions

See also How to Use section.

The effects of some drugs can change if you take other drugs or herbal products at the same time. This can increase your risk for serious side effects or may cause your medications not to work correctly. These drug interactions are possible, but do not always occur. Your doctor or pharmacist can often prevent or manage interactions by changing how you use your medications or by close monitoring.

To help your doctor and pharmacist give you the best care, be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products) before starting treatment with this product. While using this product, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any other medicines you are using without your doctor's approval.

Keep a list of all the products you use. Share the list with your doctor and pharmacist to reduce your risk for serious medication problems.

Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as sputum test, eye/vision exams, kidney/liver function, complete blood count) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

Missed Dose

For the best possible benefit, it is important to take each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 68-77 degrees F (20-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Information last revised October 2015. Copyright(c) 2015 First Databank, Inc.

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Lynoral (Ethinyl Estradiol) Buy Only For Per Pill $, Improvil

Product Description

Lynoral (Ethinyl Estradiol) is an oral contraceptive remedy. It is a synthetic oestrogen similar to estradiol produced in the ovaries. Chiefly it is used to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation. It averts conception by hampering a transport of sperm or eggs to the uterus. This medication prevents symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, vaginal irritation and dryness. It is also used in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

Determine with your doctor a proper dose and intake schedule that best suits your case. Take this medication exactly as your doctor has prescribed it. You must carefully follow all directions. Avoid exceeding your dose, give up taking the medication without your doctor’s permission or taking it longer than was advised.

Immediately notify your doctor in case you are pregnant, plan to be pregnant or nursing a baby. A category of smoking patients or women that are over 35 years old are more inclined to suffer from an adverse drug response.

This medication is contraindicated in women who are pregnant or plan to be pregnant as it may cause harm to the unborn child.

Possible side effect

The most common side effects include nausea, retching, digestive upsets (diarrhea), giddiness, mastalgia, fatigue, headache, mental or mood changes, depression, chest pain, sleeping disorder, hair loss, allergic reaction (urticaria), and vaginitis. More severe side effects are: migraines, abdominal cramps, icterus, uterine bleeding, legs or groin pain, breathing trouble.

Lynoral may interact with a class of medicines used to treat hypertension, diuretics. Avoid using this medication concurrently with antibiotics and anticonvulsants as it may reduce oral contraceptives’ effectiveness.

In case you have missed to take a dose of this medication, take it as soon as possible and then resume your regular dosing schedule. Thereby, it is possible to take 2 pills per day. Use any alternative contraceptive remedies (spermicides, condoms) during a week in case you have missed two intakes in succession.

If you suspect you have used too much of this medication, seek emergency medical attention right away. You must do this even if symptoms of discomfort or poisoning haven’t been indicated at once. You may need urgent medical attention. The most common symptoms of overdose include nausea, vomiting, vertigo, faintness.

Store this product in a dry tight container away from sunlight, heat and moisture at room temperature between 15-30 C (or 59-86 F). Do not store it in the bathroom. Keep this product out of the reach of children and pets.

The information presented at the site has a general character. Note please this information cannot be used for self-treatment and self diagnosis. You should consult with your doctor or health care adviser regarding any specific instructions of your condition. The information is reliable, but we concede it could contain mistakes. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other damage caused by use of this information on the site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

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Rifadin (Rifampin) Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses, Ridamin

RIFADIN ® (rifampin) Capsules, USP

RIFADIN®IV (rifampin) Injection, USP

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of RIFADIN (rifampin capsules USP) and RIFADIN IV (rifampin for injection USP) and other antibacterial drugs, rifampin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DRUG DESCRIPTION

RIFADIN (rifampin capsules USP) for oral administration contain 150 mg or 300 mg rifampin per capsule. The 150 mg and 300 mg capsules also contain, as inactive ingredients: corn starch, D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, and titanium dioxide. RIFADIN IV (rifampin for injection USP) contains rifampin 600 mg, sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate 10 mg, and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH.

Rifampin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin SV. Rifampin is a red-brown crystalline powder very slightly soluble in water at neutral pH, freely soluble in chloroform. soluble in ethyl acetate and in methanol. Its molecular weight is 822.95 and its chemical formula is C 43 H 58 N 4 O 12 . The chemical name for rifampin is either: 3-[[(4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl)imino]methyl]rifamycin

5,6,9,17,19,21-hexahydroxy-23-methoxy-2,4,12,16,20,22–heptamethyl-8-[N-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)formimidoyl]-2,7- (epoxypentadeca[1,11,13]trienimino)naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1,11(2H)-dione 21-acetate. Its structural formula is:

What are the possible side effects of rifampin (Rifadin)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;

joint pain or swelling;

easy bruising or bleeding, weakness;

urinating less than usual or not at all; or

nausea, stomach pain, loss of appetite, itching, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Less serious side effects may.

What are the precautions when taking rifampin (Rifadin)?

Before taking rifampin, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: diabetes, liver problems (e. g. hepatitis), HIV infection, history of alcohol use/abuse.

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this drug.

During pregnancy, this medication should.

Last reviewed on RxList: 12/14/2015 This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Buy Oxycardil - Diltiazem - Online Without Prescriptions, Oxycardil

Cardizem (Oxycardil)

Cardizem is used for treating supraventricular tachycardia, a rhythm disturbance of the heart. It is also used for controlling heart rate response to other rhythm disturbances, specifically, atrial fibrillation and flutter. Cardizem is a calcium channel blocker. It works by slowing the electrical conduction in the heart, slowing heart rate, and/or normalizing heart rhythm.

Use Cardizem as directed by your doctor.

Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results from this medication.

Take Cardizem with a full glass of water. Swallow the pill whole. It is specially made to release medicine slowly in the body. Breaking or opening the pill would cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.

It is important to use Cardizem regularly to get the most benefit. Get your prescription refilled before you run out of medicine completely.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking Cardizem suddenly, your condition may become worse.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel fine.

If you miss a dose of Cardizem, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cardizem.

Store Cardizem at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep Cardizem out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Diltiazem.

Do NOT use Cardizem if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cardizem

you have sick sinus syndrome or have second - or third-degree heart block and do not have a pacemaker, or very low blood pressure

you have atrial fibrillation or flutter and a pre-excitation syndrome (extra conduction pathway in the heart), such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) or Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL)

you are receiving injectable beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol) or erythromycin.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cardizem. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have heart failure or have had a recent heart attack with lung congestion, heart block, low blood pressure, a very slow heart rate, or abnormal heart rhythm

if you have kidney or liver disease.

Some medicines may interact with Cardizem. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Cimetidine or protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir) because they may increase the actions and side effects of Cardizem

Rifampin because it may decrease the effectiveness of Cardizem

Amiodarone, cisapride, digoxin, erythromycin, protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir), quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants (eg, desipramine), theophylline, or general anesthetics because toxic effects on the heart may occur

Benzodiazepines (eg, midazolam), beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol), buspirone, carbamazepine, cilostazol, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), cyclosporine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (eg, atorvastatin), macrolide immunomodulators (eg, tacrolimus) because the risk of their side effects, some potentially life-threatening, may be increased by Cardizem.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Cardizem may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Cardizem may cause dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Cardizem with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Cardizem may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Cardizem may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Cardizem. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Cardizem before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Lab tests, including electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, and blood pressure monitoring, may be performed while you use Cardizem. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Cardizem with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Cardizem should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Cardizem while you are pregnant. Cardizem is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Cardizem.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; dizziness; facial flushing; headache; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); hallucinations; irregular heartbeat; swelling of the feet or hands; symptoms of liver problems (eg, yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, pale stools); tender, bleeding, or swollen gums.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Customers who bought this product also bought

Cardizem (Oxycardil)

Cardizem is used for treating supraventricular tachycardia, a rhythm disturbance of the heart. It is also used for controlling heart rate response to other rhythm disturbances, specifically, atrial fibrillation and flutter. Cardizem is a calcium channel blocker. It works by slowing the electrical conduction in the heart, slowing heart rate, and/or normalizing heart rhythm.

Use Cardizem as directed by your doctor.

Do not take the medication in larger amounts, or take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Follow the directions on your prescription label.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results from this medication.

Take Cardizem with a full glass of water. Swallow the pill whole. It is specially made to release medicine slowly in the body. Breaking or opening the pill would cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.

It is important to use Cardizem regularly to get the most benefit. Get your prescription refilled before you run out of medicine completely.

Do not stop taking this medication without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking Cardizem suddenly, your condition may become worse.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using this medication even if you feel fine.

If you miss a dose of Cardizem, use it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not use 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Cardizem.

Store Cardizem at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep Cardizem out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Diltiazem.

Do NOT use Cardizem if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Cardizem

you have sick sinus syndrome or have second - or third-degree heart block and do not have a pacemaker, or very low blood pressure

you have atrial fibrillation or flutter and a pre-excitation syndrome (extra conduction pathway in the heart), such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) or Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL)

you are receiving injectable beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol) or erythromycin.

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Cardizem. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have heart failure or have had a recent heart attack with lung congestion, heart block, low blood pressure, a very slow heart rate, or abnormal heart rhythm

if you have kidney or liver disease.

Some medicines may interact with Cardizem. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Cimetidine or protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir) because they may increase the actions and side effects of Cardizem

Rifampin because it may decrease the effectiveness of Cardizem

Amiodarone, cisapride, digoxin, erythromycin, protease inhibitors (eg, indinavir), quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants (eg, desipramine), theophylline, or general anesthetics because toxic effects on the heart may occur

Benzodiazepines (eg, midazolam), beta-blockers (eg, metoprolol), buspirone, carbamazepine, cilostazol, corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), cyclosporine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (eg, atorvastatin), macrolide immunomodulators (eg, tacrolimus) because the risk of their side effects, some potentially life-threatening, may be increased by Cardizem.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Cardizem may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Cardizem may cause dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Cardizem with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Cardizem may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting; alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Cardizem may cause you to become sunburned more easily. Avoid the sun, sunlamps, or tanning booths until you know how you react to Cardizem. Use a sunscreen or wear protective clothing if you must be outside for more than a short time.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Cardizem before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

Lab tests, including electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, and blood pressure monitoring, may be performed while you use Cardizem. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Cardizem with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Cardizem should not be used in children; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Cardizem while you are pregnant. Cardizem is found in breast milk. Do not breastfeed while taking Cardizem.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Constipation; dizziness; facial flushing; headache; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); hallucinations; irregular heartbeat; swelling of the feet or hands; symptoms of liver problems (eg, yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, pale stools); tender, bleeding, or swollen gums.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Customers who bought this product also bought

Buy Eurogesic Online Without Prescriptions, Eurogesic

Buy Eurogesic No Prescription

What is Eurogesic?

The medicine represents the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents medicines group, boasting considerable effectiveness in treatment of head pain, toothache, painful periods, mild pain associated with arthritis and pain. A typical representative of naphthalenes-type of meds, the preparation has been launched for sales in March, 1976 following a FDA approval. Since then Eurogesic has rapidly received popularity around the globe; the demand has contributed to the emergence of a line-up of generic alternatives, e. g. gneneric Naproxen. In accordance with FDA registry the medication is available over the counter. Based on naproxen active substance, manufactured and first recorded to Roche Palo, the medicine is primarily designed for rectal topical application, and comes as capsule. Referring to Canadian DrugBank directory data as for March, 1976, the price for naproxen-based medicines takes its start at $0.06 and reaches $51.50 per unit (please, take into account that our platform doesn’t sell Eurogesic and the numbers are indicated for informational purposes only). The drug is mass-produced all around the world by the leading pharmaceutical enterprises, like Watson Laboratories Inc Florida. Basing on Eurogesic treatment course reviews by registered WebMD. com members, the remedy feedback score is 8.4 out of 10. Eurogesic formula

How it works?

Eurogesic is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. The medication is appointed to temporarily relieve minor aches and pains due to arthritis, muscular aches, backache, menstrual cramps, headache, toothache, and the common cold. Eurogesic is also used to temporarily reduce fever.

Dosage & administration

Before you start the course of Eurogesic, familiarize yourself with the instructions for use. If you concerns with regards to contraindications or any other aspect of Eurogesic treatment, you should seek for professional consultation prior to taking the drug. Check up with your doctor to choose a suitable administration regimen.

Side effects

Alongside with a wide array of positive effects, the vast majority of meds cause undesired side-effects, although the frequency of cases generally doesn’t go beyond 9% level. Posted below is the list of the most widely spread adverse reactions listed at Pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov, based on 162 clinical trials and reviews:

nausea – 3.3%

increased blood pressure – 3.3%

heartburn – 3.3%

headache – 2.9%

upset stomach – 4.2%

hearing changes

drowsiness – 2.8%

If one or several mentioned above adverse reactions last and aggravate, you must seek for medical attention immediately to avoid any complications. Any adverse reactions can be reported to FDA via the phone: 1-800-FDA-1088.

Contraindications

Some medicines are not suitable for patients with certain conditions, and sometimes a drug can only be consumed if extra care is taken. For this reason, before you start taking Eurogesic, consult therapist how to take the drug in the event of any diseases.

Review

Matt Harris, 50, Peoria, USA I have been applying Eurogesic for almost 2 weeks, and indeed its impact leaves nothing to be desired. My family doctor has told me about the possible drowsiness and hearing changes because in my case it was a complex treatment. Even though I had to change the dosage, the treatment course was a great success. By the way it seems like Eurogesic in its generic form (gneneric Naproxen) is a no less efficient preparation. You should certainly check it out. Stephanie Hernandez, 54, Glendale, USA I’ve decided to buy Aleve by recommendation of my therapist – fascinated by the success story, I’ve ordered Aleve online and enrolled in in the treatment course. To tell the truth, I didn’t think the effect would be that well-pronounced; with a higher dosage I’ve never been experiencing neither headache nor nausea. Jay Edwards, 38, Peoria, USA Aleve seems to be the only medicine that has helped me to treat fever quickly and effectively. With the as low as $0.06 and incredible effect, this is your best shot.

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Corals, Coral Pictures, Coral Facts - National Geographic, Coral

Coral

Fast Facts

Type: Invertebrate Diet: Carnivore Average life span in the wild: Polyp, 2 years to hundreds of years; colony, 5 years to several centuries Size: Polyp, 0.25 to 12 in (0.63 to 30.5 cm) Group name: Colony Did you know? Corals are so sensitive to climatic change that scientists study coral reef fossils to construct highly detailed chronologies of prehistoric climate patterns. Relative: Size relative to a tea cup

Please add a "relative" entry to your dictionary.

Coral organisms, called polyps, can live on their own, but are primarily associated with the spectacularly diverse limestone communities, or reefs, they construct.

Coral polyps are tiny, soft-bodied organisms related to sea anemones and jellyfish. At their base is a hard, protective limestone skeleton called a calicle, which forms the structure of coral reefs. Reefs begin when a polyp attaches itself to a rock on the sea floor, then divides, or buds, into thousands of clones. The polyp calicles connect to one another, creating a colony that acts as a single organism. As colonies grow over hundreds and thousands of years, they join with other colonies and become reefs. Some of the coral reefs on the planet today began growing over 50 million years ago.

Coral polyps are actually translucent animals. Reefs get their wild hues from the billions of colorful zooxanthellae (ZOH-oh-ZAN-thell-ee) algae they host. When stressed by such things as temperature change or pollution, corals will evict their boarders, causing coral bleaching that can kill the colony if the stress is not mitigated.

Corals live in tropical waters throughout the world, generally close to the surface where the sun's rays can reach the algae. While corals get most of their nutrients from the byproducts of the algae's photosynthesis, they also have barbed, venomous tentacles they can stick out, usually at night, to grab zooplankton and even small fish.

Coral reefs teem with life, covering less than one percent of the ocean floor, but supporting about 25 percent of all marine creatures. However, threats to their existence abound, and scientists estimate that human factors—such as pollution, global warming, and sedimentation—could kill 30 percent of the existing reefs in the next 30 years.

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Fosamax (Alendronate Sodium) Drug Information Indications, Dosage And How Supplied - Prescribing Inf

Treatment Of Osteoporosis In Postmenopausal Women

FOSAMAX® is indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, FOSAMAX increases bone mass and reduces the incidence of fractures, including those of the hip and spine (vertebral compression fractures). [See Clinical Studies ]

Prevention Of Osteoporosis In Postmenopausal Women

FOSAMAX is indicated for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis [see Clinical Studies ].

Treatment To Increase Bone Mass In Men With Osteoporosis

FOSAMAX is indicated for treatment to increase bone mass in men with osteoporosis [see Clinical Studies ].

Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis

FOSAMAX is indicated for the treatment of glucocorticoid - induced osteoporosis in men and women receiving glucocorticoids in a daily dosage equivalent to 7.5 mg or greater of prednisone and who have low bone mineral density [see Clinical Studies ].

Treatment Of Paget's Disease Of Bone

FOSAMAX is indicated for the treatment of Paget's disease of bone in men and women. Treatment is indicated in patients with Paget's disease of bone who have alkaline phosphatase at least two times the upper limit of normal, or those who are symptomatic, or those at risk for future complications from their disease. [See Clinical Studies ]

Important Limitations Of Use

The optimal duration of use has not been determined. The safety and effectiveness of FOSAMAX for the treatment of osteoporosis are based on clinical data of four years duration. All patients on bisphosphonate therapy should have the need for continued therapy re-evaluated on a periodic basis. Patients at low-risk for fracture should be considered for drug discontinuation after 3 to 5 years of use. Patients who discontinue therapy should have their risk for fracture re-evaluated periodically.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Although alendronate tablets 5 mg, 10 mg, 35 mg, and 40 mg are available in the marketplace, FOSAMAX is no longer marketed in the 5 mg, 10 mg, 35 mg, and 40 mg strengths.

Although an oral solution of alendronate may be available in the marketplace, FOSAMAX oral solution is no longer marketed.

Treatment Of Osteoporosis In Postmenopausal Women

The recommended dosage is:

one 70 mg tablet once weekly or

one bottle of 70 mg oral solution once weekly or

one 10 mg tablet once daily

Prevention Of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

The recommended dosage is:

one 35 mg tablet once weekly or

one 5 mg tablet once daily

Treatment To Increase Bone Mass In Men With Osteoporosis

The recommended dosage is:

one 70 mg tablet once weekly or

one bottle of 70 mg oral solution once weekly or

one 10 mg tablet once daily

Treatment Of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis

The recommended dosage is one 5 mg tablet once daily, except for postmenopausal women not receiving estrogen. for whom the recommended dosage is one 10 mg tablet once daily.

Treatment Of Paget's Disease Of Bone

The recommended treatment regimen is 40 mg once a day for six months.

Re-treatment of Paget's Disease

Re-treatment with FOSAMAX may be considered, following a six-month post-treatment evaluation period in patients who have relapsed, based on increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, which should be measured periodically. Re-treatment may also be considered in those who failed to normalize their serum alkaline phosphatase.

Important Administration Instructions

Instruct patients to do the following:

Take FOSAMAX at least one-half hour before the first food, beverage, or medication of the day with plain water only [see PATIENT INFORMATION ]. Other beverages (including mineral water), food, and some medications are likely to reduce the absorption of FOSAMAX [see DRUG INTERACTIONS ]. Waiting less than 30 minutes, or taking FOSAMAX with food, beverages (other than plain water) or other medications will lessen the effect of FOSAMAX by decreasing its absorption into the body.

Take FOSAMAX upon arising for the day. To facilitate delivery to the stomach and thus reduce the potential for esophageal irritation, a FOSAMAX tablet should be swallowed with a full glass of water (6-8 ounces). To facilitate gastric emptying FOSAMAX oral solution should be followed by at least 2 ounces (a quarter of a cup) of water. Patients should not lie down for at least 30 minutes and until after their first food of the day. FOSAMAX should not be taken at bedtime or before arising for the day. Failure to follow these instructions may increase the risk of esophageal adverse experiences [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and PATIENT INFORMATION ].

Recommendations For Calcium And Vitamin D Supplementation

Instruct patients to take supplemental calcium if dietary intake is inadequate [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. Patients at increased risk for vitamin D insufficiency (e. g. over the age of 70 years, nursing home-bound, or chronically ill) may need vitamin D supplementation. Patients with gastrointestinal malabsorption syndromes may require higher doses of vitamin D supplementation and measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be considered.

Patients treated with glucocorticoids should receive adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D.

Administration Instructions For Missed Doses

If a once-weekly dose of FOSAMAX is missed, instruct patients to take one dose on the morning after they remember. They should not take two doses on the same day but should return to taking one dose once a week, as originally scheduled on their chosen day.

HOW SUPPLIED

Dosage Forms And Strengths

70 mg tablets are white, oval, uncoated tablets with code 31 on one side and an outline of a bone image on the other.

Storage And Handling

No. 3814 - FOSAMAX Tablets, 70 mg . are white, oval, uncoated tablets with code 31 on one side and an outline of a bone image on the other:

NDC 0006-0031-44 unit-of-use blister package of 4.

Storage

Store in a well-closed container at room temperature, 15-30°C (59-86°F).

Distributed by: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. a subsidiary of MERCK & CO. INC. Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA. Revised: Aug 2015

This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Last reviewed on RxList: 9/6/2016

Roidil, Roidil

Roidil

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Sodo Hydro, Do-Hydro

This formula is ideal for coconut coir and soil gardens. Nectar is made from the highest quality ingredients.

Nectar can be used for clones, seedlings, vegetative plants, and blooming plants.

With Nectar two-part formulas there is no need to use separate grow and bloom nutrients. ( Never mix part A and part B together in a concentrated form. Always mix each part separately with plenty of water.)

Simply mix part A and part B as directed throughout the entire life cycle of your plants.

Directions For Use:

Clones and seedlings: 0.5 tsp (1-2 ml) per gallon of each part, A and B

Vegetative plants: 1-2 tsp (5-10 ml) per gallon of each part, A and B

Blooming plants: 1-2.5 tsp (5-12 ml) per gallon of each part, A and B

Nectar A Guaranteed Analysis (5 – 0 – 3)

Total Nitrogen (N): 5.0%

Soluble Potash (K 2 O):3.0%

Magnesium (Mg): 1.0%

Mad Farmer’s Detox is a flush solution specifically formulated to dissolve and remove excess salts that build up over time with the regular use of fertilizer.

Detox eliminates toxic salts that accumulate in hydroponic systems, potting soils, coco coir and other growing media.

Directions For Use:

Use 5ml (1tsp) per gallon of pure water and run system for 1-2 hours.

Use 5ml (1tsp) per gallon of pure water and drench until solution drains out of the bottom of container.

Use 5-10ml (1-2tsp) per gallon of pure water and use for 7-10 days before harvest.

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Dip ‘N Grow is one of the most effective rooting hormones available. Increase rooting success up to 60% compared to powders.

22Dip ‘N Grow is a liquid rooting hormone with IBA and NAA, for successful rooting of all types of cuttings, from succulents to hardwoods.

Propagators at nurseries and universities nationwide have increased their yields and found Dip ‘n Grow to be more economical and easier to use than other rooting agents.

Because it is a liquid concentrate, Dip ‘N Grow is absorbed more evenly and easily, roots are more massive and healthy, and ready for long term growth.

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Mineral elements have a large part in the control of the absorption of macro-nutrients.

E. M.E. is derived from volcanic ash; it also includes Humate, Leonardite, Rock mineral, Kelzyme, and soft rock phosphate. These essential elements are food sources for biology.

Volcanic Rock and Kelp Kelzyme will add 80 essential minerals and trace minerals such as Calcium, Iron, Silica, and much more!

E. M.E. focuses on nutrient availability, biological sustainability, root development, high uptake and CEC.

Sprinkle around drip line, or use 1lb for every 10 sq ft of garden soil.

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Purposefully formulated as a 0-0-0 from certified organic inputs ensuring it won’t conflict with your existing schedule or contaminate your crop.

Terpenez represents a new class of horticultural products aimed at enhancing the aromatic experience associated with gardening.

Many of the plants chosen for cultivation are selected based upon the value of their essential oils. With that knowledge, Terpenez has been purposefully formulated from all organic botanical extracts and is designed to assist the plant with processes associated with oil and resin production.

Bottom line: it’s an organic terpene enhancer.

Boosts terpenoid profiles & increases overall aromatic effect.

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• Automatically adjusts to sharpen different blade grinds safely • Restores a sharp edge in just a few passes and lasts for years • Two slots ensure proper positioning for optimal blade sharpening • Finger indentations offer a comfortable, secure grip when you are sharpening • Lightweight, compact design provides easy storage and transportation • Sharpens left-handed scissors as well • Not for use with pinking shears or scissors with serrated blades • Lifetime warranty

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This product can be used in rotation or as the foundation product to strengthen integrated pest management programs (IPM) and insect resistance management (IRM) programs for a wide range of fruit, vegetable, and nut crops, as well as turf and ornamentals.

Grandevo PTO Bioinsecticide Miticide is microbial based and is powered by a number of compounds that create complex modes of action, resulting in a potent biopesticide that is highly active against labeled insects and mites.

Control of pests is achieved by unique combinations of repellency, oral toxicity, reduced egg hatch, and reduced fecundity (ability of pest to reproduce). With Grandevo’s multiple active compounds and complex modes of action the risk of insect resistance is greatly reduced.

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ROOT is a fully soluble biological inoculate and soil amendment which promotes beneficial bacterial colonization at the roots.

Root contains eight different beneficial microbes these natural bacteria convert nitrogen and phosphorus to simpler forms, improving soil fertility and plant nutrition.

ROOT also contains Myconate (formononetin ), a naturally occurring substance proven to stimulate the colonization of beneficial root organisms.

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Gabatal, Gabatal

Neurontin is used for treating seizures associated with epilepsy. Neurontin is an anticonvulsant.

Use Neurontin as directed by your doctor.

Take Neurontin by mouth with or without food.

Do not take an antacid containing aluminum or magnesium within 2 hours before you take Neurontin.

If you are taking half of a scored tablet as your dose, take the other half of that tablet as your next dose. Throw away any half-tablets not used within several days of breaking a scored tablet.

Do not suddenly stop taking Neurontin. You may have an increased risk of side effects (eg, seizures). If you need to stop Neurontin or add a new medicine, your doctor will gradually lower your dose.

If you miss a dose of Neurontin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Neurontin.

Store Neurontin at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Neurontin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Gabapentin.

Do NOT use Neurontin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Neurontin.

Some medical conditions may interact with Neurontin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have kidney problems and are on dialysis

if you have a history of mental or mood problems (eg, depression), or suicidal thoughts or actions.

Some medicines may interact with Neurontin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any medicines, especially any of the following:

Morphine because it may increase the risk of Neurontin's side effects, including drowsiness.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Neurontin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Neurontin may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Neurontin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Patients who take Neurontin may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts or actions. The risk may be greater in patients who have had suicidal thoughts or actions in the past. Watch patients who take Neurontin closely. Contact the doctor at once if new, worsened, or sudden symptoms such as depressed mood; anxious, restless, or irritable behavior; panic attacks; or any unusual change in mood or behavior occur. Contact the doctor right away if any signs of suicidal thoughts or actions occur.

Diabetes patients - Neurontin may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Neurontin may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Neurontin.

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Neurontin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Neurontin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Neurontin may cause emotional or behavioral side effects in children 3 to 12 years. If the following side effects occur, notify your doctor immediately: emotional "swings", hostile or aggressive behavior, problems concentrating, decreased performance at school, an increase in restlessness or hyperactivity.

Neurontin should be used with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Neurontin while you are pregnant. Neurontin is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Neurontin, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

If you stop taking Neurontin suddenly, you may have withdrawal symptoms. These may include dizziness, drowsiness, clumsiness, hostility, hyperactivity, mood swings, nausea, tiredness, or vomiting.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Back pain; changes in vision (double or blurred vision); clumsiness; constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; dry mouth; nausea; stomach upset; tiredness; vomiting; weight gain.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal thoughts; back and forth eye movements; behavioral problems; change in school performance; chest pain; confusion; fainting; fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or sore throat; hyperactivity; loss of coordination; memory loss; new or worsening mental or mood changes (eg, depression, agitation, anxiety, panic attacks, aggressiveness, impulsiveness, irritability, hostility, exaggerated feeling of well-being, restlessness, inability to sit still); new or worsening seizures; numbness of an arm or leg; one-sided weakness; severe headache or dizziness; shortness of breath; speech changes; suicidal thoughts or actions; swelling of the hands, legs, or feet; tremor; trouble concentrating; twitching.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Neurontin is used for treating seizures associated with epilepsy. Neurontin is an anticonvulsant.

Use Neurontin as directed by your doctor.

Take Neurontin by mouth with or without food.

Do not take an antacid containing aluminum or magnesium within 2 hours before you take Neurontin.

If you are taking half of a scored tablet as your dose, take the other half of that tablet as your next dose. Throw away any half-tablets not used within several days of breaking a scored tablet.

Do not suddenly stop taking Neurontin. You may have an increased risk of side effects (eg, seizures). If you need to stop Neurontin or add a new medicine, your doctor will gradually lower your dose.

If you miss a dose of Neurontin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Neurontin.

Store Neurontin at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Neurontin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Gabapentin.

Do NOT use Neurontin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Neurontin.

Some medical conditions may interact with Neurontin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have kidney problems and are on dialysis

if you have a history of mental or mood problems (eg, depression), or suicidal thoughts or actions.

Some medicines may interact with Neurontin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any medicines, especially any of the following:

Morphine because it may increase the risk of Neurontin's side effects, including drowsiness.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Neurontin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Neurontin may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Neurontin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Patients who take Neurontin may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts or actions. The risk may be greater in patients who have had suicidal thoughts or actions in the past. Watch patients who take Neurontin closely. Contact the doctor at once if new, worsened, or sudden symptoms such as depressed mood; anxious, restless, or irritable behavior; panic attacks; or any unusual change in mood or behavior occur. Contact the doctor right away if any signs of suicidal thoughts or actions occur.

Diabetes patients - Neurontin may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Neurontin may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Neurontin.

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Neurontin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Neurontin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Neurontin may cause emotional or behavioral side effects in children 3 to 12 years. If the following side effects occur, notify your doctor immediately: emotional "swings", hostile or aggressive behavior, problems concentrating, decreased performance at school, an increase in restlessness or hyperactivity.

Neurontin should be used with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Neurontin while you are pregnant. Neurontin is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Neurontin, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

If you stop taking Neurontin suddenly, you may have withdrawal symptoms. These may include dizziness, drowsiness, clumsiness, hostility, hyperactivity, mood swings, nausea, tiredness, or vomiting.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Back pain; changes in vision (double or blurred vision); clumsiness; constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; dry mouth; nausea; stomach upset; tiredness; vomiting; weight gain.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal thoughts; back and forth eye movements; behavioral problems; change in school performance; chest pain; confusion; fainting; fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or sore throat; hyperactivity; loss of coordination; memory loss; new or worsening mental or mood changes (eg, depression, agitation, anxiety, panic attacks, aggressiveness, impulsiveness, irritability, hostility, exaggerated feeling of well-being, restlessness, inability to sit still); new or worsening seizures; numbness of an arm or leg; one-sided weakness; severe headache or dizziness; shortness of breath; speech changes; suicidal thoughts or actions; swelling of the hands, legs, or feet; tremor; trouble concentrating; twitching.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Neurontin is used for treating seizures associated with epilepsy. Neurontin is an anticonvulsant.

Use Neurontin as directed by your doctor.

Take Neurontin by mouth with or without food.

Do not take an antacid containing aluminum or magnesium within 2 hours before you take Neurontin.

If you are taking half of a scored tablet as your dose, take the other half of that tablet as your next dose. Throw away any half-tablets not used within several days of breaking a scored tablet.

Do not suddenly stop taking Neurontin. You may have an increased risk of side effects (eg, seizures). If you need to stop Neurontin or add a new medicine, your doctor will gradually lower your dose.

If you miss a dose of Neurontin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Neurontin.

Store Neurontin at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Neurontin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Gabapentin.

Do NOT use Neurontin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Neurontin.

Some medical conditions may interact with Neurontin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have kidney problems and are on dialysis

if you have a history of mental or mood problems (eg, depression), or suicidal thoughts or actions.

Some medicines may interact with Neurontin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any medicines, especially any of the following:

Morphine because it may increase the risk of Neurontin's side effects, including drowsiness.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Neurontin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Neurontin may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Neurontin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Patients who take Neurontin may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts or actions. The risk may be greater in patients who have had suicidal thoughts or actions in the past. Watch patients who take Neurontin closely. Contact the doctor at once if new, worsened, or sudden symptoms such as depressed mood; anxious, restless, or irritable behavior; panic attacks; or any unusual change in mood or behavior occur. Contact the doctor right away if any signs of suicidal thoughts or actions occur.

Diabetes patients - Neurontin may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Neurontin may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Neurontin.

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Neurontin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Neurontin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Neurontin may cause emotional or behavioral side effects in children 3 to 12 years. If the following side effects occur, notify your doctor immediately: emotional "swings", hostile or aggressive behavior, problems concentrating, decreased performance at school, an increase in restlessness or hyperactivity.

Neurontin should be used with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Neurontin while you are pregnant. Neurontin is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Neurontin, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

If you stop taking Neurontin suddenly, you may have withdrawal symptoms. These may include dizziness, drowsiness, clumsiness, hostility, hyperactivity, mood swings, nausea, tiredness, or vomiting.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Back pain; changes in vision (double or blurred vision); clumsiness; constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; dry mouth; nausea; stomach upset; tiredness; vomiting; weight gain.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal thoughts; back and forth eye movements; behavioral problems; change in school performance; chest pain; confusion; fainting; fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or sore throat; hyperactivity; loss of coordination; memory loss; new or worsening mental or mood changes (eg, depression, agitation, anxiety, panic attacks, aggressiveness, impulsiveness, irritability, hostility, exaggerated feeling of well-being, restlessness, inability to sit still); new or worsening seizures; numbness of an arm or leg; one-sided weakness; severe headache or dizziness; shortness of breath; speech changes; suicidal thoughts or actions; swelling of the hands, legs, or feet; tremor; trouble concentrating; twitching.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Neurontin is used for treating seizures associated with epilepsy. Neurontin is an anticonvulsant.

Use Neurontin as directed by your doctor.

Take Neurontin by mouth with or without food.

Do not take an antacid containing aluminum or magnesium within 2 hours before you take Neurontin.

If you are taking half of a scored tablet as your dose, take the other half of that tablet as your next dose. Throw away any half-tablets not used within several days of breaking a scored tablet.

Do not suddenly stop taking Neurontin. You may have an increased risk of side effects (eg, seizures). If you need to stop Neurontin or add a new medicine, your doctor will gradually lower your dose.

If you miss a dose of Neurontin, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Neurontin.

Store Neurontin at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Neurontin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Gabapentin.

Do NOT use Neurontin if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Neurontin.

Some medical conditions may interact with Neurontin. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have kidney problems and are on dialysis

if you have a history of mental or mood problems (eg, depression), or suicidal thoughts or actions.

Some medicines may interact with Neurontin. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any medicines, especially any of the following:

Morphine because it may increase the risk of Neurontin's side effects, including drowsiness.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Neurontin may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Neurontin may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or blurred vision. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Neurontin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Patients who take Neurontin may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts or actions. The risk may be greater in patients who have had suicidal thoughts or actions in the past. Watch patients who take Neurontin closely. Contact the doctor at once if new, worsened, or sudden symptoms such as depressed mood; anxious, restless, or irritable behavior; panic attacks; or any unusual change in mood or behavior occur. Contact the doctor right away if any signs of suicidal thoughts or actions occur.

Diabetes patients - Neurontin may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely. Ask your doctor before you change the dose of your diabetes medicine.

Neurontin may interfere with certain lab tests. Be sure your doctor and lab personnel know you are taking Neurontin.

Lab tests, including liver function, kidney function, and complete blood cell counts, may be performed while you use Neurontin. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Use Neurontin with caution in the elderly; they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Neurontin may cause emotional or behavioral side effects in children 3 to 12 years. If the following side effects occur, notify your doctor immediately: emotional "swings", hostile or aggressive behavior, problems concentrating, decreased performance at school, an increase in restlessness or hyperactivity.

Neurontin should be used with extreme caution in children younger 3 years; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Neurontin while you are pregnant. Neurontin is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Neurontin, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

If you stop taking Neurontin suddenly, you may have withdrawal symptoms. These may include dizziness, drowsiness, clumsiness, hostility, hyperactivity, mood swings, nausea, tiredness, or vomiting.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Back pain; changes in vision (double or blurred vision); clumsiness; constipation; diarrhea; dizziness; drowsiness; dry mouth; nausea; stomach upset; tiredness; vomiting; weight gain.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); abnormal thoughts; back and forth eye movements; behavioral problems; change in school performance; chest pain; confusion; fainting; fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat; fever, chills, or sore throat; hyperactivity; loss of coordination; memory loss; new or worsening mental or mood changes (eg, depression, agitation, anxiety, panic attacks, aggressiveness, impulsiveness, irritability, hostility, exaggerated feeling of well-being, restlessness, inability to sit still); new or worsening seizures; numbness of an arm or leg; one-sided weakness; severe headache or dizziness; shortness of breath; speech changes; suicidal thoughts or actions; swelling of the hands, legs, or feet; tremor; trouble concentrating; twitching.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Dolaforte, Dolaforte

Health direct and its services

Healthdirect Free Australian health advice you can count on.

Brand name: Dolaforte

Dolaforte is a medicine containing the active ingredient(s) paracetamol + codeine. On this page you will find out more about Dolaforte, including side effects, age restrictions, food interactions and whether the medicine is subsidised by the government on the pharmaceutical benefits scheme (PBS)

You should seek medical advice in relation to medicines and use only as directed by a healthcare professional. Always read the label. If symptoms persist see your healthcare professional. healthdirect medicines information is not intended for use in an emergency. If you are suffering an acute illness, overdose, or emergency condition, call triple zero (000) and ask for an ambulance.

Reasonable care has been taken to provide accurate information at the time of creation. This information is not intended to substitute medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be exclusively relied on to manage or diagnose a medical condition. Please refer to our terms and conditions .

Active ingredient in this medicine: paracetamol + codeine

Pack size information

Please select the pack size from the options directly below to view information on the medicine.

Selected pack size - 1 options found

Information for medicine and pack size: Dolaforte tablet, 20

Consumer Medicine Information leaflet:

This leaflet may also be found inside the medicine package. It contains information on side effects, age restrictions and other useful data.

What this medicine is for

Relief of moderate to severe pain which does not respond to milder analgesics.

Table of characteristics

Table of characteristics

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Calcit () - $ Senza Ricetta In Italia Online, Vita Calcea

Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods. Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance. Calcium can also bind to other minerals (such as phosphate) and aid in their removal from the body.

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Calcium carbonate works best if you take it with food. Swallow the calcium carbonate tablet or capsule with a full glass of water.

The chewable tablet should be chewed before you swallow it.

Use the calcium carbonate powder as directed. Allow the powder to dissolve completely, then consume the mixture. Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. Measure the liquid with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one. Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

If you missed a dose - take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

Usual Adult Dose for Osteoporosis:

2500 to 7500 mg/day orally in 2 to 4 divided doses.

Usual Adult Dose for Hypocalcemia:

900 to 2500 mg/day orally in 2 to 4 divided doses. This dose may be adjusted as needed to achieve a normal serum calcium level.

Usual Adult Dose for Dyspepsia:

300 to 8000 mg/day orally in 2 to 4 divided doses. This dose may be increased as needed and tolerated to decrease symptoms of stomach upset. Maximum Dose: 5,500 to 7980 mg (depending on product used). Not to exceed maximum daily dosage for a period of greater than 2 weeks unless directed by a physician.

Usual Adult Dose for Duodenal Ulcer:

1250 to 3750 mg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses. This dose may be increased as needed and tolerated to decrease the abdominal discomfort. The major limiting factor to the chronic use of calcium carbonate is gastric hypersecretion and acid rebound.

Usual Adult Dose for Gastric Ulcer:

1250 to 3750 mg/day in 2 to 4 divided doses. This dose may be increased as needed and tolerated to decrease the abdominal discomfort. The major limiting factor to the chronic use of calcium carbonate is gastric hypersecretion and acid rebound.

Usual Adult Dose for Erosive Esophagitis:

1250 to 3750 mg/day orally in 2 to 4 divided doses. The potential for acid rebound could be detrimental. However, antacids have been frequently used in the management of erosive esophagitis and may be beneficial in decreasing the acidity of gastric contents. Maximum Dose: 5,500 to 7980 mg (depending on product used). Not to exceed maximum daily dosage for a period of greater than 2 weeks unless directed by a physician.

Usual Adult Dose for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease:

1250 to 3750 mg/day orally in 2 to 4 divided doses. The potential for acid rebound could be detrimental. However, antacids have been frequently used in the management of erosive esophagitis and may be beneficial in decreasing the acidity of gastric contents. Maximum Dose: 5,500 to 7980 mg (depending on product used). Not to exceed maximum daily dosage for a period of greater than 2 weeks unless directed by a physician.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Hypocalcemia:

Neonatal: Hypocalcemia (dose depends on clinical condition and serum calcium level): Dose expressed in mg of elemental calcium: 50 to 150 mg/kg/day in 4 to 6 divided doses; not to exceed 1 g/day

Usual Dosage: Antacid: Children 2 to 5 years: Childrens Pepto, Mylanta (R) Childrens: 1 tablet (400 mg calcium carbonate) as symptoms occur; not to exceed 3 tablets/day Children 6 to 11 years: Childrens Pepto, Mylanta (R) Childrens: 2 tablets (800 mg calcium carbonate) as symptoms occur; not to exceed 6 tablets/day Children 11 years and older: Tums (R), Tums (R) E-X: 2 to 4 tablets chewed as symptoms occur; not to exceed 15 tablets [Tums (R)] or 10 tablets [Tums (R) E-X] per day Tums (R) Ultra: 2 to 3 tablets chewed as symptoms occur; not to exceed 7 tablets per day Hypocalcemia (dose depends on clinical condition and serum calcium level): Dose expressed in mg of elemental calcium: Children: 45 to 65 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses

Store Calcium Carbonate at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Calcium Carbonate out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

Do not use Calcium Carbonate if you are allergic to any ingredient in Calcium Carbonate.

Do not take calcium carbonate or antacids that contain calcium without first asking your doctor if you also take other medicines. Calcium can make it harder for your body to absorb certain medicines. Calcium carbonate works best if you take it with food.

To make sure you can safely take calcium carbonate, tell your doctor if you have any of these other conditions:

a history of kidney stones;

a parathyroid gland disorder.

Talk to your doctor before taking calcium carbonate if you are pregnant. Talk to your doctor before taking calcium carbonate if you are breast-feeding a baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. No COMMON side effects have been reported with Calcium Carbonate. Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur when using Calcium Carbonate:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue).

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

Stocrin, Stocrin

Stocrin

Active Substance: efavirenz Common Name: efavirenz ATC Code: J05AG03 Marketing Authorisation Holder: Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd. Active Substance: efavirenz Status: Authorised Authorisation Date: 1999-05-28 Therapeutic Area: HIV Infections Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Antivirals for systemic use

Therapeutic Indication

Stocrin is indicated in antiviral combination treatment of human-immunodeficiency-virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected adults, adolescents and children three years of age and older.

Stocrin has not been adequately studied in patients with advanced HIV disease, namely in patients with CD4 counts < 50 cells/mm 3. or after failure of protease-inhibitor (PI)-containing regimens. Although cross-resistance of efavirenz with PIs has not been documented, there are at present insufficient data on the efficacy of subsequent use of PI-based combination therapy after failure of regimens containing Stocrin.

What is Stocrin?

Stocrin is a medicine that contains the active substance efavirenz. It is available as capsules (50, 100, 200 mg), as tablets (50, 200 and 600 mg), and as an oral solution (30 mg/ml).

What is Stocrin used for?

Stocrin is an antiviral medicine. It is used together with other antiviral medicines to treat adults and children aged three years or older infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

The medicine can only be obtained with a prescription.

How is Stocrin used?

Treatment with Stocrin should be started by a doctor who has experience in the management of HIV infection. Stocrin must be given in combination with other antiviral medicines. It is recommended that Stocrin be taken on an empty stomach and without food, preferably at bedtime.

The recommended dose of Stocrin for adults is 600 mg once a day. In patients aged three to 17 years, the dose depends on body weight. For patients who are unable to swallow the capsules or tablets, Stocrin can be given using the oral solution. The dose of Stocrin needs to be reduced in patients taking voriconazole (used to treat fungal infections). Patients taking rifampicin (an antibiotic) may need to take a higher dose of Stocrin.

For full details, see the summary of product characteristics (also part of the EPAR).

How does Stocrin work?

The active substance in Stocrin, efavirenz, is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). It blocks the activity of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme produced by HIV that allows it to infect cells in the body and make more viruses. By blocking this enzyme, Stocrin, taken in combination with other antiviral medicines, reduces the amount of HIV in the blood and keeps it at a low level. Stocrin does not cure HIV infection or AIDS, but it may delay the damage to the immune system and the development of infections and diseases associated with AIDS.

How has Stocrin been studied?

Stocrin has been studied in three main studies involving over 1,100 adults:

in the first study, Stocrin in combination with lamivudine and zidovudine or with indinavir (other antiviral medicines) was compared with the combination of indinavir, lamivudine and zidovudine;

the second study compared Stocrin in combination with nelfinavir and two other antiviral medicines with the same combination without Stocrin;

the third study compared adding Stocrin or placebo (a dummy treatment) to a combination of antiviral medicines that included indinavir and two other antiviral medicines, in patients who had already been receiving treatment for HIV infection.

Stocrin has also been studied in 57 children aged between three and 16 years, in combination with nelfinavir and other antiviral medicines.

In all of the studies, the main measure of effectiveness was the number of patients who had undetectable levels of HIV-1 in their blood (viral loads) after 24 or 48 weeks of treatment.

What benefit has Stocrin shown during the studies?

All of the studies showed that combinations including Stocrin were at least as effective as the comparator medicines:

the first study showed that 67% of the adults treated with Stocrin in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine had viral loads below 400 copies/ml after 48 weeks, compared with 54% of the patients treated with Stocrin and indinavir, and 45% of the patients treated with indinavir, lamivudine and zidovudine;

in the second study, Stocrin in combination with nelfinavir was superior to the combination without Stocrin: 70% and 30% of the patients, respectively, had viral loads below 500 copies/ml after 48 weeks;

the third study showed that more patients receiving Stocrin had viral loads below 400 copies/ml than those taking placebo after 24 weeks.

Similar results were seen in the study in children.

What is the risk associated with Stocrin?

The most common side effect with Stocrin (seen in more than 1 patient in 10) is rash. Stocrin is also associated with nervous system symptoms, such as dizziness, headache, somnolence (sleepiness), balance disturbances and impaired concentration and with psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, insomnia (difficulty sleeping) and abnormal dreams. Taking Stocrin with food may lead to an increase in the frequency of side effects. For a more complete list of side effects reported with Stocrin, see the package leaflet.

Stocrin must not be used in patients who are hypersensitive (allergic) to efavirenz or any of the other ingredients. It must not be used in patients with severe liver disease or who are taking any of the following medicines:

astemizole, terfenadine (commonly used to treat allergy symptoms - these medicines may be available without prescription);

dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, ergonovine, methylergonovine (used to treat migraine headache);

midazolam, triazolam (used to relieve anxiety or difficulty sleeping);

pimozide (used to treat mental illnesses);

cisapride (used to relieve certain stomach problems);

bepridil (used to treat angina);

St John's wort (a herbal preparation used to treat depression).

Caution is also needed when Stocrin is taken at the same time as other medicines. See the package leaflet for further details.

Why has Stocrin been approved?

The CHMP decided that Stocrin’s benefits are greater than its risks in antiviral combination treatment of HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children three years of age and older.

The Committee noted that Stocrin has not been studied adequately in patients with advanced disease (CD4 cell counts below 50 cells/mm3) or after treatment with protease inhibitors (another type of antiviral medicine) that was not working. The Committee also noted that there is little information on the benefits of treatment including a protease inhibitor in patients who have been treated with Stocrin in the past but which stopped working, although there is no evidence to suggest that protease inhibitors may not work in these patients.

The Committee recommended that Stocrin be given marketing authorisation.

Other information about Stocrin

The European Commission granted a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for Stocrin on 28 May 1999.

For more information about treatment with Stocrin, read the package leaflet (also part of the EPAR) or contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Source: European Medicines Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Pergolide (Marketed As Permax) - Full Version, Permax

Pergolide (marketed as Permax) - Full Version

Transcript Run Time — 00:05:43

On March 29, 2007, the Food and Drug Administration issued a Public Health Advisory titled: Voluntary Market Withdrawal of Permax.

The drug is also known and marketed by its generic name pergolide [per-go-lide].

I am Pat Clarke from F-D-A's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

We are notifying you that the companies that manufacture and distribute pergolide have agreed to withdraw this drug from the market due to the potential for heart valve damage.

Two new studies showed that patients with Parkinson's disease who were treated with pergolide had an increased chance of serious damage to their heart valves when compared to patients who did not receive the drug.

Pergolide is a member of a class of drugs known as dopamine [dough-pah-mean] agonists and is used with levodopa and carbidopa to manage the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease, which include tremors and slowness of movement.

If you are a patient with Parkinson's disease who is taking pergolide, you should take these two steps:

First, contact your health-care professional to discuss alternate treatment options.

Second, DO NOT STOP taking Pergolide without consulting your health-care professional. Stopping pergolide too quickly can be dangerous and several other effective treatments are available.

If you are a health-care professional who prescribes pergolide, you should consider the three following items:

First, Assess your patient's need for dopamine-agonist therapy. If continued treatment with a dopamine-agonist is necessary, another dopamine-agonist should be substituted for pergolide. There are other dopamine agonists approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease that are not associated with heart valve damage. Published transition regimens describe the conversion from one dopamine-agonist to another.

Second, if treatment with a dopamine-agonist is to be discontinued, pergolide should not be stopped abruptly, because rapid discontinuation of all dopamine-agonist therapies can be dangerous. Instead, gradually decrease the dose of pergolide.

Third, you should tell patients who will be taken off pergolide that other effective options for treatment exist, including three other dopamine agonists that are not associated with damage to heart valves.

In 2006, a boxed warning regarding the risk of serious heart valve damage was added to the labeling for pergolide. The two recent studies, published in The New England Journal of Medicine in January 2007, confirm earlier studies that also described this problem.

Pergolide is marketed by Valeant under the trade name Permax and sold and manufactured as the generic drug pergolide by Par and Teva.

In light of this additional safety information and the availability of alternative treatments for Parkinson's disease that do not have comparable safety problems, the companies that manufacture and sell pergolide have stopped shipping pergolide for distribution.

The companies will, in cooperation with us, work to remove from the market both Permax and generic versions of pergolide.

The effect of this voluntary withdrawal on supplies of pergolide currently in pharmacies will not be immediate. This delay will allow time for health-care professionals and patients to discuss appropriate treatment options and to change treatments.

One of the drugs that was included in the recent studies showing increased chance of heart valve problems is another dopamine agonist — Dostinex — also known by the generic name Cabergoline.

This drug is approved in the united states for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic [hyper-pro-lack-teh-knee-mick] disorders — conditions in which there are elevated levels of prolactin [pro-lack-tin] in the blood.

Dostinex is not approved in the United States for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. For hyperprolactinemic disorders, a considerably lower dose of Dostinex is used. At these lower doses of Dostinex, there appears to be little chance of heart problems; therefore, Dostinex will remain on the U. S. market for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders.

We are working with the manufacturers of pergolide to determine if it is possible to make the drug available to those few patients who are currently taking pergolide under these two conditions:

First, where previous efforts to switch to a different treatment have been unsuccessful.

Or, second, where efforts subsequent to this advisory to switch therapies are also unsuccessful.

In the interim, health-care professionals and patients should consider all treatment options with the understanding that in the future, the drug may no longer be available.

We are asking health-care professionals to report serious adverse events in connection with pergolide to us through the MedWatch program by phone at 1-800-F-D-A-ten-88 or by the Internet at F-D-A dot gov slash MedWatch.

Updated information about drugs with emerging safety concerns is available 24 hours a day at our Web site W-W-W dot F-D-A dot gov slash C-D-E-R.

Digoxin - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions, Lenoxin

Digoxin

Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin, is a prescription drug used to help treat arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) and improve symptoms of fatigue caused by heart failure .

Digoxin belongs to a group of drugs known as anti-arrhythmics, which work by preventing sodium from being pumped out of heart cells.

Digoxin Warnings

You should not take digoxin if you:

Are allergic to digoxin or any of the ingredients in the medication

Have an irregular heartbeat caused by ventricular fibrillation

Talk to your doctor before taking digoxin if you:

Have any current or previous heart conditions, including heart attack. endocarditis (infections of the heart muscle or in the lining that surrounds the heart), heart failure, or very slow heartbeat

Have low concentrations of oxygen in the body, a condition known as hypoxia

Have low levels of potassium or calcium in the blood, which might reduce the effect of digoxin

High levels of calcium or low levels of magnesium in the blood

Have Beriberi heart disease

Have thyroid disease

The concentration of digoxin in your blood can vary based on many factors and could become dangerous if not kept within a certain range.

Your doctor will probably have you come in for lab work from time to time to monitor your digoxin levels.

Digoxin Use in the Elderly

Digoxin is considered safe to use in the elderly as long as the dose is no greater than 0.125 milligram (mg) or 125 mcg per day.

As we age, our kidney function changes and normally slows, so our bodies can't get rid of certain substances, like digoxin, as quickly as they once could have.

Digoxin overdose symptoms in elderly are sometimes hard to pinpoint without running laboratory tests. Elderly people taking higher doses of digoxin may become delirious or confused and feel weak or tired.

Pregnancy and Digoxin

Digoxin should only be taken by pregnant women when the risks outweigh the benefit.

Talk to your doctor if you are pregnant or might become pregnant before taking this medication.

Digoxin has been found to pass into breast milk, so talk to your doctor if you are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed.

Digoxin interacts with many drugs. As always, share with your doctor and pharmacist all prescription, non-prescription, illegal, recreational, herbal, nutritional, or dietary drugs you're taking.

You should not take Digoxin if you are taking any herbal supplements belonging to the squill family, such as white quill or Mediterranean squill.

Before taking digoxin, tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medications:

Drugs for irregular heartbeat like: Pacerone, Nexterone, or Cordarone (amiodarone), Betapace or Betapace AF (sotalol),Tikosyn (dofetilde), Multaq (dronedarone), procainamide, or flecainide

Aspirin (both tablet and suppository forms)

Beta blockers like Zebeta or Ziac (betaxolol),Toprol XL or Lopressor (metoprolol), Tenormin (atenolol), and Bystolic (nebivolol)

Heartburn medications like Prilosec (omeprazole), Nexium (esomeprazole), Aciphex (rabeprazole), Protonix (pantoprazole), and Dexilant (deslansoprazole)

Other heartburn medications like Pepcid (famotidine) and Tums (calcium carbonate)

The herbal supplement Lily of the Valley

Macrolide antibiotics like Ery-Tab (erythromycin) and Biaxin (clarithromycin)

Neoral, Sandimmune, and Gengraf (cyclosporine)

Digoxin and Alcohol

Digoxin can cause sleepiness, confusion, and problems with balance; drinking while taking digoxin could worsen these side effects.

For best results, avoid drinking alcohol while taking digoxin.

Digoxin and Grapefruit Juice

Grapefruit juice can lessen digoxin's ability to work.

You should avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking digoxin.

Digoxin Dosage

Digoxin comes in tablets and liquids for injection into muscles and veins.

Only trained medical professionals can give digoxin injections to a patient.

Tablets are available in doses of 0.125 milligram (mg) and 0.250 mg.

Sometimes, the doses may be written in micrograms (mcg): 120 mcg and 250 mcg.

Your doctor will draw blood to determine how much digoxin you should be taking each day.

This will also determine the maximum amount of digoxin you are to receive.

You should be consistent in taking digoxin the same time every day.

Digoxin Overdose

If you suspect an overdose, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately.

You can get in touch with a poison control center at (800) 222-1222.

In certain situations of severe overdose, medical professionals may give you an antidote to digoxin.

Missed Dose of Digoxin

If you miss a dose of digoxin, try to take it as soon as you remember.

If it's less than 12 hours before your next scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and resume your regular dosing schedule.

Don't take two doses of the medication at the same time.

Kaufen Vetaraxoid Online, Vetaraxoid

Atarax wird zur Behandlung von Angstzustanden, zur Sedierung vor und nach allgemeiner Anasthesie und um Jucken nach einer allergischen Reaktion, einschlie?lich Nesselsucht oder Kontakt-dermatitis (z. B. poison ivy). Atarax ist ein Antihistaminikum. Es funktioniert durch Einwirkung auf das Gehirn, um Angst zu reduzieren. Es hat auch andere Aktivitaten, einschlie?lich der Eroffnung atemschlauche, Linderung von Schmerzen oder Allergie-Symptome, Vorbeugung oder Behandlung von ubelkeit und Erbrechen, die durch die Reisekrankheit.

Nutzung Atarax, wie geleitet, durch Ihr Arzt.

Nehmen Atarax durch den Mund mit oder ohne Nahrung. Wenn Magenbeschwerden auftreten, nehmen Sie mit der Nahrung zu reduzieren Magen-Reizung.

Wenn Sie eine Dosis Atarax und Sie verwenden es regelma?ig, bringen Sie es so bald wie moglich. Wenn es fast die Zeit fur Ihre nachste Dosis ist, uberspringen Sie die vermi?te Dosis und gehen Sie zuruck zu Ihrem regelma?igen Dosierungsschema. Nehmen Sie nicht 2 Dosen auf einmal.

Fragen Sie Ihren Arzt, wenn Sie Fragen zur Verwendung von Atarax.

Speichern Atarax bei Raumtemperatur zwischen 68 und 77 Grad F (20 und 25 Grad C). Nicht einfrieren. Lager Weg von der Hitze, Feuchtigkeit und Licht in einem dicht geschlossenen Behalter. Nicht im Bad lagern. Halten Atarax au?erhalb der Reichweite von Kindern und Weg von Haustieren.

Verwenden Sie NICHT Atarax wenn:

Sie sind allergisch gegen jegliche Zutaten in Atarax

Sie sind unter Natrium oxybate (GHB)

Sie sind in der ersten trimester der Schwangerschaft.

Fragen Sie Ihren Arzt oder Ihre arztin sofort, wenn einer dieser Punkte auf Sie zutrifft.

Einige medizinische Bedingungen kann die Interaktion mit Atarax. Informieren Sie Ihren Arzt oder Apotheker, wenn Sie irgendwelche medizinischen Bedingungen, vor allem, wenn einer der folgenden Punkte auf Sie zutrifft:

wenn Sie Schwanger sind, planen, Schwanger zu werden, oder stillen

wenn Sie verschreibungspflichtige oder nicht verschreibungspflichtige Medizin, pflanzliche Zubereitung oder diatetische Erganzung

wenn Sie Allergien gegen Medikamente, Nahrungsmittel oder andere Substanzen

wenn Sie asthma haben, Glaukom, Schwierigkeiten beim Wasserlassen, Harn-oder Darmverschluss, eine Erkrankung der Prostata, oder eine Blutkrankheit

wenn Sie trinken alkoholische Getranke.

Einige Arzneimittel konnen Wechselwirkungen mit Atarax. Sagen Sie Ihrem Arzt, wenn Sie irgendeine andere Medizin nehmen, vor allem einer der folgenden:

Natrium oxybate (GHB), weil Nebenwirkungen wie zum Beispiel ein Anstieg der Schlafdauer und verlangsamte Atmung kann auftreten.

Dies kann nicht eine vollstandige Liste aller Interaktionen, die auftreten konnen. Fragen Sie Ihren Arzt, wenn Atarax kann die Interaktion mit anderen Medikamenten, die Sie nehmen. Uberprufen Sie mit Ihrem Arzt, bevor Sie starten, stoppen oder andern Sie die Dosis alle Medizin.

Wichtige Informationen zur Sicherheit:

Atarax konnen Schlafrigkeit. Diese Auswirkungen konnen noch schlimmer, wenn Sie es mit Alkohol oder bestimmte Medikamente. Nutzung Atarax mit Vorsicht. Nicht Auto fahren oder andere moglicherweise unsichere Aufgaben, bis Sie wissen, wie Sie auf Sie reagieren.

Vermeiden Sie, Alkohol zu trinken oder durch Medikamente, die konnen Schlafrigkeit (z. B. Schlafstorungen, Muskel-relaxers), wahrend Sie mit Atarax; Sie konnen Ihre Effekte. Fragen Sie Ihren Apotheker, wenn Sie Fragen haben uber die Medikamente konnen Schlafrigkeit.

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Home - Nc Folklife Institute, Flucosan

North Carolina Folklife Institute

Scenes from the 1976 Statewide Folklife Festival

Fall 2015 marks a season of exciting new beginnings for NC Folk. We’ve been around for the past 41 years, from putting on North Carolina’s first statewide folk festival in 1974, to working behind the scenes to support folklife programs of the NC Arts Council, to working statewide from our Durham offices.

But much of our work has always been “in the field”: working in cooperation with members of communities all across the state to document their traditions, helping equip them with the tools and skills to carry out projects of their own, and partnering with people, organizations, and localities in North Carolina to tap into folklife’s great potential as a tool for community development.

To maximize our resources and energies, NC Folk has moved out of our Durham office.

For many years we managed the folklife archives for the North Carolina Arts Council, to ensure that the public (especially communities documented in the archives) could have easy access to these materials. We are delighted that, through a three-way collaboration, these archives now have a great new home at the State Archives in Raleigh. Over the last two years NC Folk staff and interns have worked hard to digitize much of our contributions to the archive, so we’ll continue to have ready access to the rich products of our four decades of documentation. And of course, now our documentation is native digital, and continues to be archived and catalogued, with the goal of making as much as possible available online.

Meanwhile, our work has kept us out of the office more and more of the time. In just the past month members of our staff have been to Clinton, Cullowhee, Lexington, and Pembroke! We find that most people connect with us online — through our enormously popular monthly newsletter, on Facebook or other social media, or via our website.

For these reasons, we’ve decided to convert to a largely virtual office. We’re excited about shifting money from rent and other overhead into more robust service options, more online access to archival materials, and more online publications that share our research.

To make this ambitious plan a reality, we have also reconfigured our staff team. Evan Hatch joins our team as Director of Programs and Development. A very accomplished folklorist, Evan served for more than a decade as Director of Folk and Traditional Arts Programming for the Arts Center of Cannon County in Woodbury, Tennessee. There he designed and implemented a progressive, award-winning folk arts program that provided a national model for similar organizations. But he is a North Carolina native, and we are delighted to have helped woo him home.

Joy Salyers continues as Executive Director. You’ll find that, while NC Folk’s physical footprint has become smaller, our staff and overall organizational capacity have grown, further increasing our ability to carry out great work across the state. We’ll now primarily be working remotely and from the field, offering even more community trainings, site visits and consultations, and documentary fieldwork, as well as boosting our web and social media presence. Keep an eye out for us online and on the road! We’re thrilled about the future.

The North Carolina Folklife Institute is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization. Donations can be made online or by check: PO Box 61222, Durham, NC 27715.

Hyaluronate Sodium Indications, Side Effects, Warnings, Hyaluronate

Hyaluronate sodium

Treating knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis who have not received relief from other treatments.

Hyaluronate sodium is a hyaluronic acid derivative. It works by increasing the effectiveness of the fluid within the knee joint to act as a lubricant and shock absorber.

Do NOT use hyaluronate sodium if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in hyaluronate sodium or to similar medicines

you have a knee joint infection, or an infection or skin disease around the injection site

Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you.

Before using hyaluronate sodium:

Some medical conditions may interact with hyaluronate sodium. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have received another injectable medicine in the same joint into which hyaluronate sodium will be injected

Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with hyaluronate sodium. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Quaternary ammonium salts (eg, benzalkonium chloride) because side effects may occur

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if hyaluronate sodium may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

How to use hyaluronate sodium:

Use hyaluronate sodium as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

An extra patient leaflet is available with hyaluronate sodium. Talk to your pharmacist if you have questions about this information.

Hyaluronate sodium is given as an injection into the knee joint at your doctor's office, hospital, or clinic.

Hyaluronate sodium is usually given as a series of injections 1 week apart for a total of 3 injections. You may not experience relief until you have received several injections.

Do not use hyaluronate sodium if it contains particles, is cloudy or discolored, or if the syringe is cracked or damaged.

Do not use disinfectants containing ammonium salts to prepare the skin for injection because side effects may occur.

Keep this product, as well as syringes and needles, out of the reach of children and pets. Do not reuse needles, syringes, or other materials. Ask your health care provider how to dispose of these materials after use. Follow all local rules for disposal.

If you miss a dose of hyaluronate sodium, contact your doctor to establish a new dosing schedule.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use hyaluronate sodium.

Important safety information:

Someone may need to drive you home from the doctor's office, hospital, or clinic after you receive hyaluronate sodium. Discuss any questions or concerns with your doctor.

You may experience a temporary inflammation in your knee after using hyaluronate sodium. If the inflammation is severe or continues, contact your doctor.

Avoid strenuous activity or prolonged (more than 1 hour) weight-bearing activity (eg, running, tennis, heavy lifting, standing on your feet) for at least 48 hours after you are injected with hyaluronate sodium. Ask your doctor when you should begin physical activities again.

Hyaluronate sodium should be used with extreme caution in CHILDREN; safety and effectiveness in children have not been confirmed.

PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant while taking hyaluronate sodium, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using hyaluronate sodium while you are pregnant. It is not known if this medicine is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use hyaluronate sodium, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

Possible side effects of hyaluronate sodium:

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects. Check with your doctor if any of these most COMMON side effects persist or become bothersome:

Back pain; mild bruising, redness, or pain at the injection site; mild stiffness, swelling, warmth, or pain in or around the injected knee; muscle or joint pain; temporary achy feeling.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these SEVERE side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); severe or persistent headache or dizziness; severe, persistent, or painful swelling of the injected joint.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. To report side effects to the appropriate agency, please read the Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA .

If OVERDOSE is suspected:

Contact 1-800-222-1222 (the American Association of Poison Control Centers), your local poison control center. or emergency room immediately.

Proper storage of hyaluronate sodium:

Hyaluronate sodium is usually handled and stored by a health care provider. If you are using hyaluronate sodium at home, store hyaluronate sodium as directed by your pharmacist or health care provider. Keep hyaluronate sodium out of the reach of children and away from pets.

General information:

If you have any questions about hyaluronate sodium, please talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other health care provider.

Hyaluronate sodium is to be used only by the patient for whom it is prescribed. Do not share it with other people.

If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor.

Check with your pharmacist about how to dispose of unused medicine.

This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take hyaluronate sodium or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about hyaluronate sodium. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to hyaluronate sodium. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using hyaluronate sodium.

Review Date: August 8, 2016

Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only your health care provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for you. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. You must talk with your healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.

More about sodium hyaluronate

Romep

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Romep

Company: Rowex Ltd. Legal category: Prescription. GMS. Sport permitted. Active ingredient: Omeprazole 10mg, 20mg, 40mg. Description: Hard gastro-resistant capsules containing yellowish brown granules.10mg: light brown marked OME10. 20mg: White marked OME20. 40mg: White cap, light brown body, marked OME40. Presentation: 10mg-28, €12.38; 20mg-28, €21.23; 40mg-14, €23.28. Indications: Duodenal ulcers, benign gastric ulcers, reflux oesophagitis (RO, treatment and maintenance), symptomatic treatment of gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GORD), Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), NSAID-related gastric and duodenal ulcers (treatment and maintenance), in combination with appropriate antibacterial therapeutic regimens to eradicate H. pylori in patients with H. pylori associated peptic ulcers. Children >1 year and >10kg: Reflux Oesophagitis, symptomatic treatment of heartburn and acid regurgitation in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Children over 4 years: In combination with antibiotics in treatment of duodenal ulcer caused by H. pylori.

Pharmacology: Omeprazole is a gastric proton pump inhibitor. It directly and dose-dependently inhibits the enzyme H+, K+-ATPase, which is responsible for the gastric acid secretion in the gastric parietal cells. As a consequence of its mode of action, omeprazole leads to an inhibition of both basal and stimulable acid secretion, irrespective of the stimulus type. Thus, omeprazole increases the pH-value and reduces the volume of gastric acid secretion. Dosage: Adult: Duodenal ulcers: 20mg daily for 2-4 weeks; maintenance, 10mg. Benign gastric ulcers: 20mg once daily for 4-8 weeks. RO: 20mg daily for 4-8 weeks. 40mg may be used in refractory RO. Maintenance: 10-20mg. ZES: Initially 60mg daily. Divide doses >80mg in twice daily doses. NSAID-related ulcers . 20mg daily for 4-8 weeks. Maintenance: 20mg. GORD: 10-20mg daily for 2-4 weeks; if no improvement after 2 weeks, perform further examinations. H. pylori eradication: 20mg for 1 week in combination with amoxicillin 1000mg + clarithromycin 500mg twice daily; alternatively, in combination with clarithromycin 250mg + metronidazole 400-500mg twice daily. Impaired hepatic function: 20mg daily maximum. Elderly: As per adults. Children: See SPC Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to omeprazole or to any of the excipients. Special precautions: Peptic ulcer disease: Determine H. pylori status if relevant. Exclude malignancy before treatment. Confirm diagnosis of RO endoscopically. May lead to a slightly increased risk of GI infections (e. g. Salmonella, Campylobacter). Hepatic impairment: Check liver enzyme values periodically. Consider stopping NSAID in treatment of NSAID-related ulcers. Restrict treatment of NSAID-related ulcers to at risk patients. Long term use > 1year: Review risk/benefit assessment. Combination treatment: Caution in patients with renal/hepatic dysfunction. Monitor visual and auditory senses in severely ill patients. Pregnancy, lactation. Contains lactose. Drug interactions: Contraindicated: Atazanavir, St John’s wort. Caution: CYP2C substrates: (e. g. diazepam, triazolam, flurazepam, phenytoin, warfarin, hexabarbital, citalopram imipramine, clomipramine), disulfiram, ciclosporin (monitor plasma levels), clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, digoxin, vitamin B12 (reduced absorption). Adverse drug reactions: Somnolence, sleep disturbances (insomnia), vertigo, headaches, drowsiness, GI disorders. Full prescribing information and references available from Rowex Ltd. Telephone: 1800 304400. Fax: (027) 50417. E-mail: rowex@rowa-pharma. ie

Filed Under: Uncategorized Tagged With: GORD

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Rikavarin Indication, Action Of Rikavarin, Interactions, Rikavarin

Rikavarin [in more detail]

Rikavarin Indication:

For use in patients with hemophilia for short term use (two to eight days) to reduce or prevent hemorrhage and reduce the need for replacement therapy during and following tooth extraction.

Rikavarin Mechanism Of Action:

Tranexamic acid competitively inhibits activation of plasminogen (via binding to the kringle domain), thereby reducing conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (fibrinolysin), an enzyme that degrades fibrin clots, fibrinogen, and other plasma proteins, including the procoagulant factors V and VIII. Tranexamic acid also directly inhibits plasmin activity, but higher doses are required than are needed to reduce plasmin formation.

Rikavarin Drug Interactions:

Food Interactions:

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Asthma Buy Singulair At, Rhinosingulair

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Singulair is used for prevention and long-term treatment of asthma. It is also used in certain patients to relieve runny nose caused by allergies and to prevent asthma attacks caused by exercise. Singulair is a leukotriene receptor antagonist. It works by blocking a substance called leukotriene, which helps to decrease certain asthma and allergy symptoms.

Use Singulair as directed by your doctor.

Take Singulair by mouth with or without food.

Continue to use Singulair even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

If you miss a dose of Singulair, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Singulair.

Store Singulair at 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Brief storage at temperatures between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C) is permitted. Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Singulair out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Active Ingredient: Montelukast sodium.

Do NOT use Singulair if:

you are allergic to any ingredient in Singulair.

Contact your doctor right away if any of these apply to you.

Some medical conditions may interact with Singulair. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:

if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding

if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement

if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have liver problems

if you have a history of mental or mood problems, or suicidal thoughts or actions.

Some medicines may interact with Singulair. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:

Certain anticonvulsants (eg, phenobarbital) or rifampin because they may decrease Singulair's effectiveness.

This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if Singulair may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine.

Important safety information:

Singulair may cause drowsiness or dizziness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Singulair with caution. Do not drive or perform other possible unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Singulair will not stop an asthma attack once one has started. Be sure you always carry appropriate medicine (eg, bronchodilator inhalers) with you in case of an asthma attack.

Contact your doctor promptly if your short-acting inhaler use increases or if use exceeds the 24-hour maximum prescribed by your doctor. Contact your doctor if your asthma worsens.

Do not decrease your dose or stop using Singulair or other asthma medicines without first checking with your doctor.

If your asthma is sensitive to aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), continue to avoid those medicines as directed by your doctor.

Some patients taking Singulair have developed mental or mood changes, including suicidal thoughts or actions. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience symptoms such as agitation, aggression, hostility, anxiety, depression, strange dreams, trouble sleeping, sleepwalking, tremor, hallucinations, restlessness, irritability, or any unusual change in mood or behavior. Contact your doctor immediately if any signs of suicidal thoughts or actions occur.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor right away. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Singulair while you are pregnant. It is not known if Singulair is found in breast milk. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Singulair, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby.

All medicines may cause side effects, but many people have no, or minor, side effects.

Check with your doctor if any of these most common side effects persist or become bothersome:

Cough; dizziness; headache; indigestion; nausea; stomach upset or pain; stuffy nose; tiredness; trouble sleeping; weakness.

Seek medical attention right away if any of these severe side effects occur:

Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); aggressive behavior; agitation; chest pain; dark urine; fever; flu-like symptoms; hallucinations; irregular heartbeat; mental or mood changes; new or worsening wheezing or other breathing problems; numbness or tingling of the hands or feet; seizures; severe or persistent stomach pain; severe sinus inflammation; suicidal thoughts or actions; swelling; tremor; unusual bruising or bleeding; upper respiratory tract infection; yellowing of the skin or eyes.

This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, contact your health care provider.

Your order will be packed safely and secure and dispatched within 24 hours. This is how your parcel will look like, the images are photographs of real shipments. It has the size of a normal protected envelope and it does not disclose its contents.

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Deprakine Retard 500mg Askiver, Deprakine

deprakine retard 500mg?

Deprakine® Retard, depottabletter. 1 depottablet (filmovertrukken) indeholder 300 mg eller 500 mg valproat (dels som valproat (som natriumsalt). - read more

Convulex® 500 mg capsules Active substance: Valproic acid This medicine is subject to additional monitoring. This will allow quick identification of new safety - read more

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Netocur, Netocur

Bactrim consists of two medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms. This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.

Dosage and directions

Bactrim can be taken two or three times a day with or without a meal. Dosage depends on the type and severity of infection. Take with a glass of water. Patients with severe kidney failure require correction of Bactrim dosage.

Precautions Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned. Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, inform your doctor if you have it, it can mask other infection. Warn your doctor if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.

Contraindications Do not take Bactim if you are allergic to components of the medication, if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency. This medication should not be administered to premature babies and newborns.

Possible side effect

If you have such signs of allergic reaction as hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat or more serious signs of poor health as fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, diarrhea that is watery or bloody, hallucinations, slow heart rate, weak pulse, nausea, stomach pain, urinating less than usual or not at all then seek for immediate medical attention.

Drug interaction Bactim should be co-administered with dofetilide or methenamine. Bactrim is able to change effects of certain anti-diabetic medications, "blood thinners", cyclosporine, digoxin, drugs which can increase potassium levels, live vaccines, tricyclic antidepressants, some "water pills". So inform your doctor about all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use.

Missed dose Never take a double dose of this medication. If it is almost time of the next dose just skip the missed portion and continue to take the medicine according to the schedule.

Overdose If you took too much of Bactim you may feel dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting. In case of serious side effects seek for immediate medical help.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care advisor or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Antibiotics - Netocur (Brand name: bactrim)

Bactrim consists of two medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms. This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.

Dosage and directions

Bactrim can be taken two or three times a day with or without a meal. Dosage depends on the type and severity of infection. Take with a glass of water. Patients with severe kidney failure require correction of Bactrim dosage.

Precautions Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned. Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, inform your doctor if you have it, it can mask other infection. Warn your doctor if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.

Contraindications Do not take Bactim if you are allergic to components of the medication, if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency. This medication should not be administered to premature babies and newborns.

Possible side effect

If you have such signs of allergic reaction as hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat or more serious signs of poor health as fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, diarrhea that is watery or bloody, hallucinations, slow heart rate, weak pulse, nausea, stomach pain, urinating less than usual or not at all then seek for immediate medical attention.

Drug interaction Bactim should be co-administered with dofetilide or methenamine. Bactrim is able to change effects of certain anti-diabetic medications, "blood thinners", cyclosporine, digoxin, drugs which can increase potassium levels, live vaccines, tricyclic antidepressants, some "water pills". So inform your doctor about all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use.

Missed dose Never take a double dose of this medication. If it is almost time of the next dose just skip the missed portion and continue to take the medicine according to the schedule.

Overdose If you took too much of Bactim you may feel dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting. In case of serious side effects seek for immediate medical help.

Storage Store at room temperature between 59-77 degrees F (15-25 degrees C) away from light and moisture, kids and pets.

Disclaimer We provide only general information about medications which does not cover all directions, possible drug integrations, or precautions. Information on the site cannot be used for self-treatment and self-diagnosis. Any specific instructions for a particular patient should be agreed with your health care advisor or doctor in charge of the case. We disclaim reliability of this information and mistakes it could contain. We are not responsible for any direct, indirect, special or other indirect damage as a result of any use of the information on this site and also for consequences of self-treatment.

Nalecol, Nalecol

Nalecol

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Ezetimibe

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Drugs. com Mobile Apps

The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Available for Android and iOS devices.

Teranar, Teranar

Teranar

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Terazosin

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names .

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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Asentra, Asentra

sertraline

A drug of the SSRI class, C 17 H 17 Cl 2 N, used in its hydrochloride form primarily to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety.

sertraline

a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor administered orally in the form of hydrochloride salt as an antidepressant and as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

sertraline

Atruline, Lustral, Zoloft ® Psychiatry A serotonin reuptake inhibiting–SRI antidepressant that blocks reuptake of serotonin at the synapse more potently than that of norepinephrine Indications Panic disorder, major depression, dysphoria, OCD, PTSD Contraindications MAOI therapy Adverse reactions Nausea, insomnia, somnolence, diarrhea, 1º ejaculatory delay; in children, hyperkinesia, twitching, fever, malaise, purpura, ↓ weight, emotional lability, ↓ urine concentration. See Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor.

sertraline

A SELECTIVE SEROTONIN RE-UPTAKE INHIBITOR drug used to treat depression and severe premenstrual syndrome. A brand name is Lustral.

Sertraline

Zoloft; a SSRI that is used to treat mental depression and a variety of other disorders.

sertraline (ser´trəlēn´) ,

n brand name: Zoloft; drug class: antidepressant; action: selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain; use: treatment of major depression.

Lake Hemet - Fishing, Camping, Boating, Haemiton

Lake Hemet: Local Mountain Lake Escape In Idyllwild

L ake Hemet is surrounded by the majestic beauty of the San Jacinto Mountains, in Mountain Center, near the mountain town of Idyllwild. The scenery is breathtaking no matter which direction you look. Tall pines, manzanita trees, sage, and giant oaks abound.

Lake Hemet is one of the most popular spots in Southern California for camping and fishing. The recent additions of the Soaring Pines Cafe serving delicious food and Splashing Eagle Waterpark has made Lake Hemet the vacation spot to be during the spring and summer months.

Remember to pack a camera and binoculars, and keep a watchful eye, as the eagles are often seen soaring above and around the Campground. There are also plenty of Hawks soaring overhead throughout the forest and campground. Come and enjoy camping, fishing, boating and the breath-taking scenery all year round.

Fun Fact: Halle Berry said she celebrated her birthday here. The whole Kardashian and Jenner clan filmed an episode of Keeping Up With The Kardashians at Lake Hemet. Classic shows such as Airwolf and Bonanza also had episodes filmed at Lake Hemet.

VIP Cards

Lake Hemet along with Little Lake and Diamond Valley Lake offers a frequent fisher promotion called the “VIP Card”. Please ask for details when you check in at any of the three Lakes of Hemet.

Note: Swimming is allowed in designated areas only. The speed limit is 10mph for both boating and driving in the campground. No fireworks allowed. Fireworks are not permitted.

Low water warning: As many already know, California is in a drought and we are in a low water situation. Our launch ramp is still accessible and open to private boaters, but the launch conditions are less than ideal. Currently boaters are launching in 3.5 feet of water off the ramp.

Handicapped restrooms and showers are available in Camps 1, 2, and 4. Upon request, special assistance can be given to handicapped persons.

Nimotop - Pain Relief, Thrionipen

Nimotop (Nimodipine) is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Nimodipine relaxes (widens) blood vessels and improves blood flow.

Nimodipine is used to prevent brain damage caused by reduced blood flow to the brain resulting from aneurysm (AN-yor-iz-m), a dilated or ruptured blood vessel in the brain.

Nimodipine may also be used for purposes other than those listed here.

Take nimodipine exactly as it was prescribed for you. Do not take it in larger doses or for longer than recommended by your doctor.

Nimodipine gel capsules are to be taken by mouth only. The medicine in the capsule should never be placed into a needle and syringe and injected into a vein. If the person taking nimodipine cannot swallow the capsule, use a needle to make a hole in each end of the capsule, and squeeze the medicine out into an oral syringe. The syringe can then be used to give the medicine through a nasogastric (through the nose and into the stomach) tube. If you are able to swallow capsules, take nimodipine on an empty stomach, one hour before or two hours after meals. Take each dose with a full glass of water.

It is important to take nimodipine regularly to get the most benefit. Do not stop taking nimodipine without first talking to your doctor, even if you begin to feel better. If you stop taking the medication, your condition could become worse.

To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood pressure will need to be tested on a regular basis. Your liver function may also need to be tested. It is important that you not miss any scheduled visits to your doctor.

Take the medicine as prescribed by your doctor.

Store nimodipine at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

Active ingredient: Nimodipine

Nimotop (nimodipine) belongs to the class of pharmacological agents known as calcium channel blockers.

Before taking nimodipine, tell your doctor if you have liver disease, low blood pressure, high blood pressure (hypertension) for which you take medicine, or a history of heart problems such as a slow heart rate, congestive heart failure, or heart attack.

Nimodipine gel capsules are to be taken by mouth only. The medicine in the capsule should never be placed into a needle and syringe and injected into a vein. If the person taking nimodipine cannot swallow the capsule, use a needle to make a hole in each end of the capsule, and squeeze the medicine out into an oral syringe. The syringe can then be used to give the medicine through a nasogastric (through the nose and into the stomach) tube.

If you are able to swallow capsules, take nimodipine on an empty stomach, one hour before or two hours after meals. Avoid drinking alcohol while you are taking nimodipine. Alcohol and nimodipine may cause low blood pressure, drowsiness, or dizziness. Do not stop taking nimodipine without first talking to your doctor, even if you begin to feel better. If you stop taking the medication, your condition could become worse.

FDA pregnancy category C. This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known if nimodipine passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing infant. Do not take nimodipine without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. If you are over 65 years of age, you may be more likely to have side effects from nimodipine. Your doctor may prescribe a lower dose of this medication.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using nimodipine and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

unusually fast or slow heartbeats;

fainting or severe dizziness;

easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness;

swelling in your legs or ankles.

Other, less serious side effects may be more likely. Continue taking nimotop and talk to your doctor if you have any of these less serious side effects:

flushing (redness, warmth, or tingling feeling);

nausea, constipation; or

Side effects other than those listed here may also occur.

Talk to your doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially bothersome.

Carloc 12, Carloc

PROPRIETARY NAME (and dosage form):

CARLOC 12.5 (Tablets) CARLOC 25 (Tablets)

COMPOSITION: CARLOC 12.5: Each tablet contains carvedilol 12.5 mg. CARLOC 25: Each tablet contains carvedilol 25.0 mg.

PHARMACOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION: A 7.1.3 Other hypotensives.

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION: Pharmacodynamics: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF): Although the benefits of carvedilol in congestive heart failure (CHF) have been proven in numerous studies, the basis for these effects is not established. A US multicentre program, comprising four concurrent multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, initially enrolled 1197 patients with stable symptomatic CHF (NYHA class II-IV), who were then challenged with a low dose of carvedilol (3,125 mg or 6,25 mg twice daily) for 2 to 4 weeks to determine tolerability. Subsequently 1094 of these patients were randomised to double-blind treatment with either carvedilol (n=696) or placebo. These patients were assigned to one of four treatment protocols on the basis of their exercise capacity. The objective was to evaluate total mortality or hospitalisation for cardiovascular reasons. The average duration of therapy on carvedilol was 6.5 months, extending to 15 months. All patients in the study had symptomatic CHF for at least 3 months and ejection fractions < 35%, despite 2 months treatment with diuretics and an angiotensin - converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (if tolerated), with or without digoxin, hydralazine or nitrates. The cause of the CHF was mostly ischemic left ventricular dysfunction or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Exclusion criteria included a major cardiovascular event or a major surgical procedure within 3 months of the study, uncorrected, primary valvular disease, active myocarditis, severe arrhythmias, clinically significant hepatic or renal disease and certain medications. The overall mortality rate was 7.8% in the placebo group and 3.2% in the carvedilol group, an absolute risk reduction of 4.6% or a relative risk reduction of 65% (95% Cl, 39-80%, p < 0.001). In addition, carvedilol therapy led to a relative risk reduction of 36% (95% Cl, 14-53%, p=0.004) in cardiovascular hospitalisations (13% incidence in the carvedilol group versus 21% in the placebo group). Furthermore, there was also a reduction in the risk of death from progressive heart failure, as well as a reduction in the risk of sudden death. Improvement in the patients' well-being in the carvedilol group was indicated by a change in the CHF NYHA class from baseline to endpoint. The overall between-group difference in distributions was significant (p<0.001). This was also indicated by patient and physician global assessments, where patients rated their condition as improved in 78% of the carvedilol group and 63% in the placebo group (p values from 0.001 to 0.032 over 4 studies). However, exercise tolerance was not significantly improved. Worsening heart failure during treatment was less frequent in the carvedilol group than in the placebo group. A multicentre study, performed in Australia and New Zealand, enrolled 443 patients with stable symptomatic CHF (NYHA class I - III) to determine tolerability of a low dose of carvedilol (3.125 mgor 6.25 mg twice daily) for 2 to 4 weeks. 415 of these patients were then randomized to continued treatment with carvedilol, up to 25 mg twice daily (n=207), or matching placebo (n=208). The symptomatic CHF was due to ischemic left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction <45%. Exclusion criteria included current NYHA class IV CHF, severe arrhythmias, coronary event or procedure within 4 weeks prior to study, significant valvular disease, certain medications, COPD, and significant hepatic or renal impairment. The average duration of therapy on carvedilol was 16.1 months. The overall mortality rate was 13.9% in the placebo group and 10.1% in the carvedilol group, an absolute risk reduction of 3.8%, corresponding to a non-statistically significant relative risk reduction of 29% (95% Cl, 24-59%, p = 0.231). Carvedilol therapy also led to a relative risk reduction of 28% (95% Cl, 1-48%, p = 0.044) in cardiovascular hospitalisations (31% versus 40% in the carvedilol and placebo groups, respectively). Patient well-being, according to the NYHA class or Specific Activity Scale rating, as well as exercise tolerance, were no different between the 2 groups. Pharmacodynamics: Hypertension: Carvedilol is an effective antihypertensive agent due to its vasodilating (alpha 1 - adrenoreceptor blocker) and non-selective beta-blocking properties in the same dose range. Studies have shown carvedilol to be a competitive non-selective antagonist of both beta 1 - and beta 2 - adreno-receptors. This leads to reduction in cardiac output and reduction of exercise-induced and beta 2 - tachycardia. The beta-blockade also suppresses the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Carvedilol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Carvedilol causes vasodilatation primarily due to its selective blockade of alpha 1 - adrenoreceptors. This leads to a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance. The alpha-blockade also attenuates the pressor effects of phenylephrine. Clinical studies with carvedilol have shown that the combination of beta-blockade and vasodilation (alpha-blockade) results in a number of desirable hemodynamic and metabolic effects, including the following:

When compared to conventional beta-blocking agents, which lack additional vasodilating activity, carvedilol causes a smaller reduction in the resting heart rate. Myocardial function is therefore maintained, as well as peripheral blood flow.

Carvedilol has little or no effect on serum electrolytes, cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins or low density lipoproteins, and although the plasma renin activity is reduced significantly, renal function is not affected.

Pharmacokinetics: Carvedilol is absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and extensively metabolized in the liver, primarily by aromatic ring oxidation and glucuronidation. Absolute bio-availability is about 25% due to the considerable first-pass metabolism. Peak plasma concentration occurs approximately 1 hour after administration. Protein binding, especially to albumin, is more than 98%. The absorption rate of carvedilol is slowed by food, but the bio-availability appears not to be affected (taking CARLOC with food could therefore minimize the risk of orthostatic hypotension). The elimination half-life is 6-10 hours and excretion is mainly in the bile, with a small part (about 15%) excreted via the kidneys. The plasma level of carvedilol is an average of about 50% higher in the elderly, compared with younger patients. The plasma levels of carvedilol are 5 times higher inpatients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, than in healthy subjects. Although the metabolites of carvedilol are excreted mainly in the bile, the role of the active metabolites excreted by the kidneys (about 15%) cannot be totally ignored when renal impairment exists.

Treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension.

Treatment of mild to moderate stable symptomatic heart failure of ischemic or cardiomyopathic origin often in conjunction with standard therapy. Carvedilol has previously been used in patients unable to tolerate an ACE inhibitor and also in those not receiving digitalis.

CONTRA-INDICATIONS: Hypersensitivity to carvedilol. Carvedilol should not be prescribed to patients suffering from bronchospasm or asthma, or patients with a history of obstructive airways disease, bronchitis and chronic respiratory disease. Carvedilol is contraindicated in the following conditions: 2nd and 3rd degree atrioventricular block, severe bradycardia (<50/minute), New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class IV decompensated heart failure requiring intravenous inotropic support, cardiogenic shock, sick sinus syndrome (including sino-atrial block), hepatic impairment, metabolic acidosis, peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud's phenomenon and severe hypotension (systolic BP <85 mmHg). Carvedilol should not be prescribed to patients suffering from allergic conditions involving the airways e. g. asthma, allergic rhinitis or glottis oedema. Carvedilol should not be used during pregnancy and lactation. Administration to pregnant mothers shortly before giving birth, or duringlabour, may result in the newborn infant being born hypotonic, collapsed and hypoglycaemic. Safety and efficacy in children have not been established.

WARNINGS: Patients with pheochromocytoma should never receive carvedilol without receiving alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking therapy beforehand or concomitantly. It is important to make sure that adequate clinical control has been achieved inpatients with CHF before carvedilol therapy is initiated, and then with great caution.

DOSAGE AND DIRECTIONS FOR USE: Essential hypertension: ADULTS: Initial dose: 6.25 mg twice daily, for 1 to 2 weeks Maintenance dose: 12.5 mg twice daily or Initial dose: 12.5 mg once daily, for two days Maintenance dose: 25 mg once daily. At doses higher than 25 mg the incidence of side-effects increases significantly with only a marginal increase in efficacy.

ELDERLY: Usual dose: 12.5 mg once daily If necessary the dosage may be increased, as tolerated, at intervals of at least 2 weeks, to 25 mg once daily or in divided doses.

Heart failure (in conjunction with standard therapy): To reduce the incidence of orthostatic effects, carvedilol should be taken with food to slow the rate of absorption. The overall bio-availability of carvedilol is not affected by food. It is advised that the dosage be individualised and that the patient be closely monitored by a medical practitioner experienced in the management of heart failure, during dose titration. The dosing of digitalis, diuretics and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, should be stabilised in those patients on these agents, before carvedilol is initiated. ADULTS: Initial dose: 3.125 mg twice daily for at least two weeks. Increase to: 6.25 mg twice daily for two weeks. Increase to: 12.5 mg twice daily for two weeks. Maintenance dose: 25 mg twice daily for patients weighing <85 kg (maximum dose). Increase to: 50 mg twice daily for patients weighing >85 kg (maximum dose). An interval of at least two weeks should be allowed after each dose increase. The dose should be increased to the highest dose tolerated by the patient. Before the dosage is increased, the patient should be evaluated for symptoms of worsening heart failure or vasodilation. Transient worsening of heart failure and fluid retention should be treated with higher doses of diuretics. It may however be necessary to reduce the carvedilol dosage or to discontinue carvedilol therapy temporarily in some cases. Should treatment be discontinued for two weeks or more, it is advised that therapy be reinstated at 3.125 mg twice daily for two weeks and the dosage then increased in line with the abovementioned dosage instructions. Symptoms of vasodilation (headache, dizziness, postural hypotension) may initially be managed by decreasing the dose of the diuretics. Should the symptoms persist, however, the dose of the ACE inhibitor (if applicable) may be reduced, followed by a reduction in the dose of carvedilol, if still required. All symptoms of vasodilation or worsening heart failure must be stabilised before the dose of carvedilol is increased again, in line with the recommended dosage instructions.

SIDE-EFFECTS AND SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS. Side-effects: The following side-effects may occur: Cardiovascular . Postural hypotension and bradycardia can occur. Exacerbation of peripheral vascular disease, development of Raynaud's phenomenon (due to unopposed arteriolar alpha-sympathetic activation), and even peripheral gangrene may be precipitated. Congestive cardiac failure can be precipitated or worsened, especially during dose titration. Heart block may be precipitated in patients with underlying cardiac disorders. Chest pain, generalized oedema and syncope have also been reported. Respiratory . Bronchoconstriction, wheeze and dyspnoea may occur in patients with asthma, bronchitis and other chronic pulmonary diseases. Gastro-intestinal and hepatobiliary . Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal cramps and hepatic injury (elevated transaminases) have been reported. General . Vague fatigue and malaise, which is usually mild and occurs particularly after initiation of therapy. Stuffy nose, fever and weight gain occurs rarely. Urogenital . Sexual impotence, reduced libido, hematuria, urine retention and deterioration of renal function in patients with CHF. Metabolic . Hypoglycemia has been reported rarely. Musculoskeletal . Muscle weakness, muscle cramps, myopathies and cold extremities. Neuropsychiatric . This may range from vague fatigue and malaise, insomnia, vivid dreams and nightmares, to overt psychosis. Other CNS effects include headache, dizziness, depression, hallucinations and confusion. Paresthesia (including tingling of the scalp) and peripheral neuropathy have also been reported. Haematological . Non-thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, transient eosinophilia and leucopenia. Dermatological . Allergic skin reactions, reversible alopecia, stomatitis and angioedema. Psoriasis may be aggravated or induced by carvedilol. Special senses . Decreased lacrimation, blurred vision, ocular pain and transient hearing loss have been reported. Special precautions: Carvedilol should be given to patients with congestive heart failure only after adequate clinical control has been achieved, and only then with great caution especially if the heart failure is controlled with digitalis, diuretics and/or ACE inhibitors (both digitalis and carvedilol slow AV conduction). Before the dosage is increased, the patient should be evaluated for symptoms of worsening heart failure or vasodilation. Transient worsening of heart failure and fluid retention should be treated with increased doses of diuretics. It may be necessary to lower the carvedilol dosage or to discontinue carvedilol therapy temporarily in some cases. In these cases titration of carvedilol can resume once clinical stability has been achieved. All symptoms of vasodilation or worsening heart failure must be stabilised before the dose of carvedilol is increased in line with the recommended dose instructions. (see "Dosage and directions for use"). It is of the greatest importance that the anaesthetist be informed that a beta-blocker is being taken by the patient, prior to anaesthesia. Carvedilol therapy should be discontinued 48 hours prior to anaesthesia. If this is not possible, an agent such as atropine may be administered to counter increases in vagal tone. In the peri-operative period it is generally unwise to reduce the dosage, as there may be danger of aggravation of angina pectoris or of hypertension. A patient's normal tachycardiac response to hypovolaemia or blood loss may be obscured during and after surgery. Particular caution should be taken in this regard. Safety during long-term administration has not been demonstrated. Adverse reactions are more common in patients with renal decompensation. A dose reduction is necessary in elderly patients and in some patients suffering from renal dysfunction. Abrupt discontinuation of therapy may cause exacerbation of angina pectoris in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. Discontinuation of therapy should be gradual (over a period of 1 to 2 weeks) and patients should be advised to limit the extent of their physical activity during the period that the medicine is being tapered. Patients with pheochromocytoma should receive alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking therapy beforehand or concomitantly. There is no clinical experience in the use of carvedilol in patients suffering from Prinzmetal's variant angina. Caution is advised as carvedilol may provoke chest pain in patients suspected of suffering from this disease. Carvedilol may cause bradycardia. A dose reduction is advised should the pulse rate drop to <55 beats/ minute. Early signs of acute hypoglycaemia may be masked or attenuated by the administration of carvedilol to diabetics. Caution is advised when carvedilol is prescribed to diabetic patients. A dose reduction of anti-diabetic medication or insulin, may be necessary in patients with CHF and diabetes, as carvedilol can cause deterioration of glucose control. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be masked by carvedilol. When dizziness or related symptoms are experienced, the patient should be advised not to drive or operate machinery Wearers of contact lenses should be informed that there maybe a reduction in lacrimation. Psoriasis may be aggravated. Patients with a history of anaphylaxis to an antigen may be more reactive to repeated challenge with the antigen while taking carvedilol. The following CHF patients on carvedilol maybe at risk of reversible deterioration of renal function: hypotensive patients (systolic BP <100mmHg), ischemic heart disease, diffuse vascular disease and/or underlying renal impairment. CHF patients with the above risk factors should have their renal function monitored during the upward titration of carvedilol, which should be discontinued or reduced when the renal function deteriorates. Caution should be used when carvedilol is initiated or titrated upwards in patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis or COPD due to the danger of bronchospasm. These patients should be monitored closely and the dose reduced or discontinued in the event of any sign of bronchospasm. Carvedilol can precipitate or aggravate claudication in patients with peripheral vascular disease. The symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon may also be exacerbated.

Caution should be exercised when transferring a patient from clonidine. The withdrawal of clonidine may result in the release of large amounts of catecholamines which may give rise to a hypertensive crisis. If beta-blockers are administered in these circumstances, the unopposed alpha receptor stimulation may potentiate this effect. If a beta-blocker and clonidine are given concurrently, the clonidine should not be discontinued until several days after the withdrawal of the beta-blocker, as severe rebound hypertension may occur. It can be dangerous to administer this medicine concomitantly with the following medicines: hypoglycaemic agents (see "Precautions"), phenothiazines and various anti-arrhythmic agents (see below). Such drug-drug interactions can have life-threatening consequences. Special note: Digitalisation of patients receiving long-term beta-blocking therapy may be necessary if congestive, cardiac failure is likely to develop. This combination may be considered despite the potentiation of negative chronotropic effects of the two medicines. Careful control of the dosages and of the individual patient's response (and notably pulse rate), is essential in this situation.

Anaesthetic agents causing myocardial depression, such as cyclopropane and trichloroethylene, should be avoided. Carvedilol should be avoided in combination with cardio-depressant calcium channel blockers such as verapamil and diltiazem. The hypotensive effects of carvedilol are antagonized by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS). Carvedilol may potentiate antidiabetic agents such as insulin or the sulfonylureas. Myocardial depressant agents, including anti-arrhythmics eg. disopyramide, procainamide, lignocaine and phenytoin, may cause potentiation of the negative inotropic effect on the heart, as well as potentiation of the AV conduction time when used concurrently with carvedilol. Enzyme inhibitors, such as quinidine may affect the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of carvedilol. Reserpine and other medicines which can deplete catecholamines, such as adrenergic neuron blocking agents (e. g. guanethidine and bethanidine), may cause hypotension and/or severe bradycardia. Beta-adrenoreceptor stimulating agents, such as isoprenaline, diminish the effects of carvedilol. Alpha-adrenoreceptor stimulating agents such as noradrenaline and mixed alpha and beta-adrenoreceptor stimulating agents, such as adrenaline, may enhance the peripheral vasoconstrictor effects of carvedilol and may reverse the hypotensive effects dangerously. Rifampicin may decrease the systemic availability of carvedilol. Digoxin levels should be monitored when carvedilol dosages are changed. Concurrent therapy with cimetidine may result in a 30% increase in the systemic bioavailability of carvedilol, but has no affect on the C max . Hydralazine and alcohol may increase the plasma concentration of carvedilol by delaying the hepatic metabolism of carvedilol. Carvedilol may potentiate the hypotensive effect of other antihypertensives or other agents that may cause hypotension as part of their side-effect profile.

KNOWN SYMPTOMS OF OVERDOSAGE AND PARTICULARS OF ITS TREATMENT: Overdosage may lead to bradycardia, severe hypotension, heart failure, cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest. These patients may also present with bronchospasm, vomiting, seizures and disturbed consciousness. Placing the patient in a supine position will improve the blood supply to the brain. Gastric lavage can be useful shortly after ingestion of the medicine. Bradycardia and severe hypotension should be treated with intravenous atropine. Incremental doses of up to 3 mg should he given immediately. If necessary, this should be followed up by a slow intravenous infusion of isoprenaline. If further measures are required, noradrenaline may be preferable in restoring circulation. The recommended starting dose for noradrenaline is 5-10 mcg given intravenously, and should be repeated according to the patient's response. Alternatively it may be given by intravenous infusion at a rate of 5 mcg/minute until a response is achieved. Adrenaline or dobutamine can also be used. In the case of therapy-resistant bradycardia, pacemaker therapy should be performed. In severe overdosage the following regime may be preferred: Initially 1-10 mg glucagon intravenously, followed by intravenous infusion at a rate of 2-2.5 mg/hour. Bronchospasm should be treated with beta-agonists and intravenous aminophylline, and cardiac failure with digitalis and diuretics. Peripheral vasodilation may be treated with noradrenaline with continuous monitoring of the circulation. In the event of seizures, diazepam or clonazepam may be given by slow intravenous injection. Special note . Since a prolonged elimination half-life of carvedilol can be expected due to release from deeper compartments, treatment with antidotes must be continued for a sufficiently long period of time when there are symptoms of shock, following severe intoxication with carvedilol.

Cream coloured, circular, biconvex tablets with cross break-line on one side and plain on the ether.

R Data Analysis Examples Mixed Effects Logistic Regression, Fixef

Welcome to the Institute for Digital Research and Education

R Data Analysis Examples: Mixed Effects Logistic Regression

Mixed effects logistic regression is used to model binary outcome variables, in which the log odds of the outcomes are modeled as a linear combination of the predictor variables when data are clustered or there are both fixed and random effects.

This page uses the following packages. Make sure that you can load them before trying to run the examples on this page. If you do not have a package installed, run: install. packages("packagename"). or if you see the version is out of date, run: update. packages() .

Version info: Code for this page was tested in R version 3.1.0 (2014-04-10) On: 2014-07-10 With: boot 1.3-11; lme4 1.1-6; Rcpp 0.11.2; Matrix 1.1-3; GGally 0.4.4; reshape 0.8.4; plyr 1.8; xtable 1.7-3; car 2.0-20; foreign 0.8-61; Hmisc 3.14-4; Formula 1.1-1; survival 2.37-7; lattice 0.20-29; mgcv 1.7-29; nlme 3.1-117; png 0.1-7; gridExtra 0.9.1; reshape2 1.2.2; ggplot2 0.9.3.1; vcd 1.3-1; rjson 0.2.14; RSQLite 0.11.4; DBI 0.2-7; knitr 1.5

Please note: The purpose of this page is to show how to use various data analysis commands. It does not cover all aspects of the research process which researchers are expected to do. In particular, it does not cover data cleaning and checking, verification of assumptions, model diagnostics or potential follow-up analyses.

Examples of mixed effects logistic regression

Example 1: A researcher sampled applications to 40 different colleges to study factor that predict admittance into college. Predictors include student's high school GPA, extracurricular activities, and SAT scores. Some schools are more or less selective, so the baseline probability of admittance into each of the schools is different. School level predictors include whether the school is public or private, the current student-to-teacher ratio, and the school's rank.

Example 2: A large HMO wants to know what patient and physician factors are most related to whether a patient's lung cancer goes into remission after treatment as part of a larger study of treatment outcomes and quality of life in patients with lunger cancer.

Example 3: A television station wants to know how time and advertising campaigns affect whether people view a television show. They sample people from four cities for six months. Each month, they ask whether the people had watched a particular show or not in the past week. After three months, they introduced a new advertising campaign in two of the four cities and continued monitoring whether or not people had watched the show.

Description of the data

In this example, we are going to explore Example 2 about lung cancer using a simulated dataset, which we have posted online. A variety of outcomes were collected on patients, who are nested within doctors, who are in turn nested within hospitals. There are also a few doctor level variables, such as Experience that we will use in our example.

Now we are going to graph our continuous predictor variables. Visualizing data can help us understand the distributions, catch coding errors (e. g. we know a variable only takes values from 0 to 7, but we see a 999 in the graph), and give us a sense of the relationship among our variables. For example, we might see that two predictors are highly correlated and decide we only want to include one in the model, or we might note a curvilinear relation between two variables. Data visualization is a fast, intuitive way to check all of this at once. If most your predictors appear independent of each other, that is fine. It shapes your expectations of the model. For example, if they are independent, the estimate for one predictor should not change much when you enter another predictor (although the standard error and significance tests may). We can get all of this information and intuition about what and how to model are data by simply viewing it.

There do not seem to be any strong linear relations among our continuous predictors. Let us look at the distributions of our variables by CancerStage. Because LengthofStay is coded discretely in days, we can examine how CancerStage is associated with it using bubble plots. The area of each bubble is proportional to the number of observations with those values. For the continuous predictors, we use violin plots with jittered data values. All of the raw data is presented separated by CancerStage. To alleviate overplotting and see the values better, we add a small amount of random noise (primarily to the x axis) as well as set the alpha transparency. Although the jittered dots are helpful for seeing the raw data, it can be difficult to get a precise sense of the distribution. For that, we add violin plots. Violin plots are just kernel density plots reflected around the plotting axis. We plot the violin plots on top of the jittered points with a transparency so that you can stil see the raw data, but the violin plots are dominant. Because both IL6 and CRP tend to have skewed distributions, we use a square root scale on the y axis. The distributions look fairly normal and symmetric, although you can still see the long right tail, even using a square root scale (note that only the scale was shifted, the values themselves are not transformed, which is important because this lets you see and interpret the actual scores, rather than the square root of the scores).

Because it is difficult to see how binary variables change over levels of continuous variables, we can flip the problem around and look at the distribution of continuous variables at each level of the binary outcome.

Analysis methods you might consider

Below is a list of analysis methods you may have considered.

Mixed effects logistic regression, the focus of this page.

Mixed effects probit regression is very similar to mixed effects logistic regression, but it uses the normal CDF instead of the logistic CDF. Both model binary outcomes and can include fixed and random effects.

Fixed effects logistic regression is limited in this case because it may ignore necessary random effects and/or non independence in the data.

Fixed effects probit regression is limited in this case because it may ignore necessary random effects and/or non independence in the data.

Logistic regression with clustered standard errors. These can adjust for non independence but does not allow for random effects.

Probit regression with clustered standard errors. These can adjust for non independence but does not allow for random effects.

Mixed effects logistic regression

Below we use the glmer command to estimate a mixed effects logistic regression model with Il6. CRP. and LengthofStay as patient level continuous predictors, CancerStage as a patient level categorical predictor (I, II, III, or IV), Experience as a doctor level continuous predictor, and a random intercept by DID. doctor ID.

Estimating and interpreting generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs, of which mixed effects logistic regression is one) can be quite challenging. If you are just starting, we highly recommend reading this page first Introduction to GLMMs. It covers some of the background and theory as well as estimation options, inference, and pitfalls in more detail.

The first part tells us the estimates are based on an adaptive Gaussian Hermite approximation of the likelihood. In particular we used 10 integration points (how this works is discussed in more detail here ). As we use more integration points, the approximation becomes more accurate converging to the ML estimates; however, more points are more computationally demanding and can be extremely slow or even intractable with today's technology. To avoid a warning of nonconvergence, we specify a different optimizer with the argument control=glmerControl(optimizer="bobyqa"). Although the model will produce nearly identical results without the new argument, we prefer to use models without such warnings.

The next section gives us basic information that can be used to compare models, followed by the random effect estimates. This represents the estimated variability in the intercept on the logit scale. Had there been other random effects, such as random slopes, they would also appear here. The top section concludes with the total number of observations, and the number of level 2 observations. In our case, this includes the total number of patients (8,525) and doctors (407).

The last section is a table of the fixed effects estimates. For many applications, these are what people are primarily interested in. The estimates represent the regression coefficients. These are unstandardized and are on the logit scale. The estimates are followed by their standard errors (SEs). As is common in GLMs, the SEs are obtained by inverting the observed information matrix (negative second derivative matrix). However, for GLMMs, this is again an approximation. The approximations of the coefficient estimates likely stabilize faster than do those for the SEs. Thus if you are using fewer integration points, the estimates may be reasonable, but the approximation of the SEs may be less accurate. The Wald tests, (frac ), rely on asymptotic theory, here referring to as the highest level unit size converges to infinity, these tests will be normally distributed, and from that, p values (the probability of obtaining the observed estimate or more extreme, given the true estimate is 0).

It can be nice to get confidence intervals (CIs). We can get rough estimates using the SEs.

Predicted probabilities and graphing

These results are great to put in the table or in the text of a research manuscript; however, the numbers can be tricky to interpret. Visual presentations are helpful to ease interpretation and for posters and presentations. As models become more complex, there are many options. We will discuss some of them briefly and give an example how you could do one.

In a logistic model, the outcome is commonly on one of three scales:

Log odds (also called logits), which is the linearized scale

Odds ratios (exponentiated log odds), which are not on a linear scale

Probabilities, which are also not on a linear scale

For tables, people often present the odds ratios. For visualization, the logit or probability scale is most common. There are some advantages and disadvantages to each. The logit scale is convenient because it is linearized, meaning that a 1 unit increase in a predictor results in a coefficient unit increase in the outcome and this holds regardless of the levels of the other predictors (setting aside interactions for the moment). A downside is the scale is not very interpretable. It is hard for readers to have an intuitive understanding of logits. Conversely, probabilities are a nice scale to intuitively understand the results; however, they are not linear. This means that a one unit increase in the predictor, does not equal a constant increase in the probability---the change in probability depends on the values chosen for the other predictors. In ordinary logistic regression, you could just hold all predictors constant, only varying your predictor of interest. However, in mixed effects logistic models, the random effects also bear on the results. Thus, if you hold everything constant, the change in probability of the outcome over different values of your predictor of interest are only true when all covariates are held constant and you are in the same group, or a group with the same random effect. The effects are conditional on other predictors and group membership, which is quite narrowing. An attractive alternative is to get the average marginal probability. That is, across all the groups in our sample (which is hopefully representative of your population of interest), graph the average change in probability of the outcome across the range of some predictor of interest.

We are going to explore an example with average marginal probabilities. These take more work than conditional probabilities, because you have to calculate separate conditional probabilities for every group and then average them. It is also not easy to get confidence intervals around these average marginal effects in a frequentist framework (although they are trivial to obtain from Bayesian estimation).

First, let's define the general procedure using the notation from here. We create (mathbf _ ) by taking (mathbf ) and setting a particular predictor of interest, say in column (j), to a constant. If we only cared about one value of the predictor, (i in ). However, more commonly, we want a range of values for the predictor in order to plot how the predicted probability varies across its range. We can do this by taking the observed range of the predictor and taking (k) samples evenly spaced within the range. For example, suppose our predictor ranged from 5 to 10, and we wanted 6 samples, (frac = 1), so each sample would be 1 apart from the previous and they would be: ( ). Then we create (k) different (mathbf _ )s where (i in ) where in each case, the (j)th column is set to some constant. Then we calculate: [ boldsymbol _ = mathbf _ boldsymbol + mathbf boldsymbol ] These are all the different linear predictors. Finally, we take (h(boldsymbol )), which gives us (boldsymbol _ ), which are the conditional expectations on the original scale, in our case, probabilities. We can then take the expectation of each (boldsymbol _ ) and plot that against the value our predictor of interest was held at. We could also make boxplots to show not only the average marginal predicted probability, but also the distribution of predicted probabilities.

You may have noticed that a lot of variability goes into those estimates. We are using (mathbf ) only holding our predictor of interest at a constant, which allows all the other predictors to take on values in the original data. Also, we have left (mathbf boldsymbol ) as in our sample, which means some groups are more or less represented than others. If we had wanted, we could have re-weighted all the groups to have equal weight. We chose to leave all these things as-is in this example based on the assumption that our sample is truly a good representative of our population of interest. Rather than attempt to pick meaningful values to hold covariates at (even the mean is not necessarily meaningful, particularly if a covariate as a bimodal distribution, it may be that no participant had a value at or near the mean), we used the values from our sample. This also suggests that if our sample was a good representation of the population, then the average marginal predicted probabilities are a good representation of the probability for a new random sample from our population.

Now that we have some background and theory, let's see how we actually go about calculating these things. We get a summary of LengthofStay. our predictor of interest, and then get 100 values across its range to use in prediction. We make a copy of our data so we can fix the values of one of the predictors and then use the predict function to calculate the predicted values. All random effects are included by default, see? predict. merMod for more details. Note that the predict method for mixed effects models is new and currently is only in the development version of lme4. so make sure that you have that installed.

Contraindications For Dencorub Topical, Dencorub

contraindications

Who should not take Dencorub topical?

Check with your physician if you have any of the following:

Conditions:

Increased Cardiovascular Event Risk, Disease of the Heart and Blood Vessels, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Presence of Polyps in the Nose, Condition in which Stomach Acid is Pushed Into the Esophagus, Stomach or Intestinal Ulcer, Burning Stomach, Liver Problems, Severe Liver Disease, Bleeding of the Stomach or Intestines, Kidney Disease, Burn, Pregnancy, Overactive Thyroid causing Life-Threatening Symptoms, Diabetes, Inadequate Vitamin K, Anemia from Pyruvate Kinase and G6PD Deficiencies, Water Retention, Anemia, Hemophilia, Decrease in the Blood-Clotting Protein Prothrombin, Blood Clotting Disorder

Allergies:

CAMPHOR MENTHOL CONTAIN PROD SALICYLATES NSAIDS (NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG) CAPSICUM

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European Medicines Agency, Logastric

Losec

The European Medicines Agency has completed a review of Losec. The Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has concluded that there is a need to harmonise the prescribing information for Losec and associated names in the European Union (EU).

Losec is used to treat diseases where the stomach produces too much acid. These include:

reflux disease, to treat symptoms such as heartburns and acid regurgitation (acid flowing up in the mouth),

reflux oesophagitis (inflammation of the gullet, due to acid),

stomach or duodenal ulcer, including preventing the ulcer from coming back (relapse),

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (a condition caused by oversecretion of acid in the stomach).

Losec can also be used for the prevention and treatment of the stomach ulcers that are caused by medicines used to treat pain and inflammations called non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), when the patient needs continuous NSAID treatment. Together with antibiotics, it can be used to help rid the stomach of a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is known to cause stomach ulcers.

The active substance in Losec, omeprazole, is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). It works by blocking ‘proton pumps’, proteins found in specialised cells in the stomach lining that pump acid into the stomach. By blocking the pumps, omeprazole reduces acid production.

Losec is also available in the EU under other trade names: Antra, Logastric, Losec Forte, Mopral, Omeprazen, Omeprazole AstraZeneca and Zoltum. The company that markets these medicines is AstraZeneca.

The 10 and 20 mg tablets may be available as non-prescription medicines (over-the-counter, OTC) in some Member States.

Losec is authorised in the EU via national procedures. This has led to divergences among Member States in the way the medicine can be used, as seen in the differences in the Summaries of Product Characteristics (SmPCs), labelling and package leaflets in the countries where the product is marketed. Losec has been identified as needing harmonisation by the Co-ordination Group on the Mutual and Decentralised Procedures – Human (CMD(h)).

On 27 June 2008, the European Commission referred the matter to the CHMP in order to harmonise the marketing authorisations for Losec in the EU.

The CHMP, in the light of the data submitted and the scientific discussion within the Committee, was of the opinion that the SmPCs, labelling and package leaflets should be harmonised across the EU. The areas harmonised include:

4.1 Therapeutic indications The CHMP agreed on harmonised indications (the diseases for which the medicine may be used). The Committee agree that the capsules and tablets can be used for the same indications, namely: In adults:

duodenal ulcers (treatment and prevention of relapse),

stomach ulcers (treatment and prevention of relapse),

H. pylori eradication in stomach and duodenum ulcer disease in combination with antibiotics,

NSAID associated ulcers (treatment and prevention),

reflux oesophagitis (treatment, including long-term management after healing),

symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

reflux oesophagitis,

heartburn and acid regurgitation in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

In combination with antibiotics in the treatment of duodenal ulcer caused by H. pylori.

The CHMP agreed that the indications for the injectable form of Losec should be the same as for the tablets, but that the injection should only be used when the administration of the tablets or capsules is not possible. Losec was also indicated for use before surgery to prevent acid aspiration (acid moving from the gullet into the lungs during anaesthesia, causing pneumonia). The CHMP recommended that this indication be removed as the studies presented by the company did not show an improved effectiveness when compared with placebo (a dummy treatment). When used as an OTC medicine, the CHMP recommended that the indication be the treatment of reflux symptoms (e. g. heartburn, acid regurgitation) in adults.

4.2 Posology and method of administration The way the medicine is taken has been harmonised, clarifying the starting doses and maintenance doses for all the recommended indications. The information on how to handle administration in patients who cannot swallow the tablets and capsules has also been harmonised. The Committee noted that there were differences between Member States regarding the use of Losec in H. pylori eradication treatment, especially with regards to the number of antibiotics to combine with Losec (either one or two), and the recommended antibiotics and their doses. The CHMP acknowledged that the differences existed because of differences in the availability of, and pattern of resistance to, various antibiotics between Member States. The final agreed wording describes some possible combinations.

4.3 Contra-indications The CHMP also agreed on a harmonised wording for the contra-indications (situations where the medicine must not be used). Losec must not be used in people who are allergic to omeprazole or to any other ingredients in the medicine, and in people being treated with nelfinavir.

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use Co-administration of atazanavir with a PPI such as Losec is not recommended. However, if the combination of atazanavir with a PPI is judged unavoidable, close clinical monitoring (e. g. virus load) is recommended while high doses of PPI should be avoided. The Committee also recommended that, as a precaution, use of Losec in patients receiving clopidogrel should be discouraged. The CHMP also included a warning that treatment with Losec and other PPIs may lead to an increase in infections of the gut.

4.5 Interactions with other medicinal products The CHMP noted that, due to interactions, the concomitant use of PPIs may affect the efficacy of atazanavir and other HIV medications whose absorption is pH-dependent. The CHMP also noted that there was some interaction with clopidogrel, but the clinical implications of this is not clear.

Other changes The CHMP harmonised the SmPC sections on pregnancy and lactation, the ability to drive and use machines, undesirable effects and overdose.

The amended information to doctors and patients is available under the "All documents" tabs.

The European Commission issued a decision on 10 June 2010.

Questions and answers (Q&A) - easy-to-understand summary of key issues and Committee conclusions

Summary of Opinion - contains the CHMP opinion of the referred medicine(s)

List of the medicines affected by the referral (Annex I)

Scientific conclusions of the Committee (Annex II)

The following two documents are sometimes available:

Changes to the summary of product characteristics, labeling or package leaflet (also known as Annex III) - available when changes have been recommended by the Committee

Conditions of the marketing authorisation (also known as Annex IV) - available when the Committee recommends measures to be taken for the marketing authorisation(s) such as safety measures or extra studies

Current status: European Commission final decision

More information on Losec

Send a question | About this website | Legal | Privacy | Complaints | Contacts | FAQs | Business hours and holidays | Glossary | Site map |

30 Churchill Place, Canary Wharf, London E14 5EU, United Kingdom. Tel. +44 (0)20 3660 6000. Fax +44 (0)20 3660 5555

Evalith™ - The New Brand From Johns Manville Europe For The Nonwovens Business, Efalith

Evalith™ - The New Brand from Johns Manville Europe for the Nonwovens Business

Starting today, Johns Manville’s Nonwovens business segment will reduce its various brand names to a new single brand name, Evalith™ . The name comes from the Latin word "evalidus", which means "very strong". The company chose Evalith™ to represent the strength of its products with respect to quality, product characteristics and their versatile application fields – from glass fiber reinforced roofing membranes to air filtration.

About Johns Manville Johns Manville, a Berkshire Hathaway company (NYSE: BRK. A, BRK. B), is a leading manufacturer and marketer of premium-quality building and specialty products. In business since 1858, the Denver-based company has annual sales of approximately $2.5 billion and holds leadership positions in all of the key markets that it serves. Johns Manville employs approximately 6,600 people and operates 40 manufacturing facilities in North America, Europe and China. Additional information can be found at www. jmeurope. com and www. jm. com .

© Johns Manville. A Berkshire Hathaway Company

Situs Nama Obat Nilaren Tablet, Nilaren

Nilaren Tablet salut enterik 25 mg x 50 biji, Informasi obat kali ini akan menjelaskan jenis obat reumatisme, artritis reumatoid, osteoartritis, yang diantaranya menjelaskan dosis obat, komposisi atau kandungan obat, manfaat atau kegunaan dan khasiat atau dalam bahasa medis indikasi, aturan pakai Nilaren, cara minum/makan atau cara menggunakannya, juga akan menerangkan efek samping atau kerugian, pantangan atau kontra indikasi serta bahayanya, over dosis atau keracunan, dan farmakologi serta meknisme kerja dan harga dari obat Nilaren, dan inilah penjelasannya:

Na Diklofenak / Diclofenac .

Bentuk degeneratif peradangan reumatisme, artritis reumatoid, osteoartritis, ankylosing spondylitis, & spondyloartritis.

Ulkus peptikum, hipersensitivitas terhadap Aspirin, obat-obat lain yang menghambat sintetase prostaglandin.

Penyakit saluran pencernaan, ulkus peptikum, gangguan fungsi hati, jantung, atau ginjal.

Hamil dan menyusui, anak berusia kurang dari 6 tahun.

Gangguan saluran pencernaan.

Jarang. ulkus lambung atau usus, udem, ruam kulit, gatal-gatal, sakit kepala, pusing, vertigo.

INDEKS KEAMANAN PADA WANITA HAMIL

Baik penelitian reproduksi hewan tidak menunjukkan risiko pada janin maupun penelitian terkendali pada wanita hamil atau hewan coba tidak memperlihatkan efek merugikan (kecuali penurunan kesuburan) dimana tidak ada penelitian terkendali yang mengkonfirmasi risiko pada wanita hamil semester pertama (dan tidak ada bukti risiko pada trisemester selanjutnya).

Tablet salut enterik 25 mg x 50 biji.

Lomper Comp, Lomper

LOMPER Comp. 100 mg

Se desconoce si mebendazol/metabolitos se excreta en la leche materna. Por este motivo, se debe tener precaución al administrar a mujeres lactantes.

Categoria

En estudios animales ha producido daño fetal y no hay estudios adecuados en mujeres embarazadas. O bien, no se han realizado estudios en animales ni en humanos. Sólo debe administrarse en el embarazo si el beneficio justifica el riesgo potencial.

Mebendazol

Mebendazol ha mostrado actividad embriotóxica y teratogénica en ratas y ratones a dosis únicas orales. No se han observado efectos perjudiciales para la reproducción en otras especies de animales probadas. Se deben valorar los posibles riesgos asociados con la prescripción de mebendazol durante el embarazo, especialmente durante el primer trimestre, frente a los beneficios terapéuticos esperados.

Envases

Env. con 6

Dispensación sujeta a prescripción médica

Fi . Medicamento incluido en la financiación del SNS

Facturable SNS: SI

Comercializado: Si

Situación: Alta

Código Nacional: 654256

Mebendazol

En estudios animales ha producido daño fetal y no hay estudios adecuados en mujeres embarazadas. O bien, no se han realizado estudios en animales ni en humanos. Sólo debe administrarse en el embarazo si el beneficio justifica el riesgo potencial.

Mecanismo de acción Mebendazol

Antihelmíntico de amplio espectro que posee una acción helminticida, larvicida y ovicida.

Indicaciones terapéuticas Mebendazol

Parasitosis intestinales, tanto simples como mixtas: enterobiasis (oxiuriasis), trichuriasis, ascariasis, anquilostomiasis, necatoriasis.

Posología Mebendazol

Oral. Oxiuriasis: dosis única de 100 mg, repetir al cabo de 2-4 sem. Trichuriasis, ascariasis, anquilostomiasis, necatoriasis o infecciones mixtas: 100 mg 2 veces/día, 3 días. Ajustar dosis en tto. con cimetidina.

Contraindicaciones Mebendazol

Advertencias y precauciones Mebendazol

Evitar en tto. concomitante con metronidazol, riesgo de síndrome Stevens-Johnson/necrólisis epidérmica tóxica; no recomendado en < 2 años (riesgo de convulsiones).

Interacciones Mebendazol

Véase Prec. además: Concentración plasmática aumentada por: cimetidina.

Embarazo Mebendazol

Mebendazol ha mostrado actividad embriotóxica y teratogénica en ratas y ratones a dosis únicas orales. Valorar riesgo/beneficio sobre todo en 1<exp>er<exp> trimestre.

Lactancia Mebendazol

Se desconoce si mebendazol/metabolitos se excreta en la leche materna. Por este motivo, se debe tener precaución al administrar a mujeres lactantes.

Reacciones adversas Mebendazol

Fuente: Monografía propiedad editorial de Vidal Vademecum

Nifedin - Tocolytic Agents, Vasodilator Agents, Calcium Channel Blockers, Dihydropyridines, Atc C08c

Nifedin

Capsule; Tablet; Tablet (extended-release)

Nifedin Indication

For the management of vasospastic angina, chronic stable angina and hypertension.

Nifedin Pharmacology

Nifedipine, the prototype of the dihydropyridine class of calcium-channel antagonists, is similar to other dihydropyridines including amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, and nicardipine. Nifedipine is used to treat Prinzmetal's angina, hypertension, and other vascular disorders such as Raynaud's phenomenon. By blocking the calcium channels, Nifedipine inhibits the spasm of the coronary artery and dilates the systemic arteries, results in a increase of myocardial oxygen supply and a decrease in systemic blood pressure.

Nifedin Absorption

Rapidly and fully absorbed following oral administration.

Nifedin side effects and Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, severe drop in blood pressure, slurred speech, and weakness. LD 50 =494 mg/kg (orally in mice); LD 50 =1022 mg/kg (orally in rats)

Nifedin Patient Information

Nifedin Organisms Affected

Lidoject 1 Side Effects In Detail, Lidoject

Lidoject 1 Side Effects

For the Consumer

Applies to lidocaine: intradermal powder

In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1). In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.

If any of the following side effects occur while taking lidocaine, check with your doctor or nurse immediately:

More common:

Flushing or redness of the skin

itching skin

small red or purple spots on the skin

unusually warm skin

Less common:

Bruising, bleeding, burning, swelling, or pain at the application site

Minor Side Effects

Some of the side effects that can occur with lidocaine may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to lidocaine: compounding powder, injectable solution, intravenous solution

General

The overall incidence of adverse side effects of lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) in a study of 750 patients was 6.3%. Adverse drug reactions were more common in patients with acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and liver disease. In another large study of 285 patients with suspected or documented acute myocardial infarction who received prophylactic intravenous lidocaine, more adverse events occurred in patients who received drug versus patients who received placebo. The most adverse events were recorded within the first hour of therapy in patients who eventually proved not to have myocardial infarction. Adverse events were not necessarily correlated with high lidocaine levels. [Ref ]

Adverse side effects of lidocaine may be more likely and more severe in patients with liver disease. [Ref ]

Cardiovascular

An 84-year-old man with ischemic congestive heart failure, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and incomplete left bundle branch block developed sinus bradycardia, then asystole within five minutes after beginning a lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) 100 mg bolus and 2 mg per min infusion. Atropine was initially unsuccessful, but normal sinus rhythm resumed after approximately 20 seconds. Serum electrolytes were within normal limits at the time; arterial pO2 was not reported. A follow-up 24-hour ambulatory ECG failed to demonstrate evidence of AV heart block or bradyarrhythmias. [Ref ]

Cardiovascular side effects occur in 2% of patients. Serious cardiovascular problems include hypotension, bradycardia which may lead to cardiac arrest, and cardiopulmonary arrest. Rare cases of asystole have been reported after lidocaine administration with and without other antiarrhythmic agents. Less commonly, negative inotropic activity, sinus node depression, torsades de pointes, and AV or His-Purkinje block have been reported. [Ref ]

Nervous system

Lidocaine toxicity often presents as nervous system side effects. Yawning, restlessness, excitement, agitation, dizziness, blurred vision or double vision, muscle twitching, confusion, tinnitus, drowsiness, vertigo, paresthesias, seizures, respiratory depression and arrest, Lightheadedness, apprehension, euphoria, sensation of heat, cold or numbness, twitching, tremors, convulsions, and unconsciousness have been reported. Rare cases of seizures following topical or subcutaneous administration of lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) have been reported. Transient neurologic symptoms have been reported following intrathecal lidocaine. [Ref ]

Toxicity is usually associated with serum lidocaine concentrations of 9 to 10 mcg per mL, but may occur with concentrations as low as 5 mcg/mL. Central nervous system toxicity has been observed in patients with hepatic cirrhosis who were receiving lidocaine at infusion rates as low as 2.2 to 2.5 mg per min.

Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS), characterized as a symptom complex of acute onset low back pain with transient radiating pain into the buttocks and lower extremities, have been associated with the use of intrathecal hyperbaric lidocaine. TNS typically occurs within 24 hours after spinal anesthesia and resolves within 1 week without lasting sequelae. TNS has been reported in up to 40% of patients receiving intrathecal lidocaine; however, in at least two studies involving obstetric patients undergoing cesarean section or postpartum tubal ligation, the incidence of TNS did not exceed 3% following use of hyperbaric lidocaine 5%. Some practitioners consider TNS a minor manifestation of the cauda equine syndrome. It is thought that patient position may be a contributing factor to the development of TNS. [Ref ]

Gastrointestinal

Nausea and vomiting are common gastrointestinal symptoms of lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) toxicity. [Ref ]

Hypersensitivity

A previously healthy 27-year-old woman, pre-Cesarean section, with a history of possible hypersensitivity to bupivacaine developed tongue tingling, faintness, and nausea associated with hypotension 25 minutes after receiving bupivacaine as local anesthesia for an epidural catheter. She became progressively erythematous, pruritic, and edematous. The patient responded well to fluids, oxygen, a sympathomimetic, antihistamines, and corticosteroids. The neonate, born after emergency Cesarean section, was limp, cyanotic, edematous, and required mechanical ventilation secondary to pulmonary edema. Follow-up investigations in the mother revealed moderately raised total plasma IgE levels and positive intradermal wheal formation to 2% lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) [Ref ]

Hypersensitivity reactions are rare. Anaphylaxis, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cardiovascular collapse have been associated with the use of lidocaine, and have occasionally resulted in death. Cases of angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, and urticaria following local anesthesia with lidocaine have been reported. Contact dermatitis associated with lidocaine has been described in chemical and health care workers. Patients with a history of an allergic reaction to local amide-type anesthetics may react to lidocaine. Delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to lidocaine have also been reported. [Ref ]

Psychiatric

Psychiatric reactions have been associated with lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) toxicity. Several case reports of acute psychosis associated with lidocaine infusions have been reported. It is not clear from the case reports whether these reactions were associated with therapeutic or toxic serum levels of lidocaine. [Ref ]

Several cases of acute and reversible psychoses have been reported in several patients, most of whom were in their sixth decade of life or older and who were receiving intravenous lidocaine. [Ref ]

Hematologic

Hematologic abnormalities associated with lidocaine (the active ingredient contained in Lidoject 1) have been limited to rare reports of significant increases in methemoglobin levels during lidocaine infusions. These increases are usually not clinically significant, however, at least one case of acute topical benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia of 29% has been reported. [Ref ]

References

1. Morganroth J, Panidis IP, Harley S, et al "Efficacy and safety of intravenous tocainide compared with intravenous lidocaine for acute ventricular arrhythmias immediately after cardiac surgery." Am J Cardiol 54 (1984): 1253-8

2. Bryant CA, Hoffman JR, Nichter LS "Pitfalls and perils of intravenous lidocaine." West J Med 139 (1983): 528-30

3. Routledge PA, Shand DG, Barchowsky A, et al "Relationship between a1-acid glycoprotein and lidocaine disposition in myocardial infarction." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 154-7

4. Gottlieb SS, Packer M "Deleterious hemodynamic effects of lidocaine in severe congestive heart failure." Am Heart J 118 (1989): 611-2

5. Nattel S, Arenal A "Antiarrhythmic prophylaxis after acute myocardial infarction. Is lidocaine still useful?" Drugs 45 (1993): 9-14

6. Pfeifer HJ, Greenblatt DJ, Koch-Weser J "Clinical use and toxicity of intravenous lidocaine." Am Heart J 92 (1976): 168-73

7. Ronnevik PK, Gundersen T, Abrahamsen AM "Tolerability and antiarrhythmic efficacy of disopyramide compared to lignocaine in selected patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction." Eur Heart J 8 (1987): 19-24

8. Applebaum D, Halperin E "Asystole following a conventional therapeutic dose of lidocaine." Am J Emerg Med 4 (1986): 143-5

9. Halkin H, Meffin P, Melmon KL, Rowland M "Influence of congestive heart failure on blood levels of lidocaine and its active monodeethylated metabolite." Clin Pharmacol Ther 17 (1975): 669-76

10. Raehl CL, Patel AK, LeRoy M "Drug-induced torsade de pointes." Clin Pharm 4 (1985): 675-90

11. Rademaker AW, Kellen J, Tam YK, Wyse DG "Character of adverse effects of prophylactic lidocaine in the coronary care unit." Clin Pharmacol Ther 40 (1986): 71-80

12. Tagliente TM, Jayagopal S "Transient left bundle branch block following lidocaine." Anesth Analg 69 (1989): 545-7

13. Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Destache CJ "Lidocaine-induced second-degree mobitz type II heart block." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 669-73

14. Collinsworth KA, Kalman SM, Harrison DC "The clinical pharmacology of lidocaine as an antiarrhythmic drug." Circulation 50 (1974): 1217-30

15. Rothman MT "Prolonged QT interval, atrioventricular block, and torsade de pointes after antiarrhythmic therapy." Br Med J 280 (1980): 922-3

16. Keidar S, Grenadier E, Palant A "Sinoatrial arrest due to lidocaine injection in sick sinus syndrome during amiodarone administration." Am Heart J 104 (1982): 1384-5

17. Demczuk RJ "Significant sinus bradycardia following intravenous lidocaine injection." Anesthesiology 60 (1984): 69-70

18. Nikolic G "Lidocaine bradycardia." Heart Lung 13 (1984): 290-1

19. Grothe DR, Sunderland T, Vitiello B, et al "Supersensitivity to subcutaneous lidocaine ." Clin Pharm 9 (1990): 338

20. Luntley JB, Van Hasselt G "Topical lignocaine: toxic lignocaine ." Anaesthesia 45 (1990): 61-2

21. Burkart F "Value and risk of class i and III antiarrhythmic drugs." Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 17 (1994): 467-72

22. Grenadier E, Alpan G, Keidar S, Palant A "Respiratory and cardiac arrest after the administration of lidocaine into the central venous system." Eur Heart J 2 (1981): 235-7

23. Gianelly R, von der Groeben JO, Spivack AP, Harrison DC "Effect of lidocaine on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary heart disease." N Engl J Med 277 (1967): 1215-9

24. Aouad MT, Siddik SS, Jalbout MI, Baraka AS "Does pregnancy protect against intrathecal lidocaine-induced transient neurologic symptoms?." Anesth Analg 92 (2001): 401-4

25. Aaron H "Lidocaine (xylocaine) as an anti-arrhythmic agent." Med Lett Drugs Ther 13 (1971): 1-4

26. Wu FL, Razzaghi A, Souney PF "Seizure after lidocaine for bronchoscopy: case report and review of the use of lidocaine in airway anesthesia." Pharmacotherapy 13 (1993): 72-8

27. Ryan CA, Robertson M, Coe JY "Seizures due to lidocaine toxicity in a child during cardiac catheterization." Pediatr Cardiol 14 (1993): 116-8

28. Sundaram MB "Seizures after intraurethral instillation of lidocaine." Can Med Assoc J 137 (1987): 219-20

29. Selden R "Systemic use of lidocaine." N Engl J Med 278 (1968): 626

30. Fortuna A, Fortuna AO "Convulsion during lignocaine infiltration." Anaesth Intensive Care 21 (1993): 483

31. Schneider M, Ettlin T, Kaufmann M, Schumacher P, Urwyler A, Hampl K, von Hochstetter A "Transient neurologic toxicity after hyperbaric subarachnoid anesthesia with 5% lidocaine." Anesth Analg 76 (1993): 1154-7

32. Johnson ME "Potential neurotoxicity of spinal anesthesia with lidocaine." Mayo Clin Proc 75 (2000): 921-32

33. Crabb IJ, Allan L "Opisthotonus and hysteria." Anaesthesia 48 (1993): 445-6

34. Crampton RS, Oriscello RG "Petit and grand mal convulsions during lidocaine hydrochloride treatment of ventricular tachycardia." JAMA 204 (1968): 109-12

35. Schneider MC, Birnbach DJ "Lidocaine neurotoxicity in the obstetric patient: Is the water safe?." Anesth Analg 92 (2001): 287-90

36. Philip J, Sharma SK, Gottumukkala VNR, Perez BJ, Slaymaker EA, Wiley J "Transient neurologic symptoms after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine in obstetric patients." Anesth Analg 92 (2001): 405-9

37. Pelter MA, Vollmer TA, Blum RL "Seizure-like reaction associated with subcutaneous lidocaine injection ." Clin Pharm 8 (1989): 767-8

38. Carr TW "Severe allergic reaction to an intraurethral lignocaine preparation containing parabens preservatives." Br J Urol 66 (1990): 98

39. Duggan M, Burns D, Henry M, Mitchell T "Reaction to topical lignocaine in a patient with contact dermatitis." Contact Dermatitis 28 (1993): 190-1

40. Rooke NT, Milne B "Acute pulmonary edema after regional anesthesia with lidocaine and epinephrine in a patient with chronic renal failure." Anesth Analg 63 (1984): 363-4

41. Curley RK, Macfarlane AW, King CM "Contact sensitivity to the amide anesthetics lidocaine, prilocaine, and mepivacaine: case report and review of the literature." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 924-6

42. Bircher AJ, Messmer SL, Surber C, Rufli T "Delayed-type hypersensitivity to subcutaneous lidocaine with tolerance to articaine: confirmation by in vivo and in vitro tests." Contact Dermatitis 34 (1996): 387-9

43. Promisloff RA, DuPont DC "Death from ARDS and cardiovascular collapse following lidocaine administration ." Chest 83 (1983): 585

44. Ruffles SP, Gayres JG "Fatal bronchospasm after topical lignocaine before bronchoscopy." Br Med J 294 (1987): 1658-9

45. Chin TM, Fellner MJ "Allergic hypersensitivity to lidocaine hydrochloride." Int J Dermatol 19 (1980): 147-8

46. Barer MR, McAllen MK "Hypersensitivity to local anaesthetics: a direct challenge test with lignocaine for definitive diagnosis." Br Med J 284 (1982): 1229-30

47. Woelke BJ, Tucker RA "ARDS after local lidocaine administration ." Chest 83 (1983): 933-4

48. Bricker SR, Raitt DG "Angioneurotic oedema following etomidate/lignocaine ." Anaesthesia 42 (1987): 323-4

49. Kennedy KS, Cave RH "Anaphylactic reaction to lidocaine." Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112 (1986): 671-3

50. Handfield-Jones SE, Cronin E "Contact sensitivity to lignocaine." Clin Exp Dermatol 18 (1993): 342-3

51. Klein CE, Gall H "Type IV allergy to amide-type local anesthetics." Contact Dermatitis 25 (1991): 45-8

52. Howard JJ, Mohsenifar Z, Simons SM "Adult respiratory distress syndrome following administration of lidocaine." Chest 81 (1982): 644-5

53. Jackson D, Chen AH, Bennet CR "Identifying true lidocaine allergy." J Am Dent Assoc 125 (1994): 1362-6

54. Zimmerman J, Rachmilewitz D "Systemic anaphylactic reaction following lidocaine administration ." Gastrointest Endosc 31 (1985): 404-5

55. Whalen JD, Dufresne RG "Delayed-type hypersensitivity after subcutaneous administration of amide anesthetic." Arch Dermatol 132 (1996): 1256-7

56. Thomas AD, Caunt JA "Anaphylactoid reaction following local anaesthesia for epidural block." Anaesthesia 48 (1993): 50-2

57. Mackley CL, Marks JG Jr, Anderson BE "Delayed-type hypersensitivity to lidocaine." Arch Dermatol 139 (2003): 343-6

58. Saravay SM, Marke J, Steinberg MD, Rabiner CJ ""Doom anxiety" and delirium in lidocaine toxicity." Am J Psychiatry 144 (1987): 159-63

59. Turner WM "Lidocaine and psychotic reactions ." Ann Intern Med 97 (1982): 149-50

60. Weiss LD, Generalovich T, Heller MB, et al "Methemoglobin levels following intravenous lidocaine administration." Ann Emerg Med 16 (1987): 323-5

61. O'Donohue WJ Jr, Moss LM, Angelillo VA "Acute methemoglobinemia induced by topical benzocaine and lidocaine." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 1508-9

Not all side effects for Lidoject 1 may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here .

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