Blavin, Blavin

Blavin Scholars

Hilary graduated with her bachelor's degree in social work from the University of Nebraska at Omaha. After earning her degree, Hilary served as an AmeriCorps member for two years, coaching a cohort of students through the college preparation, admission, and entrance process. She then managed programming in three high schools. Hilary is excited to return to school and work toward earning her Masters in Social Work from the University of Michigan.

Director, Blavin Scholars Program

Miriam Connolly, LMSW, is Director of the Blavin Scholars Program and Campus Coach. In her coaching role, Miriam partners one-on-one with Blavin Scholars to help them navigate and maximize their experience at the University of Michigan.

Outreach and Recruitment Coordinator & DHHS Liaison

Emily Hurtado-Arboleda, is the Outreach and Recruitment Coordinator & Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Liaison with the Blavin Scholars Program. In her role, Emily conducts outreach and recruitment events for students who have experienced time in foster care and other key partners who support their success such as K-12 counselors and teachers, caseworkers, foster parents, community agencies, and care providers.

Leonora received her BA from the University of Michigan in Psychology and is now in her second year as a graduate student at the School of Social Work. Leonora is focusing on mental health and the well-being of college students. After graduation, she would like to continue to work in a higher education setting, specifically with disadvantaged and at-risk students.

Campus Coach & Volunteer Program Coordinator

Amy Miller is a Campus Coach with the Blavin Scholars Program. In her role, Amy partners one ­ on ­ one with Blavin Scholars to help them navigate and maximize their experience at the University of Michigan. Amy supports the Blavin Scholars Program in implementing educational workshops and social programming and leads the Blavin Volunteer Program. Amy’s staffing support to the Blavin Scholars Program is provided as in kind support from the Washtenaw County Department of Health and Human Services for .5 FTE.

Campus Coach & Mentor Program Coordinator

Blaire Tinker, M. Ed. is a Campus Coach with the Blavin Scholars Program. In her role, Blaire partners one-on-one with Blavin Scholars to help them navigate and maximize their experience at the University of Michigan. Blaire supports the Blavin Scholars Program in implementing educational workshops and social programming and leads the Blavin Mentor Program. Blaire's strengths in this role come from her experiences with specialized student populations in need of developing successful life skills and strategies.

Blavin Scholars

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Zipporah - All The Women Of The Bible - Bible Gateway, Zofora

BibleGateway

Zipporah

The Woman Who Wrongly Opposed Her Husband

Name Meaning — A Midian name, Zipporah means “a little bird,” “a sparrow.” Wilkinson observes that “the feminine termination ah added to the common word Zippor, which is also the father of Balak, king of Moab.” Such a name like “dove” or “lamb” would originally be a term of endearment, and thus the word passer &--;“a sparrow”—is used by the Roman poets. Passer is also being found as a Roman family name. The root of this word is an Arabic verb, signifying “to chirp.”

Family Connections — Zipporah was one of the seven daughters of Jethro who is also called Reuel and Raguel ( Exodus 2:18 ; 4:24. 25 ; 18:1-6 ; Numbers 10:29 ). It was to the home of this shepherd-priest in Midian that Moses came when at forty years of age he fled from Egypt, and meeting the seven girls drawing water Moses assisted them. Arriving home earlier than usual they told how the Egyptian had helped them. Brought up as a son of Pharaoh, Moses must have looked every inch a cultured Egyptian. Invited home, Moses was content to live with Jethro’s family, and married Zipporah, eldest of the seven daughters. Two sons were born of the union, Gershom and Eliezer. Some writers affirm, without adequate support, that the dark-skinned Ethiopian, “the Cushite woman” whom Miriam and Aaron were jealous over, is merely a description of Zipporah, and that therefore Moses was only married once. But the statement “He had married an Ethiopian woman” implies a recent occurrence, and that Zipporah, whom Moses had married 40 years previously, was dead. It is most unlikely that Miriam and Aaron would have waited all those years to murmur against Moses if Zipporah and the Ethiopian had been one and the same woman.

Zipporah, as a woman of Midian, did not share the spiritual values of her notable husband who found himself acting against the sacred tradition of Israel. This may be one reason why he named his second son Eliezer, meaning “The Lord of my father was my help.” To keep the peace, Moses compromised with his unbelieving wife and withheld circumcision, the sign of God’s covenant, from Eliezer. The Lord intervened, and as a sign of divine displeasure, Moses is stricken with a mortal disease. Both Zipporah and Moses became conscience-stricken over the profanation of God’s covenant, and Zipporah yields. Moses is too prostrate to take a knife and circumcize the child, so his wife severed the boy’s foreskin and, throwing it down before Moses said, “Surely a bloody husband art thou to me.”

When Moses was restored to health relations in the home were not congenial, for he went on alone to Egypt, and Zipporah and the two sons went back to her home in Midian. Of this unhappy incident Alexander Whyte says, “There are three most obscure and most mysterious verses in Moses' history that mean, if they mean anything at all to us, just such an explosion of ill-temper as must have left its mark till death on the heart of Moses and Zipporah. The best of wives; his help meet given him of God; the most self-effacing of women; the wife who holds her husband in her heart as the wisest and best of men &--;under sufficient trial and provocation and exasperation, even she will turn and will strike with just one word; just once in her whole married lifetime.”

When Moses became the mighty leader and law-giver of Israel, there was the episode when Jethro, his father-in-law came out to the wilderness to see Moses and brought with him Zipporah and the two sons. The union was devoid of any restraint for Moses graciously received them and neither disowned nor ignored his wife and sons. But after this visit during which Jethro gave his over-burdened son-in-law some very practical advice, nothing more is said of Zipporah. She disappears without comment from the history of the Jewish people in which her husband figured so prominently. “Neither as the wife of her husband nor as the mother of her children did she leave behind her a legacy of spiritual riches.” How different it would have been if only she had fully shared her husband’s unusual meekness and godliness and, like him, left behind footprints in the sands of time!

Zipporah is far from being an inspiring character with which to end our alphabetical coverage of all the named women of the Bible. One could have wished for a nobler and more godly example of female biography as a fitting conclusion to this section of our study. Looking back over the large number of women whose names are recorded in Holy Writ we realize that taken together they represent all aspects of human nature—good, bad and indifferent. For the majority, they lived their lives as they passed through this short scene of trial into eternity, leaving little trace behind them. But as we have seen, others, by their character and history, have left their names engraved in the impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture, with their records serving as either warning signals where they were conspicuous for evil, or as shining examples of high endeavor, where their lives were lived as unto Him who created both male and female for His glory.

Whatever was thus written in former days was written for our instruction, that by [our steadfast and patient] endurance and the encouragement [drawn] from the Scriptures we might hold fast and cherish hope (Romans 15:4. Amplified Bible ).

© 1988 Zondervan. All Rights Reserved

Precios De Lonol Crema - Informaci - N Comercial, Lonol

Precios de Lonol crema

A continuación le presentamos precios de referencia, precio estimado, precios de lista o precios solicitados por compradores de Lonol crema. Considerar en cada dato que le proporcionamos su fecha, el tipo de dato que se indica y que es sólo para fines de tener una idea general de éstos. Si usted requiere un reporte más detallado o actualizado de Precio de Lonol crema, deje sus datos aquí.

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 1.75 USD / Litros

para 0 0 / Semanal. Condiciones: Quito, Ecuador

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 16-Mar-2016 a 16-Abr-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 10000 MXP / Piezas

para 0 0 / Única vez. Condiciones: ecatepec, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 09-Mar-2016 a 09-Abr-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 1.5 VEB / Galón

para 0 0 / Mensual. Condiciones: Lagunillas, Venezuela

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 08-Feb-2016 a 08-Mar-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 10 MXP / Cajas

para 0 0 / Mensual. Condiciones: zapopan, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 06-Feb-2016 a 06-Mar-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 42 MXP / Frascos

para 0 0 / Única vez. Condiciones: tezoyuca, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 03-Feb-2016 a 03-Mar-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 250 MXP / Gramos

para 0 0 / Mensual. Condiciones: Cuahutemoc, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 03-Feb-2016 a 03-Mar-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 2000 COP / Cajas

para 0 0 / Para pruebas. Condiciones: cartagena, Colombia

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 24-Ene-2016 a 24-Feb-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 1000 VEB / Piezas

para 0 0 / Única vez. Condiciones: Caracas, Venezuela

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 18-Ene-2016 a 18-Feb-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 5 USD / Frascos

para 0 0 / Diario. Condiciones: Loja, Ecuador

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 17-Dic-2015 a 17-Ene-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 29.75 MXP / Cajas

para 0 0 / Quincenal. Condiciones: huichapan, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 15-Dic-2015 a 15-Ene-2016

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 200 MXP / Frascos

para 0 0 / Anual. Condiciones: gral. Escobedo, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 29-Nov-2015 a 29-Dic-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 2.25 USD / Frascos

para 0 0 / Semanal. Condiciones: Managua, Nicaragua

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 10-Nov-2015 a 10-Dic-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 35 MXP / Piezas

para 0 0 / Semestral. Condiciones: culiacan, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 08-Nov-2015 a 08-Dic-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 4000 CLP / Gramos

para 0 0 / Trimestral. Condiciones: frutillar, Chile

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 25-Oct-2015 a 25-Nov-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 5200 COP / Libras

para 0 0 / Para pruebas. Condiciones: COGUA, Colombia

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 23-Oct-2015 a 23-Nov-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 0.25 USD / Kilogramos

para 0 0 / Bimestral. Condiciones: Guatemala, Guatemala

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 15-Oct-2015 a 15-Nov-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 38 MXP / Kilogramos

para 0 0 / Mensual. Condiciones: HERMOSILLO, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 05-Oct-2015 a 05-Nov-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 200 ARS / Frascos

para 0 0 / Diario. Condiciones: Cordoba, Argentina

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 03-Oct-2015 a 03-Nov-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 70 MXP / Galón

para 0 0 / Quincenal. Condiciones: ensenada, México

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 11-Sep-2015 a 11-Oct-2015

Precio estimado de Lonol crema 1.5 USD / Kilogramos

para 0 0 / Mensual. Condiciones: Guatemala, Guatemala

Un usuario de QuimiNet. com Fecha de validez: 08-Sep-2015 a 08-Oct-2015

Flumil, Flumil

Cada 100 mL contienen: Acetilcisteína 2 g; excipientes c. s.p.

Cada 5 mL (1/2 vaso medidor) contiene: Acetilcisteína 100 mg; excipientes c. s.p.

ACCIÓN FARMACOLÓGICA: FLUIMUCIL® fluidifica las secreciones y favorece la expectoración por no interferir en el mecanismo de la tos productiva. Este efecto fluidificante se manifiesta 3 a 4 horas después de haber sido administrado. La acción mucolítica de FLUIMUCIL®, derivado del aminoácido natural cisteína, se ejerce mediante un mecanismo de acción fisicoquímico atribuible a la presencia de una molécula de un grupo sulfihidrilo libre que interactúa con los enlaces S-S de las cadenas mucoproteicas provocando su separación y determinando la disminución de su viscosidad. Estudios realizados en el hombre, con N-acetilcisteína marcada, demostraron su buena absorción después de la administración oral. Los picos plasmáticos son alcanzados entre la 2. a y 3. a hora, ocurriendo que después de 5 horas de administración se detecten concentraciones significativas de N-acetilcisteína en el tejido pulmonar.

Estudios in vivo e in vitro certifican que la N-acetilcisteína tiene la capacidad de proteger las células pulmonares en contra el daño provocado por radicales oxidantes libres. La actividad de “barredor de oxidantes” la ejerce tanto directa como indirectamente, a través del mantenimiento y/o incremento de los niveles de glutatión, de la cual es precursora la N-acetilcisteína.

El conjunto de estas propiedades confiere a FLUIMUCIL® la capacidad de actuar positivamente sobre los estímulos tusígenos de tipo irritativo, sin interferir en la tos productiva.

También se ha sustentado que el glutatión y sus precursores protegen la función fagocitaria de la agresión oxidativa de macrófagos y neutrófilos, porque promueven la activación, proliferación y diferenciación de los linfocitos T, lo que conduce a postular que un incremento de los niveles de glutatión pueda desarrollar una función importante en los mecanismos de defensa inmunológica.

FLUIMUCIL® ejerce también acción protectora contra algunos de los daños provocados por el hábito de fumar (dejar de fumar es aun una medida más saludable). El medicamento, por ser derivado de un aminoácido natural, habitualmente es bien tolerado.

INDICACIONES: Bronquitis agudas, bronconeumonías; neumonías, traqueítis, traqueobronquitis y otros procesos infecciosos del aparato respiratorio.

Tratamiento preventivo y curativo de complicaciones derivadas del resfriado común y la gripe, tales como: Rinofaringitis, sinusitis, otitis, catarros, etc.; bronquitis crónica asmática o como consecuencia del uso de tabaco; prevención de las exacerbaciones de la bronquitis crónica; prevención y tratamiento de enfisema.

DOSIS Y VÍA DE ADMINISTRACIÓN

Vía de administración oral

– Hasta los tres meses: 1 mL, 3 veces al día.

– De 3 a 6 meses: 2,5 mL, 2 veces al día.

– De 6 a 12 meses: 2,5 mL, 3 veces al día

– De 1 a 4 años: 5 mL, 2 a 3 veces al día o según criterio del médico.

– Mayores de 4 años: 5 mL, 3 veces al día o según criterio del médico.

Adultos: 10 mL de jarabe cada ocho horas.

A criterio médico, las dosis antes indicadas pueden ser aumentadas hasta el doble.

• Pacientes ancianos: No hay problemas en administrar FLUIMUCIL® a pacientes ancianos si se siguen las instrucciones generales que se describen en el prospecto. Sin embargo, el tratamiento debe iniciarse con una dosis mínima.

Contraindicado en pacientes con historia de hipersensibilidad a los componentes de la fórmula.

Pacientes con úlcera gastroduodenal; pacientes asmáticos o con insuficiencia respiratoria grave, ya que puede incrementarse la obstrucción de las vías respiratorias.

Todavía no se conocen la intensidad y la frecuencia de las reacciones adversas.

Antes y después de ser abierto, el medicamento debe mantenerse alejado del calor y de la humedad. FLUIMUCIL® tiene una duración de dos años en la forma de jarabe. Luego de la abertura del frasco, el jarabe tiene validez por catorce días. No debe ser usado después de este plazo.

Informe a su médico en los siguientes casos:

• Embarazo durante el tratamiento o después de su finalización.

Aparición de reacciones desagradables durante el tratamiento.

• Si está usando medicamentos antes del inicio o durante el tratamiento.

Ninguna reportada a la fecha.

Se comprobó que la N-acetilcisteína, cuando se administra simultáneamente con las penicilinas semisintéticas favorece la obtención de niveles séricos más rápidos y más elevados. Sin embargo, se observó lo contrario con las cefalosporinas de primera generación.

TRATAMIENTO EN CASO DE SOBREDOSIS

No se observaron signos o síntomas especiales, incluso en pacientes tratados con dosis altas de N-acetilcisteína por vía oral. En caso de movilización intensa del moco y dificultad para la expectoración, se recurrirá al drenaje postural y/o a la broncoaspiración.

Caja con frasco de 30, 100, 120 y 150 mL con vasito medidor.

Mantener fuera del alcance de los niños.

Venta bajo receta médica.

Av. Gral. Juan A. Pezet 1970, Lima 17 – Perú Telefax: 264-3322, anexo 1316 E-mail: inf[email protected] com. pe

Bajo licencia de:

ZAMBON LABORATORIOS FARMACÉUTICOS LTDA.

Aurid, Aurid

Aurid

Important Notice: The Drugs. com international database is in BETA release. This means it is still under development and may contain inaccuracies. It is not intended as a substitute for the expertise and judgement of your physician, pharmacist or other healthcare professional. It should not be construed to indicate that the use of any medication in any country is safe, appropriate or effective for you. Consult with your healthcare professional before taking any medication.

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aurid

References in periodicals archive ?

Haddon (1935:88, 394) was informed that men from Aurid (Aureed Island), Massid (Yorke Island), Damut (Dalrymple Island) and Paremar (Coconut Island) in the Central Island group canoed up to 300km south to the Forbes Islands off the east coast of Cape York to quarry stone for the manufacture of club heads (Fig 1).

Furthermore, it is also consistent with Eastern Islanders moving into gabagaba production as Haddon (1935:88) reported that the Miriam-le (Murray Islanders) obtained '[Cape York] stones for clubs' from Aurid .

These articles were obtained by the Aurid [Awridh] men as well as by those of Masig, Damut [Dhamudh], and Paremar [Puruma], when they visited the islands off the east coast of North Queensland, particularly the Sir Charles Hardy group, and the Forbes Islands, whither they resorted every southeast season to live for a while and to barter.

auris

ear

the organ of hearing and equilibrium. (See Plates.) It is made up of the outer (external) ear, the middle ear, and the inner (internal) ear.

The outer ear consists of the auricle or pinna and the external acoustic meatus. The auricle collects sound waves and directs them to the external acoustic meatus; from there the waves travel through the external auditory canal to the eardrum (tympanic membrane ) .

The middle ear is separated from the outer ear by the eardrum. It contains the three ossicles. the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup), so called because of their resemblance to these objects. These three small bones form a chain across the middle ear from the eardrum to the oval window. The stapes causes a membrane in the oval window to vibrate, and the vibrations are transmitted to the inner ear. The middle ear is connected to the nasopharynx by the eustachian tube. through which the air pressure in the middle ear is equalized with the air pressure in the nose and throat. The middle ear is also connected with the cells in the mastoid bone just behind the outer ear. Two muscles attached to the ossicles contract when loud noises strike the tympanic membrane, limiting its vibration and thus protecting it and the inner ear from damage.

The inner ear (or labyrinth ) contains the cochlea. as well as the nerves that transmit sound to the brain. It also contains the semicircular canals. which are essential to the sense of equilibrium .

When a sound strikes the ear it causes the tympanic membrane to vibrate. The ossicles function as levers, amplifying the motion of the tympanic membrane, and passing the vibrations on to the cochlea. From there the vestibulocochlear (eighth cranial) nerve transmits the vibrations, translated into nerve impulses, to the auditory center in the brain.

Diseases of the Ear. Infections and inflammations of the ear include otomycosis. a fungal infection of the outer ear; otitis media. infection of the middle ear; and mastoiditis. an infection of the mastoid cells. deafness may result from infection or from other causes such as old age, injury to the ear, hereditary factors, or conditions such as otosclerosis. Disorders of equilibrium may be caused by imperfect functioning of the semicircular canals or from labyrinthitis. an inflammation of the inner ear. M enière's disease. believed to result from dilatation of the lymphatic channels in the cochlea, may also cause disturbances in balance.

Surgery of the Ear. Surgical procedures on the ear usually are indicated for chronic infection or hearing loss. An exception is myringotomy. incision of the tympanic membrane, which is sometimes necessary to relieve pressure behind the eardrum and allow for drainage from an inflammatory process in the middle ear. Surgical procedures involving plastic reconstruction of the small bones of the middle ear are extremely delicate and have been made possible by the development of special instruments and technical equipment. stapedectomy and tympanoplasty are examples of this type of surgery, which has done much to preserve hearing that would otherwise be lost as a result of infectious destruction or sclerosis. Inner ear implants are now being performed to improve hearing in patients who have severe sensorineural hearing loss. Other surgical techniques for sensorineural hearing loss are in the developmental stage.

Patient Care. Care following surgery of the ear is aimed at preventing infection and promoting the comfort of the patient. Since the ear is so close to the brain, it is extremely important to avoid introducing pathogenic organisms into the operative site. The external ear and surrounding skin must be kept scrupulously clean. If the patient's hair is long it should be braided or arranged so that it does not come in contact with the patient's ear and side of the face. Aseptic technique must be used in all procedures carried out immediately before and after surgery.ƒ

The patient should be instructed to avoid nose blowing, especially after surgery, when there is a possibility that such an action can alter pressure within the ear. Observation of the patient after surgery of the ear includes assessing function of the facial nerve; evidence of dysfunction could include inability to wrinkle the forehead, close the eyes, pucker the lips, or bare the teeth. Any sign of facial nerve damage should be reported to the surgeon. vertigo is another common occurrence after surgery of the ear; it is usually only temporary and will subside as the operative site heals. The patient with vertigo requires special protective measures such as side rails and support when out of bed, so as to avoid falls or other accidental injuries.

Most surgeons prefer that the dressings around the ear not be changed during the immediate postoperative period. Should excessive drainage require more dressings, these can be applied over the basic dressing. Any drainage should be noted and recorded, with excessive drainage reported immediately to the surgeon. (See also care of the patient with hearing loss .)

Anatomical features of the external ear. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2002.

Structures of the middle ear.

Advice Issued On Antidepressant Use, Gerozac

Advice issued on antidepressant use

by Fergal Bowers

While certain antidepressant medicines are not licensed for children in Ireland, doctors here can prescribe them for patients under their care if it is deemed right, according to the regulatory authority, the Irish Medicines Board.

The IMB was commenting in response to the decision of the British government to ban the prescribing of SSRIs (a class of antidepressant drugs) for children because there is evidence that some of these medicines may cause people under 18 years of age to become suicidal.

The IMB said that SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) are not recommended for use in the treatment of major depressive disorder in children in Ireland as the risks of treatment with certain SSRIs are considered to outweigh the benefits of treatment in this condition.

?We recommend strongly that patients taking SSRIs do not suddenly discontinue use of the drug, because of the risk of withdrawal effects. Any changes must take place under medical supervision?, Dr Joan Gilvarry of the IMB advised.

Some medicines such as sertraline (Lustral) and fluvoxamine (Faverin) are licensed for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents as the balance of risk versus benefit has been shown to be positive in this condition.

The IMB said that it would continue to monitor the quality, safety and efficacy of SSRIs and initiate any further regulatory action deemed necessary.

Comments

Ken(tormek) - 17/12/2003 09:21

Came of Cypramil recently - its a type of SSRI - I found it very difficult when I came off the drug eventhough I did so very gradually. I think it would have been much worse to go from full dosage to no dosage overnight. My advice is to do it very gradually and take regular exercise to counter the effects of coming off the drug. It worked for me.

Anonymous - 17/12/2003 15:10

I suffer from atrial fibrillation for which I take cordorone/amodorone and started Cipramil 2 months ago. My heart has become more irregular with more skipped beats, bangs etc. Anyone else experience the same?

Anonymous - 18/12/2003 13:03

i was put on Gerozac ( Fluoxetine - Prozac ) when i was 16, i took this SSRI for 3 months and then tried to kill myself by taking an overdose of painkillers, i was sent to a psychiatric hospital where the doctors took me off the medication straight away, but never gave me any real reason. i think that it was the anti-depressants that made me try to kill myself; well i hope it was anyway.

Anonymous - 19/12/2003 20:00

Having been on both an SSRI(Paroxetine) and an SNRI(Venlafaxine) I think the reason these can cause suicidal tendencies is that their anti-anxiety effect can reduce or remove the normal fear of death, making it seem like an easier option if depression breaks through - fluctuating hormonal levels in teens could cause depression which is normally controlled by the drug to manifest on occasion. This combined with the shorter long term outlook of younger people could make suicide seem the only possible release.

Anonymous - 22/12/2003 22:51

Re: Cipramil. I have just come off this drug and so far have been fine. I did come off it slowly however over a 3-4 month period. I too had a lot of irregular heartbeats while on it.

Anonymous - 23/12/2003 09:17

Anon posted on 22/12/03 Could you please tell me - Did you have an irregular heartbeat before going on Cipramil?

Anonymous - 05/01/2004 22:53

I am currently taking Lustral and have been for the past five years. I have heard of people attending doctors suffering from Despression for up to twenty years I would love to know when I will be back to normal. I'm going along nicely and then some catastrophe strikes and I feel like I go back to square one. I wonder what have other sufferers found. Anon

Anonymous - 06/01/2004 21:33

Re: Cypramil. I didn't have an irregular heartbeat prior to taking this medication and think it is a possible side effect. I have had difficult days since coming off it and have wondered if I did the right thing, but on balance I think I did. However, it isn't wise to come off medication without talking to your doctor first. Also it is quite useful to do some research on the internet, as some doctors don't seem aware of the side effects of the drugs they prescribe.

Anonymous - 07/01/2004 12:23

Cypramil. i was on this for several months and felt great. however after going off them it was back to normal again. here i am again wondering if i should try something new or try without medication.

Ken(tormek) - 07/01/2004 13:44

To the last comment before this one - I really do recommend taking regualr exercise - nothing else worked forme - I was just like you - back to square one after coming off Cypramil, but I decided to try exercising and I must say it has paid off for me. Also I notice that when I overindulge in alcohol that it has bad side-effects for me so I try to keep that in check a bit.

Anonymous - 06/04/2004 00:20

I have been prescribed Seroxat. After taking the first tablet I had 48 hours of acute nausea, a tightening of the throat and difficulty swallowing, breathlessness, and when I closed my eyes I could see psychedelic images of bunches of flowers and brightly coloured snakes. I have been afraid to take a second tablet. Any one else have these kind of problems?

Anonymous - 06/04/2004 20:23

Seroxat has featured in the press and on TV and it has now been recognised to have bad side effects for some people, and can in some cases make matters worse. I suggest you go back to your doctor and ask for a different brand of medication. However, they all appear to have side effects!

Grace(WZZ13889) - 21/05/2004 16:34

Do antideppressants make people prone to metal difficulties. What measures has the Health bodies put in place to counteract this kind of health tragedy. Are young people of this categories encouraged to attend positive speaking working groups and share challenges with an aim of fordging a solution to the underlying cause.

miriam(winifred) - 12/03/2005 19:22

Has anyone tried Rhodiola Root Extract for anxiety and stress?

jd - 13/03/2006 19:15

I've just been prescribed Gerozac today and i'd like to hear about any negative or positive outcomes of taking this as i'm worried about taking medication in the first place.

Gemma - 10/05/2006 19:52

I've been prescribed gerozac & would like comments on the side effects & the benefits. I have an anxiety complex

beautiful - 12/05/2006 20:20

Has anybody taken the antidepressant Zispin and did it have a beneficial effect

comingdown - 11/11/2008 02:21

Has anybody suffered weird withdrawl symptoms from Lexapro? I have been on between 10-20mg for the last 4years, 2years on 10 and the last 2years on 20mg. I'm weaning myself slowly off them for the last 2 months 5mgs in stages and I'm now down to 5mgs every 2 days. I feel awful for the last 2 weeks. I've got this whoosing feeling every time I turn my head (similar to flu like symptoms). I'm getting very snappy at times and my heart is beating wildly constantly. Is this normal with withdrawl from Lexapro and if so how long can I expect it to last??

Dee M - 12/05/2009 15:23

Is anybody currently on Gerozac, I have recently started taking it and have experienced the forewarned nausea, I am just concerned about any other side-effects there may be as I am unable to find much info about it, any comments would be much appreciated.

The Benefits Of Protein, Proterine

The Benefits of Protein

From the WebMD Archives

High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets are the hottest thing since sliced flank steak, and every food marketer in the known universe appears to want a piece of the protein pie.

Body builders are snatching, grabbing, and gulping down protein shakes. Dieters are gobbling down protein bars (and shunning pasta) in hopes of quick weight loss .

The Power of Protein

It's easy to understand the excitement. Protein is an important component of every cell in the body. Hair and nails are mostly made of protein. Your body uses protein to build and repair tissues. You also use protein to make enzymes, hormones, and other body chemicals. Protein is an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin. and blood .

Along with fat and carbohydrates, protein is a "macronutrient," meaning that the body needs relatively large amounts of it. Vitamins and minerals, which are needed in only small quantities, are called "micronutrients." But unlike fat and carbohydrates, the body does not store protein, and therefore has no reservoir to draw on when it needs a new supply.

So you may assume the solution is to eat protein all day long. Not so fast, say nutritionists.

The truth is, we need less total protein that you might think. But we could all benefit from getting more protein from better food sources.

How Much Protein Is Enough?

We've all heard the myth that extra protein builds more muscle. In fact, the only way to build muscle is through exercise. Bodies need a modest amount of protein to function well. Extra protein doesn't give you extra strength. According to the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services:

Teenage boys and active men can get all the protein they need from three daily servings for a total of seven ounces.

For children age 2 to 6, most women, and some older people, the government recommends two daily servings for a total of five ounces.

For older children, teen girls, active women, and most men, the guidelines give the nod to two daily servings for a total of six ounces.

Everyone who eats an eight-ounce steak typically served in restaurants is getting more protein that their bodies need. Plus they're getting a hefty amount of artery - clogging saturated fat as well.

Continued

The Drawbacks of High-Protein Diets

Many people who have jumped on the high-protein/low-carb bandwagon think that they can pack away as much protein as they like. But nutrition experts urge caution. The reasons why have to do with how high-protein/low-carb diets are thought to lead to weight loss. When people eat lots of protein but few carbohydrates, their metabolisms change into a state called ketosis . Ketosis means the body converts from burning carbs for fuel to burning its own fat. When fat is broken down, small bits of carbon called ketones are released into the bloodstream as energy sources. Ketosis, which also occurs in diabetes. tends to suppress appetite, causing people to eat less, and it also increases the body's elimination of fluids through urine, resulting in a loss of water weight .

Christopher D. Gardner, PhD, assistant professor of medicine at Stanford University in Palo Alto, Calif. tells WebMD that high-protein diets like the Atkins regimen may trade short-term benefits for long-term health consequences. Among the risks: The body produces ammonia when it breaks down protein. No one knows the long-term risks of higher levels of ammonia in the body.

Also, there is evidence to suggest that people who eat high-protein diets typically excrete excess calcium in their urine, says Deborah Sellmeyer, MD, assistant professor of medicine and director of the Center for Osteoporosis at the University of California at San Francisco. This suggests that the body is releasing stores of calcium into the bloodstream to counteract an increase in acids caused by protein consumption (calcium buffers, or neutralizes, acids). Too much calcium loss could lead to osteoporosis down the road, Sellmeyer says.

Lastly, there are the obvious concerns. Carbohydrate foods shunned by some people on low-carb diets include fruits and vegetables. which are the best sources for vitamins. fiber, and antioxidants -- nutrients that help prevent disease. By contrast, animal foods that are high in protein are usually also high in saturated fats. which increase the risk for heart disease. stroke. diabetes. and several types of cancer .

The American Heart Association warns: "Reducing consumption of [carbs] usually means other, higher-fat foods are eaten instead. This raises cholesterol levels even more and increases cardiovascular risk." The AHA also notes that by concentrating on protein sources and skipping carbs, dieters may be getting too much salt, and not enough calcium, potassium. or magnesium. which are typically found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

Continued

The (Short-Term) Case for High Protein Diets

While no one knows the effect of eating a high-protein diet over the long term, the diet appears to be safe and effective for up to six months.

Frank Hu, MD, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition at Harvard University School of Public Health in Boston, asked a student to review published studies on high-protein diets and try to answer these four important questions:

Do high protein diets increase fat burning in the body?

Do they increase satiety (the sense of being "full" or "satisfied" after a meal)?

Do they decrease subsequent energy (calorie) intake by the body?

Do they lead to weight loss?

For the most part, says Hu, the answers are "yes." Protein can be converted by the body into glucose for energy, but it takes twice as much effort as converting carbohydrates or fats into glucose. The extra effort translates into fewer calories available, Hu said at a recent symposium on the science of obesity obesity .

When it comes to feeling full, the clinical studies consistently showed that high-protein diets increase satiety and decrease hunger compared with high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets. In addition, most, but not all of the studies reviewed showed that most people on high-protein diets took in about 10% less energy (roughly 200 calories) per day, which could account for at least some of the weight loss seen with this type of diet.

"There is some evidence that high-protein diets induce great fat loss," Hu told the symposium audience. On average, high-protein diets produced an average weight loss that was about 4.5 lbs greater than that achieved on other diets after six months.

"Most of the studies show results for up to six months, but after six months they begin to lose effectiveness, either because people do not adhere to this diet very well in the long term, or because they get used to this diet biologically," Hu tells WebMD. "So in the long term the high-protein diets tend to lose their ability to maintain the weight."

Continued

Choose Your Proteins Wisely

The type of protein you eat may play a role in successful weight loss and in your overall health.

Consumption of large quantities of processed meats such as hot dogs, sausages, and deli meats, have been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. cardiovascular disease. and colorectal cancer. Hu says. You'll have a harder time maintaining weight loss if you eat these proteins often, and you may be damaging your body.

Hu and other nutrition experts recommend getting dietary proteins from the following sources:

Fish: Fish offers heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids and, in general, less fat than meat.

Poultry: You can eliminate most of the saturated fat by removing the skin.

Beans: Beans contain more protein than any other vegetable protein. Plus, they're loaded with fiber that helps you feel full for hours.

Nuts: One ounce of almonds gives you 6 grams of protein, nearly as much protein as one ounce of broiled ribeye steak.

Whole grains: A slice of whole wheat bread gives you 3 grams of protein, plus valuable fiber.

"A lot of plant-based foods like soy and legumes can give you the same amount of protein as meats. I have nuts for breakfast every day, because they not only give you a lot of protein, but they're healthy sources of fat," Hu says.

So when you decide to cut carbs and boost protein, take Hu's advice: Don't lose sight of the big picture.

Sources

SOURCES: Frank Hu, MD, PhD, assistant professor, Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health, Boston; Christopher D. Gardner, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine (Research), Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA; Deborah Sellmeyer, MD, assistant professor of medicine and director of the Center for Osteoporosis, UCSF; Nelson, Miriam. "Will Eating More Protein Help Your Body Gain Muscle Faster?" WebMD Medical News Archives; American Heart Association. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans (5th ed. 2000) .

© 2004 WebMD, Inc. All rights Reserved.

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Tzaraath - Religion-Wiki, Tzarevet

Tzaraath

Tzaraath (Hebrew ????, and numerous variants of English transliteration. including tzaraas . tzaraat . tsaraas and tsaraat ) is a disfigurative condition referred to in chapters 13-14 of Leviticus. Tzaraath affects both animate as well as inanimate objects; the Torah discusses tzaraath that afflicts humans, clothing and houses. As there are no terms synonymous with tzaraath in other languages, the Septuagint gave a translation of lepra and has been consequently translated as leprosy (with which lepra is cognate ) by many English language Bibles. Some suggest that any connection between tzaraath and leprosy is altogether erroneous.

The linguistic root of tzaraath means "smiting", in reference to a Talmudical explanation that it serves as a punishment for sin ; [1] it is quite possible that tzaraath was a general term for certain types of skin disease, rather than a particular condition, [2] and the Talmud maintains a similar view, arguing that tzaraath referred generally to any disease that produces sores and eruptions on the skin. [3]

Contents

Torah sources

The Torah identifies three manifestations of tzaraath . as an affliction of human skin, [4] of garments [5] and of houses. [6]

The Torah also speaks of tzaraath on two other occasions, one in reference to Moses and the other in reference to his sister, Miriam. In Exodus 4:6-7, when Moses is standing before the burning bush. he doubts that the sages who lead Israel will believe that he is the messenger of God. God provides him with two signs to prove his mission: turning his rod into a snake and then back into a rod and turning his hand into being stricken with tzaraath and then back again. Moses revealed these wonders to the sages in Exodus 4:30.

In Numbers 12:10, Miriam was stricken with tzaraath for her involvement in slandering Moses. Aaron asks Moses to cure her via extraordinary means, because he claims that he, as her own brother, cannot examine, confine or purify her. [7] Moses prays for his sister and she is cured of the tzaraath but must remain in confinement for seven days. The Torah, however, does not indicate that she went through any purification process similar to what is normally required, as elaborated on below.

Affliction of human skin

Leviticus 13:2 introduces tzaraath .

"??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??????" "If a person will have on the skin of his flesh a s'eit or a sapachat or a baheret and it will become a tzaraath affliction on the skin of his flesh; he shall be brought to Aaron the kohen or to one of his sons the kohanim ."

The three subdivisions of skin tzaraath are best left transliterated, rather than translated, because there are no equivalent English terms and any attempt to translate them would greatly diminish the distinctiveness and focus of the Hebrew term. Additionally, a diagnosis of tzaraath is not to be performed by anyone but a kohen (member of the priestly caste).

The manifestation of tzaraath is termed a ??? ( negah . "skin eruption" or literally "a strike," plural: ?????, nega'im ) and there are three varieties of nega'im that relate to human flesh: [8]

patches of the skin [9]

boils and burns [10]

bald patches or lesions of the scalp or beard, the negah of which is called a ??? ( netek ) [11]

Patches of the skin

Patches of the skin are confirmed as tzaraath by the occurrence of one of three signs: [12]

white hair (???? ???? ??? ???) - if at least two hairs within the confines of the negah turn white [13]

healthy flesh (????? ??? ??) - if skin of a normal appearance appears within the confines of the patch [13]

spreading (??? ??? ???? ?????? ????) - if the patch became enlarged since the time of the initial examination by the Kohen [14]

Whereas baldness is not a form of tzaraath . patches that occur on a bald scalp may be tzaraath if they meet the criteria as mentioned by the Torah. Such an eruption on a bald scalp must appear in a distinct fashion but is regulated by rules similar to that of nega'im on the skin; however, it can only occur on men. For a scalp eruption to be tzaraath . the lesion must be a white patch tinged with red (??? ??? ?????). [15] This can occur in one of two places: within what are referred to as a man's posterior baldness (????) and anterior baldness (????).

If someone cuts off some skin or a part of his body in order to remove a negah . he becomes impure, even if he had no confirming signs. He may become pure only after another negah forms. [16] The exception is when a negah appears on the tip of the foreskin and is cut off during circumcision. which is permitted, because a positive commandment overrides a negative commandment. [16]

Boils and burns

Boils and burns, as occur naturally as a result of an abscess. blunt force trauma or thermal insult to the skin, are not tzaraath and do not carry impurity. During the healing phases of these wounds, however, if certain signs that mimic those of the aforementioned patches appear, tzaraath may occur. Confirmation is by the occurrence of one of two signs: [17]

white hair (????? ??? ??? and ???? ??? ??? ?????) - similar to that in patches [18]

spreading (??? ??? ???? ???? and ?? ??? ???? ????) - similar to that in patches [19]

Bald patches or lesions of the scalp or beard

The initial symptom of this type of negah is patches of hair loss. According to Maimonides. scalp and beard nega'im are characterized by hair loss without any change to the skin of the bald spot. [20] The Tosefta. however, maintains that the skin of the bald spot does indeed become altered in a negah . There are two confirming signs: [21]

thin yellow hair (??? ??? ??? ??) - if at least two hairs from within the bald patch turn yellow [22]

spreading (???? ??? ???? ????) - if the balding spreads [23] [24]

Inspection of nega'im of human flesh and tzaraath determination

For all of the different types of nega'im of human flesh, there is a similar protocol put in place by the Torah for determining whether or not the skin eruption is indeed tzaraath . The individual with the eruption must visit a kohen . who is a male possessing direct lineage to Aaron. who was the kohen gadol (High Priest) and brother of Moses. The kohen . trained in examining lesions and diagnosing tzaraath . will examine the lesion and determine whether or not it meets the specifications of tzaraath . Specifically, he will evaluate the lesion for the criteria mentioned above, except of course for the final criterion of spreading, which can only be diagnosed at a follow-up examination, should one be necessary. If during the initial examination, the characteristics of the lesion meet the criteria for tzaraath . the kohen will declare the individual tamei (???, "ritually impure"). [25]

If the criteria are not met by the lesion during the initial examination by the kohen . the individual is confined in his home for seven days, pending a follow-up examination. [26] If the criteria for tzaraath are again not met and the lesion has not spread, there is a difference in protocol depending of the type of lesion.

For patches of the skin, another confinement period of seven days is imposed. [27]

For boils or burns, the kohen declares it merely a ???? ( tzarevet . "scar") and there are no further examinations. [28]

For bald patches or lesions of the scalp or beard, another confinement period of seven days is imposed. However, prior to this second confinement period, the individual is shaved around the nesek (?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? - "he should be shaved but the nesek should not be shaved), leaving a rim of two hairs completely surrounding the bald spot in order to make any spreading recognizable [29] (especially according to Maimonides, who asserts that these lesions manifest as pure hair loss without any concomitant skin eruption.)

After the second confinement period of seven days, both those with patches on the skin as well as those with bald patches are re-evaluated once more. [30] If the criteria for tzaraath have still not been met, the afflicted individual is declared tahor (???, "ritually pure"). [30] He or she, does, however, have to wash both his or her body and garments; [30] due to the confinement, he or she is considered impure in some sense. [31]

If the negah was declared ritually pure and later it spread, it must be shown once again to a kohen . who will then declare it tzaraath . [32] There are many other regulations regarding the inspection:

The kohen must be able to see the entirety of the lesion. Thus, if the skin eruption or bald spot wraps around either the body or body parts, or occurs at the tip of terminal body parts—any place that would preclude the observation of the entire lesion at one time (i. e. wrapping around the torso, scalp or arm, or occurring at the tip of a finger or toe) -- there can be no declaration of tzaraath . [33]

In a similar vein, a kohen who is blind in one eye or who cannot see well may not perform the inspections. [34] An eligible kohen may inspect anyone, including his relatives, except himself. [35] However, it is not necessary that a kohen perform the inspection; anyone who is proficient in the laws of nega'im may perform the examination. However, only a kohen may declare purity or impurity. A non - kohen examiner may inform an accompanying inexpert kohen of his determination that a negah is or is not tzaraath and the kohen declares "purity" or "impurity". [36]

Nega'im do not render impurity on parts of the body that are naturally concealed by other parts of the body according to specific regulations. For skin eruptions on the legs, men are inspected standing as though they are hoeing and women standing as though they are rolling dough. For eruptions on the arms, men raise their arms as though they are picking olives and women raising their arms as though they are weaving or spinning. [37]

Nega'im do not render gentiles impure. [36]

A groom is exempt from visiting the kohen until the eighth day after his wedding for any nega'im on his flesh, garments or house. Similarly, there are no inspections carried out on the days of Passover. Shavuot or Sukkot. [38]

Even on the days when inspections are performed, they are only allowed for two hours each day: during the fourth and eighth hour of the day (corresponding roughly to 9-10 AM and 2-3 PM). [39]

If, however, the criteria for tzaraath have been met, either during the initial exam or at either of the two follow-ups (when applicable) or even after a previous declaration of purity, the individual is declared tamei (???, "ritually impure"). The individual is declared impure even if the lesion did not worsen or spread but remained the same—the skin eruption must become dimmer in appearance for it to be declared pure at the second follow-up examination. [40]

The metzorah . management of tzaraath of human flesh

The individual who is declared impure with tzaraath is referred to as a either [41] a tzorua (????) or a metzorah (????). The metzorah is shunned and must live alone outside the confines of the community. [42] The metzorah tears his or her garments in mourning like those who are in mourning for a close family member and does not cut his or her hair. The metzorah must also cover his or her face until the upper lip in the fashion of mourners, and he or she calls out "impure, impure" to warn others to keep their distance. [43]

The metzorah remains confined outside of the community until his tzaraath vanishes—the metzorah is evaluated by a kohen who leaves the community in order to examine him or her. When the kohen observes the resolution of the tzaraath . he begins a procedure that will ultimately result in the reversal of the impure status of the metzorah . [44]

"???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ????" "The kohen shall command to take for the person undergoing purification (the metzorah ) two live kosher birds, cedarwood, red string and hyssop ."

The items used in the purification ritual were specifically included to deliver a message to the metzorah . Although many sins may lead to this punishment, the most predominant sin to cause tzaraath is lashon hara. loosely translated as "gossip." The metzorah . who talked derogatorily about others consistently to his friends is likened to birds, who chatter endlessly. [45] In a similar vein, the one who speaks ill of others is haughty, holding himself or herself high above others and is likened to the tall ceder. In order to be healed, the metzorah must erase his or her arrogance, making himself or herself lowly like a worm [46] or a hyssop.

Spring water is placed in an earthenware vessel, over which one of the birds is slaughtered and into which the blood is allowed to run. The kohen then dips the remaining bird and other items into the bloodied water and sprinkles the metzorah seven times on the back of the hand. [47] The identical procedure would be performed for a house struck by tzaraath . with the sprinkling done on the lintel. [48] The slaughtered bird was buried in the presence of the metzorah and the live bird was freed into the open field.

The metzorah washes the garments he or she had been wearing from impurity and shaves off all of his or her hair, save for that which is located in places similar to those in which nega'im are not subject to impurity. [49] The metzorah then waits for seven days to begin the final steps of his or her purification ceremony. [50] On the seventh day, the metzorah again washes the garments he or she had been wearing from impurity and again shaves off all of his or her hair. [51] On the eighth day, the metzorah brings three animal sacrifices to the Holy Temple. a sin offering of a female lamb and a guilt offering and a burnt offering, both of male lambs. [52]

Blood from the slaughtered guilt offering was placed on the right ear, right thumb and right big toe of the metzorah . [53] The need for this to be done was cause for some complication, because the metzorah was not allowed into Temple grounds prior to his purification process and the blood of the offering was not allowed out of the Temple grounds. To reconcile this dilemma, the metzorah would stick these body parts through the gateway one at a time to receive the blood. The same was done with the oil from the flour offerings of the metzorah . If the metzorah lost any of these body parts after he was ready for purification, he could never obtain purification. [54]

Affliction of clothing

Tzaraath can also afflict garments. [55] Garment tzaraath is relevant to only three materials:

In a woolen or linen garment, the tzaraath may appear as a uniformly existing negah within the material or as a negah limited to either only the woof or warp (?? ???? ?? ????) of the garment. [56]

There are a number of limitations to tzaraath as it applies to clothing:

Clothing belonging to a gentile are insusceptible to tzaraath .

Only sheep's wool is susceptible to a negah of tzaraath . although an even mixture of sheep's wool and another type of wool (camel's wool, for example) can be afflicted. [57] In a similar vein, a mixture of plant fibers containing linen is insusceptible unless it is at least half linen. [57]

The leather referring to by the Torah does not include the hides of marine animals. [58]

The fabric of wool or linen or leather article cannot be rendered impure by tzaraath if it is artificially dyed. If, however, the item is naturally colored (such as wool from a black sheep), it can be rendered impure. [59]

Appearance, inspection and management of tzaraath in clothing

Tzaraath appears in clothing as an intense green (????? - yerakrak ) or red (????? - adamdam ) eruption, [60] and must be brought to the kohen for inspection. In regards to garment tzaraath . there are no criteria by which it can be declared impure upon initial examination. The garment is confined for seven days, and if on the seventh day, the negah has spread, it is a negah of tzaraath and is declared impure. [61] Subsequent to a declaration of tzaraath . the garment, whether or wool, linen or leather, is completely burnt (??? ????); if the tzaraath was confined to the woof or warp, only that need be burnt. [62]

If upon re-evaluation after the seven day confinement, the kohen instructs that the garment with the eruption be washed and confined once more for seven days. [63] If upon a second re-evaluation after the second seven days of confinement, the kohen sees that the eruption did not dim and did not spread, the garment is declared impure and must be completely burnt. [64]

If the second re-evaluation reveals a dimming of the eruption, the kohen tears the area with the eruption from the garment and burns the torn out portion completely. [65] The torn out area is patched to allow for a reinspection of the area for return of the negah . [66] If, the eruption returns to the patch, there is no confinement period instituted and the entire garment is completely burnt. [67] ; if a negah reappears on the garment but not on the patch, the garment must be burned but the patch can be saved. [68] To recapitulate, if the negah remained as it was after the first week of confinement, it is washed and reconfined. If it remained as it was after the second week of confinement, it is burned. [66]

If, however, upon the second re-evaluation, the negah disappears, the garment must be immersed in a mikvah (????, "ritual bath") and is then pure. [69]

Affliction of housing

The third and last type of tzaraath mentioned by the Torah affects buildings. [70] If an individual notices an affliction on his house, he is to inform a kohen . The kohen will then command that they empty the house of all of its contents prior to his inspection; this is to prevent further financial loss, because should the house be confined, everything within it would become impure as well. [71]

When the kohen comes to perform the inspection, he looks for lesions on the wall that appear either intense green (??????) or intense red (??????) and that appear sunken below the plane of the wall's surface (??? ?? ????, literally "lower than the wall"). If this is what he sees, the kohen exits the house and confines it for seven days. [72]

On the seventh day, upon re-evaluating the eruption, if the kohen sees that the eruption has spread beyond what it had been, the afflicted stones are removed, the area around the afflicted stones is scraped and both the removed stones and clay plaster are cast into a place of impurity. [73] At least two afflicted stones are necessary for removal of any stones and at least two new stones must be used to fill the void. [74] If the afflicted wall is shared by two houses owned by two neighbors, both neighbors must help to remove the afflicted stones, scrape and place the new stones, but only the owner of the house whose interior was afflicted performs the replastering. It is from this ruling that the proverb Oy l'rasha, oy l'scheino (?? ???? ?? ?????, "Woe to the wicked! Woe to his neighbor!") originates. [75]

The void is filled with new stones and clay plaster and the house is confined for another seven days. If upon a second re-evaluation, the negah has returned after new stones have been plastered in, the negah is deemed tzaraath and the entire house must be dismantled. [71] If the negah does not return, the house is pronounced pure, and the same purification process mentioned in relation to tzaraath of human flesh is employed here.

There are numerous limitations put on the tzaraath that afflicts houses:

The house of a gentile is insusceptible to tzaraath .

Only houses that possess four walls and four corners are susceptible. Similarly, only those houses that rest on the ground are susceptible, to the exclusion of those that are suspended above ground or which are built on a boat. [76]

Tzaraath only affects houses that are built entirely out of stones, wood and clay plaster. If any of the four walls are built or internally overlaid with marble. natural outcropping of rock, brick or earthen soil, that wall is insusceptible to tzaraath . and a house cannot be rendered impure unless all four walls are susceptible. [77]

Two storey houses are treated as two distinct houses and the beams that serve as the floor of the upper storey and the roof of the lower storey are allowed to remain with whichever house remains. [78]

Houses are the only buildings that are susceptible to tzaraath (not, for example, barns or cattle stalls) and only houses that exist within the region of land originally divided among the 12 tribes, because the verse refers to beis eretz achuzaschem (??? ??? ??????, "a house of the land of your inheritance"); this also excludes houses in Jerusalem. because it was not given as an inheritance to any one tribe, but rather held jointly by all of Israel. [79]

Interpretations

Rabbi Shimshon Raphael Hirsch demonstrated at length that tzaraath was not to be interpreted as a medical malady, but rather as a spiritual affliction. The verse itself indicates this, as it directs those who find themselves afflicted to seek out a Kohen (priest) and not a doctor, while the Torah specifically permits and even encourages those who are in need of medical care to seek treatment from physicians. [80]

The Torah's emphasis is clearly on the tu'mah (?????, "ritual impurity ") that results from a diagnosis of tzaraath because the verses focus on the kohen' s declaration of "unclean" - ????? ???? ???? ??? ("The kohen will see [the eruption] and [declare] him impure").

The Talmud, and the majority of historic Jewish literature in general, regards tzaraath as a punishment for sin ; it lists seven possible causes for tzaraath [81].

One midrashic source categorically states that tzaraath only appeared as punishment for evil tongue . while others add further reasons to the list in the Talmud. Unlike the modern medical approach, which seeks to cure by natural means, the classical Jewish sources argue that cure from tzaraath only came about through repentance and forgiveness. In particular, the Midrash Rabbah sees the different types of tzaraath as increasing levels of punishment, which could be curtailed at any stage if repentance was made:

the first stage in the Rabbah's view was the infection of homes, and if repentance came here it would only require the removal of the affected stones for a cure.

in the second stage, the entire house must be torn down as the tzaraath would not go away, and the infection came upon one's clothes; if repentance came here it required only washing of the clothes for a cure.

in the third stage of Rabbah's scheme, the clothes must be burnt, and the infection enters the person's skin; if repentance occurs here then purification could occur.

in the fourth stage, which only occurs when the person has completely refused to repent, the person is forced to dwell alone.

Other classical rabbinical writers saw tzaraath of houses as having a practical benefit. According to one, as well as being a punishment for miserliness, it also demonstrated that the house owner was lying, if they had said they did not own certain objects which neighbours had asked to borrow, since the biblical regulations require the house owner to take all their possessions outside prior to confinement [71]. On the other hand, Rashi. basing his view on the Leviticus Rabbah [82]. states that tzaraath of houses was a reward for the homeowner, arguing that the Israelite homes had previously been those of Canaanites. who had hidden their valuables in the walls; the tzaraath would require the house owner to remove the bricks, and so find the treasures hidden there [83].

Rather than following the biblical descriptions of the symptoms of tzaraath in the manner than modern doctors would, classical rabbinical literature took an extremely literal view [2]. In the group of symptoms where the hair of the inflicted region has turned white, the Mishnah argues that plucking out the white hair was all that was required for the disease not to be considered tzaraath [84] ; similarly since the biblical text mentions tzaraath occurring where boils had previously healed, but not where unhealed boils exist, the Mishnah maintains that the appearance of the other symptoms in an unhealed boil or burn do not indicate tzaraath . and that if the boil/burn does subsequently heal it still wouldn't indicate tzaraath unless the other symptoms occur in parts of the body that were not previously diseased [85]. The Mishnah also argues that sores smaller than the size of a lentil. those on the extremities of the body (such as the fingers, toes, ears, nose, breasts, etc.), those which occur in the location of an unhealed boil or burn, and those which occur in hairy parts of the body, do not indicate tzaraath [86] [87].

Scholars suspect that these descriptions of tzaraath . where it applies to skin conditions, actually refer to a number of different skin diseases [88] [89] [90]. which, owing to the undeveloped state of medical science at that period, were not distinguished [2]. Of the particular situations that the Priestly Code describes as being tzaraath .

the whitening of the skin over the whole body with sores, is considered by scholars to be most indicative of Psoriasis [1] [88] [91]

the spreading of sores is regarded by scholars as most symptomatic of Impetigo [88]

the spreading of swellings or spots in a burn injury, according to scholars, is most probably a result of Erysipelas [88]

in regard to subcutaneous disease where the hair has turned white

the additional presence of swellings or spots in a burn injury are thought by scholars most likely to be Tropical Sores [88]

the additional presence of bodily sores, and swellings or spots where there previously had been a boil, is one of the classical symptoms of Leprosy [88]

the additional presence of sores on the head or chin is thought by scholars to most probably indicate the presence of Ringworm [1] [88]

Symptoms of other conditions

In addition to simple rashes [92]. inflammations [93]. and swellings [94]. the Biblical text mentions a number of other conditions that could be confused with tzaraath . Among the other situations which the text considers harmless are the appearance of dull white spots [95]. white patches of skin without sores [96]. and baldness without sores [94] ; the latter two of these are thought by scholars to most probably refer to vitiligo and alopecia. respectively [88]. and the Bible remarks that the former - the dull white spots - are merely a form of freckles [97]. The symptoms that the text considers to be indicative of disease include those of the spread of superficial swellings or spots (where there had previously been a boil) [98]. and those of reddish-white sores in areas of baldness [99] ; the former condition is identified by the Bible as plague . and scholars regard its symptoms as pointing to a diagnosis of smallpox [88]. while the latter is unidentified in the Biblical text, but considered by scholars to indicate favus [88].

In clothing fabrics

In addition to infecting the skin, tzaraath is described by the priestly code as being able to infect historically common clothing fabrics, specifically wool. linen. and leather [100]. The Biblical description of tzaraath in such fabrics is strikingly analogous to that of tzaraath in the skin [2]. with, for example, spreading of the infection being tested for by isolating the fabric in question for first 7 days [101]. The principle symptoms are described as being very green or very red spots [102]. which spread within a week [101]. or which don't change appearance at all after a fortnight, having been washed after the first week [103]. or which return a week after having been torn out, if they also had faded with washing prior to being torn out [104]. These descriptions are regarded by scholars as most probably indicative of certain moulds [1] [88] [89] [105]. and especially matching infections by Penicillium (the fungus which produces penicillin ) [1]

In houses

Mildew infecting a flat

The biblical text also describes tzaraath as infecting the walls of houses [106] ; the symptoms it describes are depressions in the wall, which are very green or very red [107]. and which spread over a period of seven days [108]. The description is regarded by scholars as again being strikingly similar to the wording of the description of tzaraath infections in the skin [2]. but still somewhat obscure [1] ; it would seem to fit some form of fungal growth [88]. especially dry rot. which produces yellowish-green and reddish patches on walls [1].

Cause and treatment

As a "physical manifestation of a spiritual malaise," tzaraath is a "divine retribution for the offender's failure to feel the needs and share the hurt of others. [109]

Although the medical and chemical conditions, which scholars consider the descriptions to fit, have obvious natural causes in the light of modern scientific knowledge, the biblical texts characterise it as a spiritual affliction with a supernatural cause, bringing ritual impurity to its victims. Each victim of tzaraas mentioned by the Bible is stated to have received the condition due to some transgression of biblical laws [2]. including Joab being cursed for the murder of Abner. Gehazi for being covetous, and Uzziah for infringing the exclusive rights of certain people to burn incense.

If a person was afflicted with tzaraath in their skin, they were required to wear torn clothes, keep their hair unkempt, cover the lower part of their face, cry out [ritually] impure, [ritually] impure . and reside away from other people [110] ; a few medical historians. such as Arturo Castiglioni. regard this as the first model of sanitary legislation [111]. Nevertheless, this isolation isn't necessarily due to concerns over the contagiousness of the disease, but rather due to concerns about the risk of moral corruption to other people; the Talmud doesn't treat tzaraath as contagious [2]. and doesn't consider non-Jewish victims of tzaraath to be ritually impure [112]. The Talmud states that if tzaraath hadn't been confirmed by a Jewish priest. then a bridegroom with suspected symptoms of it was allowed to postpone any isolation or inspection by a priest until a week after his wedding. and if a person developed suspected symptoms of tzaraath during a holy day. then the isolation and inspection by a priest could be postponed until the holy days had finished [113].

Fabrics and clothing affected by tzaraath were required by the text to be burnt entirely [114] [115]. unless it was the form of tzaraath which faded after washing but came back after being torn out, in which case it could be considered ritually pure as soon as the tzaraath had gone, and it had subsequently been washed [116]. Tzaraath infections in houses were to be treated similarly harshly according to the biblical regulations, and didn't have any exceptions; stones showing the symptoms had to be removed, and the house had to be scraped, with the removed stones and scraped-off clay being cast into a rubbish heap outside the city [117]. and if the infection returned once replacement stones were laid and daubed with clay, then the whole house had to be dismantled, with the rubble again going to the tip outside the city [118]. Additionally, people who had been in a house while it was infected with tzaraath was considered ritually impure until the evening came, and anyone who had eaten or slept there had to also wash their clothes [119]

After cure

When the priest had certified that tzaraath had been cured, the biblical text requires that the formerly infected person undergo a number of ritual events [120]. some occurring straight away [121]. and some occurring a week later [122]. According to critical scholars, these are really two independent rituals spliced together, with the first group [123] being the ritual that was originally part of the regulations for tzaraath of skin, and the other group [124] being a later attempt at replacing the first group of rituals, so that the regulations fitted better with the sacrifice-centric view of the Aaronid priesthood [125]. The biblical text states that a ritual, almost identical to the first group of rituals for skin - tzaraath . also had to be carried out for houses that had been cured of infections from tzaraath [126] ; however, there is no further ritual for houses that could parallel the second group of rituals for skin - tzaraath .

The first group of requirements are that the formerly infected person kills a (ritually pure) bird over fresh water, in a clay pot, and dips another living bird, together with cedar wood, scarlet yarn, and ezob. into the blood [127] ; this combination was used to sprinkle the formerly infected person seven times with the blood [128]. Once the surviving bird was released over open fields [128]. and the formerly infected person had shaved off all their hair, and bathed themselves and their clothes in water, they were counted as ritually pure [129]. According to biblical scholars, this ritual is primarily an example of sympathetic magic. with the running water and living bird being symbolic representations of ritual impurity going away [88] ; killing animals over running water was a widespread ancient custom [88]. The cedar and ezob have more practical applications, with cedarwood having medicinal properties, and ezob being a good implement to use for sprinkling [88].

In the second group of requirements, having completed the first group, the formerly infected person is required to avoid their own home for a week (although they may mix with other people) [129]. after which they must shave off absolutely all of their hair, including their eyebrows. and then wash themselves [130]. Having done this, the formerly infected individual was required to make a standard whole offering. a standard sin offering (to excuse the profanity of having had tzaraath [88] ), and a guilt offering (to apologise for the cause of the tzaraath [88] ) [131] ; if people are too poor to afford that, the bible allows the standard alternative set of sacrificial victims to be used instead [132].

Unlike other guilt offerings, the priest was required to put some of the blood from the sacrifice onto the formerly infected person's right ear lobe, right thumb. and right big toe [133]. then some of the oil for the sacrifice had to be poured into the priest's left palm, and applied with the priest's right forefinger onto to the formerly infected person's right ear lobe, right thumb, and right big toe [134]. and then the rest of the oil from the priest's palm was to be poured onto the formerly infected person's head [135] ; critical scholars regard the Priestly Code, of which the tzaraath regulations are a part, to have been written in the early 7th century [136]. and it is in this context that these additional rules have significance. By that era, non-priests were not allowed to pass beyond a certain gateway (the gate of Nicanor) in the complex at the Temple in Jerusalem. while the blood from sacrifices couldn't pass outside, thus for a person to be touched by the blood, they had to lean through the gateway without setting foot on the other side; the right ear, thumb, and toe, were symbolically the parts of the body which achieve this [88].

See also

References

External links

Topical Bible Eleazar, Elazor

Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary

help of God, court of God

Smith's Bible Dictionary

( help of God ).

Third son of Aaron. After the death of Nadab and Abihu without children, (Leviticus 10:6 ; Numbers 3:4 ) Eleazar was appointed chief over the principal Levites. (Numbers 3:32 ) With his brother Ithamar he ministered as a priest during their father's lifetime, and immediately before his death was invested on Mount Hor with the sacred garments, as the successor of Aaron in the office of high priest. (Numbers 20:28 ) (B. C. 1452.) One of his first duties was in conjunction with Moses to superintend the census of the people. (Numbers 26:3 ) After the conquest of Canaan by Joshua he took part in the distribution of the land. (Joshua 14:1 ) The time of his death is not mentioned in Scripture.

The son of Abinadab, of the hill of Kirjath-jearim. (1 Samuel 7:1 ) (B. C. 1134.)

One of the three principal mighty men of David's army. (2 Samuel 23:9 ; 1 Chronicles 11:12 ) (B. C. 1046.)

A Merarite Levite, son of Mahli and grandson of Merari. (1 Chronicles 23:21,22 ; 24:28 )

A priest who took part in the feast of dedication under Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 12:42 ) (B. C. 446.)

One of the sons of Parosh, an Israelite (i. e. a layman) who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:25 )

Son of Phinehas, a Levite. (Ezra 8:33 )

The son of Eliud, in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Matthew 1:15 )

ATS Bible Dictionary

1. The third son of Aaron, and high priest after him, Exodus 6:23 ; Numbers 20:25-28. The high priesthood continued in his family through seven generations; till the time of Eli, when we find it transferred to the line of Ithamar. In the reigns of Saul and David, it was restored to the line of Eleazar, and so continued till after the captivity.

2. A son of Abinadab, honored with the charge of the ark while it was in his father's house, 1 Samuel 7:1.

Easton's Bible Dictionary

(1.) The third son of Aaron (Exodus 6:23 ). His wife, a daughter of Putiel, bore him Phinehas (Exodus 6:25 ). After the death of Nadab and Abihu (Leviticus 10:12 ; Numbers 3:4 ) he was appointed to the charge of the sanctuary (Numbers 3:32 ). On Mount Hor he was clothed with the sacred vestments, which Moses took from off his brother Aaron and put upon him as successor to his father in the high priest's office, which he held for more than twenty years (Numbers 20:25 -29). He took part with Moses in numbering the people (26:3. 4), and assisted at the inauguration of Joshua. He assisted in the distribution of the land after the conquest (Joshua 14:1 ). The high-priesthood remained in his family till the time of Eli, into whose family it passed, till it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok (1 Samuel 2:35 ; Comp. 1 Kings 2:27 ). "And Eleazar the son of Aaron died; and they buried him in a hill that pertained to Phinehas his son" (Joshua 24:33 ). The word here rendered "hill" is Gibeah, the name of several towns in Palestine which were generally on or near a hill. The words may be more suitably rendered, "They buried him in Gibeah of Phinehas", i. e. in the city of Phinehas, which has been identified, in accordance with Jewish and Samaritan traditions, with Kefr Ghuweirah=`Awertah, about 7 miles north of Shiloh, and a few miles south-east of Nablus. "His tomb is still shown there, overshadowed by venerable terebinths." Others, however, have identified it with the village of Gaba or Gebena of Eusebius, the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Nablus.

(2.) An inhabitant of Kirjath-jearim who was "sanctified" to take charge of the ark, although not allowed to touch it, while it remained in the house of his father Abinadab (1 Samuel 7:1. 2; Comp. Numbers 3:31 ; 4:15 ).

(3.) The son of Dodo the Ahohite, of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the three most eminent of David's thirty-seven heroes (1 Chronicles 11:12 ) who broke through the Philistine host and brought him water from the well of Bethlehem (2 Samuel 23:9. 16).

(4.) A son of Phinehas associated with the priests in taking charge of the sacred vessels brought back to Jerusalem after the Exile (Ezra 8:33 ).

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

el-e-a'-zar, e-le-a'-zar ('el-`azar; Eleazar, "God is helper"):

He married one of the daughters of Putiel, who bore him Phinehas (Exodus 6:25 ). With his father and 3 brothers he was consecrated to the priest's office (Exodus 28:1 ). After the destruction of Nadab and Abihu, he occupied a more important position, and he and Ithamar "ministered in the priest's office in the presence of Aaron their father" (Leviticus 10:6 Numbers 3:4 1 Chronicles 24:2 ). He was given the oversight of the Levites and had charge of the tabernacle and all within it (Numbers 3:32 ; Numbers 4:16 ). To Eleazar fell the duty of beating out for an altar covering the censers of Korah and his fellow-conspirators who had attempted to seize the priesthood (Numbers 16:37, 39 ). On the death of Aaron, Eleazar succeeded him (Numbers 20:25 ). He assisted Moses with the census after the plague in the plains of Moab (Numbers 26:1 ), and with Moses and the elders heard the petition of the daughters of Zelophehad who wished to be served as heirs to their father (Numbers 27:1 ). After the entrance into Canaan, Eleazar and Joshua gave effect to the decision arrived at by giving the daughters of Zelophehad a share in the land of Manasseh (Joshua 17:4 ). He was priest and adviser to Joshua, the successor of Moses (Numbers 27:19 ; Numbers 31:12 ), whom he also assisted in partitioning Canaan among the tribes (Numbers 34:17 Joshua 14:1 ; Joshua 19:51 ; Joshua 21:1 ). He was buried in the hill (the Revised Version, margin "Gibeah") of Phinehas his son in the hill country of Ephraim (Joshua 24:33 ). For some reason unknown the descendants of Ithamar seem to have held the chief position among the priests from Eli till the accession of Solomon, when Abiathar was sent into retirement, and Zadok, the descendant of Eleazar, was appointed in his place (1 Kings 2:26 ). Ezra was a descendant of Zadok (Ezra 7:1 ); and the high priest's office was in the family of Zadok till the time of the Maccabees.

(2) The son of Abinadab, sanctified to keep the ark of Yahweh, when it was brought from Beth-shemesh to Kiriath-jearim after being sent back by the Philistines (1 Samuel 7:1 ).

(3) The son of Dodai, one of David's three mighty men. A famous feat of arms with David at Ephes-dammim is recorded (2 Samuel 23:9 1 Chronicles 11:12 where he is named the son of Dodo).

(4) A Levite, a son of Mahli, a Merarite. It is recorded that he had no sons, but daughters only, who were married to their cousins (1 Chronicles 23:21, 22 ; 1 Chronicles 24:28 ).

(5) A priest who accompanied Ezra from Babylon (Ezra 8:33 ); the son of Phinehas. (5) and (6) may be identical.

(6) A priest who took part in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 12:42 ).

(7) A son of Mattathias and brother of Judas Maccabeus (APC 1Macc 2:5; 6:43 2Macc 8:23 ).

(8, 9) Two others are mentioned in APC 1Macc 8:17 2Macc 6:18 .

(10) An ancestor of Jesus, 3 generations before Joseph (Matthew 1:15 ).

1648. Eleazar -- Eleazar . an Israelite . 1647, 1648. Eleazar . 1648a. Eleazar . an Israelite. Part of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Eleazar Phonetic . //strongsnumbers. com/greek2/1648.htm - 5k

1648a. Eleazar -- Eleazar . an Israelite . 1648, 1648a. Eleazar . 1648b. Eleazar . an Israelite. Transliteration: Eleazar Short Definition: Eleazar . Word Origin of Hebrew origin . //strongsnumbers. com/greek2/1648a. htm - 5k

1648b. eleao -- eleao . 1648a, 1648b. eleao. 1649. eleao. Transliteration: eleao Short Definition: Eleazar . Word Origin a form of eleeo, qv. 1648a, 1648b. eleao. 1649. . //strongsnumbers. com/greek2/1648b. htm - 5k

1664. Elioud -- "God of majesty," Eliud, an Israelite . Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Elioud Phonetic Spelling: (el-ee-ood') Short Definition: Eliud Definition: Eliud, son of Achim, and father of Eleazar . //strongsnumbers. com/greek2/1664.htm - 6k

6317. Putiel -- Eleazar's father-in-law . 6316, 6317. Putiel. 6318. Eleazar's father-in-law. Transliteration: Putiel Phonetic Spelling: (poo-tee-ale') Short Definition: Putiel. . /hebrew/6317.htm - 6k

499. Elazar -- "God has helped," six Israelites . Elazar. 500. "God has helped," six Israelites. Transliteration: Elazar Phonetic Spelling: (el-aw-zawr') Short Definition: Eleazar . . NASB Word Usage Eleazar (72 . /hebrew/499.htm - 6k

How the People that were in the Fortress were Prevailed on by the . . CHAPTER 9. How The People That Were In The Fortress Were Prevailed On By The Words Of Eleazar . Two Women And Five Children Only Excepted And All Submitted To . /. /chapter 9 how the people. htm

Concerning Masada and those Sicarii who Kept It; and How Silva . . Eleazar's Speeches To The Besieged. . It was one Eleazar . a potent man, and the commander of these Sicarii, that had seized upon it. . /. /chapter 8 concerning masada and. htm

Courage in War was not Wanting in Our Forefathers. . Courage in war was not wanting in our forefathers, as is shown by the example of the men of old, especially by the glorious deed of Eleazar . 205. . /. /ambrose/works and letters of st ambrose/chapter xl courage in war. htm

Concerning the Seditions at Jerusalem and what Terrible Miseries . . 2. For Eleazar . the son of Simon, who made the first separation of the zealots from the people, and made them retire into the temple, appeared very angry at . /. /chapter 1 concerning the seditions. htm

Cestius Sends Ambassadors to Nero. The People of Damascus Slay . . were chosen as governors of all affairs within the city, and with a particular charge to repair the walls of the city; for they did not ordain Eleazar the son . /. /chapter 9 cestius sends ambassadors. htm

Herein is Declared what Befell the Sons of Eli, the Ark, and the . . 5. Now Eli was the first of the family of Ithamar, the other son of Aaron, that had the government; for the family of Eleazar officiated as high priest at first . /. /josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 11 herein is declared. htm

How the War of the Jews with the Romans Began, and Concerning . . At the same time Eleazar . the son of Ananias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated . /. /chapter 17 how the war. htm

Concerning Macherus, and How Lucilius Bassus Took that Citadel . . There was a certain young man among the besieged, of great boldness, and very active of his hand, his name was Eleazar ; he greatly signalized himself in those . /. /chapter 6 concerning macherus and. htm

The Way to Honor . The Bible is full of such cases. Eleazar . the servant and steward of Abraham, met with much honor at his master's hands. Deborah . //christianbookshelf. org/spurgeon/sermons on proverbs/the way to honor. htm

Ancient Versions of the Old Testament. . librarian Demetrius Phalereus, after having first liberated all the Jewish captives found in his kingdom, sent an embassy with costly gifts to Eleazar the high . /. /barrows/companion to the bible/chapter xvi ancient versions of. htm

Eleazar (74 Occurrences) . 14:1). The high-priesthood remained in his family till the time of Eli, into whose family it passed, till it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the . /e/eleazar. htm - 39k

Eleazar's (1 Occurrence) . Multi-Version Concordance Eleazar's (1 Occurrence). 1 Chronicles 24:4 And there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar . /e/eleazar's. htm - 6k

Ith'amar (20 Occurrences) . Exodus 6:23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, to wife; and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. . /i/ith'amar. htm - 12k

Phin'ehas (24 Occurrences) . Phin'ehas (24 Occurrences). Exodus 6:25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the daughters of Putiel to wife; and she bore him Phinehas. . /p/phin'ehas. htm - 13k

Ithamar (20 Occurrences) . 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Exodus 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the . /i/ithamar. htm - 16k

Abihu (12 Occurrences) . Exodus 6:23 Aaron took Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, as his wife; and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. . /a/abihu. htm - 12k

Abi'hu (12 Occurrences) . Exodus 6:23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, to wife; and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. . /a/abi'hu. htm - 9k

Phinehas (24 Occurrences) . (1.) Son of Eleazar . the high priest (Exodus 6:25). . (3) Father of a priest named Eleazar (Ezra 8:33; compare Ezra 8:2; 1 Esdras 8:63, "Phinees"). Henry Wallace. . /p/phinehas. htm - 20k

Elea'zar (72 Occurrences) Elea'zar. Eleazar . Elea'zar. Eleazar's . . Matthew 1:15 and Eliud begat Eleazar , and Eleazar begat Matthan, and Matthan begat Jacob, (See RSV). . /e/elea'zar. htm - 27k

Nadab (21 Occurrences) . Exodus 6:23 Aaron took Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, as his wife; and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. . /n/nadab. htm - 16k

Eleazar (74 Occurrences)

Matthew 1:15 Eliud became the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan. Matthan became the father of Jacob. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Exodus 6:23 Aaron took Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, as his wife; and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Exodus 6:25 Eleazar Aaron's son took one of the daughters of Putiel as his wife; and she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers' houses of the Levites according to their families. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Exodus 28:1 "Bring Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, near to you from among the children of Israel, that he may minister to me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Leviticus 10:6 Moses said to Aaron, and to Eleazar and to Ithamar, his sons, "Don't let the hair of your heads go loose, neither tear your clothes; that you don't die, and that he not be angry with all the congregation: but let your brothers, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning which Yahweh has kindled. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Leviticus 10:12 Moses spoke to Aaron, and to Eleazar and to Ithamar, his sons who were left, "Take the meal offering that remains of the offerings of Yahweh made by fire, and eat it without yeast beside the altar; for it is most holy; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Leviticus 10:16 Moses diligently inquired about the goat of the sin offering, and, behold, it was burned: and he was angry with Eleazar and with Ithamar, the sons of Aaron who were left, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 3:2 These are the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab the firstborn, and Abihu, Eleazar. and Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 3:4 Nadab and Abihu died before Yahweh, when they offered strange fire before Yahweh, in the wilderness of Sinai, and they had no children. Eleazar and Ithamar ministered in the priest's office in the presence of Aaron their father. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 3:32 Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest shall be prince of the princes of the Levites, with the oversight of those who keep the requirements of the sanctuary. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 4:16 "The duty of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest shall be the oil for the light, the sweet incense, the continual meal offering, and the anointing oil, the requirements of all the tabernacle, and of all that is in it, the sanctuary, and its furnishings." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 16:37 "Speak to Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, that he take up the censers out of the burning, and scatter the fire yonder; for they are holy, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 16:39 Eleazar the priest took the bronze censers, which those who were burnt had offered; and they beat them out for a covering of the altar, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 19:3 You shall give her to Eleazar the priest, and he shall bring her forth outside of the camp, and one shall kill her before his face: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 19:4 and Eleazar the priest shall take of her blood with his finger, and sprinkle her blood toward the front of the Tent of Meeting seven times. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 20:25 Take Aaron and Eleazar his son, and bring them up to Mount Hor; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 20:26 and strip Aaron of his garments, and put them on Eleazar his son: and Aaron shall be gathered to his people, and shall die there." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 20:28 Moses stripped Aaron of his garments, and put them on Eleazar his son; and Aaron died there on the top of the mountain: and Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 25:7 When Phinehas, the son of Eleazar. the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 25:11 "Phinehas, the son of Eleazar. the son of Aaron the priest, has turned my wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was jealous with my jealousy among them, so that I didn't consume the children of Israel in my jealousy. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 26:1 It happened after the plague, that Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, saying, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 26:3 Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 26:60 To Aaron were born Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 26:63 These are those who were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numbered the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan at Jericho. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 27:2 They stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, at the door of the Tent of Meeting, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 27:19 and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation; and commission him in their sight. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 27:21 He shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before Yahweh: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 27:22 Moses did as Yahweh commanded him; and he took Joshua, and set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:6 Moses sent them, one thousand of every tribe, to the war, them and Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, to the war, with the vessels of the sanctuary and the trumpets for the alarm in his hand. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:12 They brought the captives, and the prey, and the spoil, to Moses, and to Eleazar the priest, and to the congregation of the children of Israel, to the camp at the plains of Moab, which are by the Jordan at Jericho. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:13 Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them outside of the camp. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:21 Eleazar the priest said to the men of war who went to the battle, "This is the statute of the law which Yahweh has commanded Moses: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:26 "Take the sum of the prey that was taken, both of man and of animal, you, and Eleazar the priest, and the heads of the fathers' houses of the congregation; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:29 take it of their half, and give it to Eleazar the priest, for Yahweh's wave offering. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:31 Moses and Eleazar the priest did as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:41 Moses gave the tribute, which was Yahweh's wave offering, to Eleazar the priest, as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:51 Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of them, even all worked jewels. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 31:52 All the gold of the wave offering that they offered up to Yahweh, of the captains of thousands, and of the captains of hundreds, was sixteen thousand seven hundred fifty shekels. (See NIV)

Numbers 31:54 Moses and Eleazar the priest took the gold of the captains of thousands and of hundreds, and brought it into the Tent of Meeting, for a memorial for the children of Israel before Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 32:2 the children of Gad and the children of Reuben came and spoke to Moses, and to Eleazar the priest, and to the princes of the congregation, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 32:28 So Moses commanded concerning them to Eleazar the priest, and to Joshua the son of Nun, and to the heads of the fathers' houses of the tribes of the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Numbers 34:17 "These are the names of the men who shall divide the land to you for inheritance: Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Deuteronomy 10:6 (The children of Israel traveled from Beeroth Bene Jaakan to Moserah. There Aaron died, and there he was buried; and Eleazar his son ministered in the priest's office in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 14:1 These are the inheritances which the children of Israel took in the land of Canaan, which Eleazar the priest, Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers' houses of the tribes of the children of Israel, distributed to them, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 17:4 They came near before Eleazar the priest, and before Joshua the son of Nun, and before the princes, saying, "Yahweh commanded Moses to give us an inheritance among our brothers." Therefore according to the commandment of Yahweh he gave them an inheritance among the brothers of their father. The First Book of Samuel (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 19:51 These are the inheritances, which Eleazar the priest, Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers' houses of the tribes of the children of Israel, distributed for inheritance by lot in Shiloh before Yahweh, at the door of the Tent of Meeting. So they made an end of dividing the land. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 21:1 Then the heads of fathers' houses of the Levites came near to Eleazar the priest, and to Joshua the son of Nun, and to the heads of fathers' houses of the tribes of the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 22:13 The children of Israel sent to the children of Reuben, and to the children of Gad, and to the half-tribe of Manasseh, into the land of Gilead, Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 22:31 Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest said to the children of Reuben, to the children of Gad, and to the children of Manasseh, "Today we know that Yahweh is in the midst of us, because you have not committed this trespass against Yahweh. Now you have delivered the children of Israel out of the hand of Yahweh." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 22:32 Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, and the princes, returned from the children of Reuben, and from the children of Gad, out of the land of Gilead, to the land of Canaan, to the children of Israel, and brought them word again. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Joshua 24:33 Eleazar the son of Aaron died. They buried him in the hill of Phinehas his son, which was given him in the hill country of Ephraim. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Judges 20:28 and Phinehas, the son of Eleazar. the son of Aaron, stood before it in those days), saying, "Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother, or shall I cease?" Yahweh said, "Go up; for tomorrow I will deliver him into your hand." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Samuel 7:1 The men of Kiriath Jearim came, and fetched up the ark of Yahweh, and brought it into the house of Abinadab in the hill, and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the ark of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

2 Samuel 23:9 After him was Eleazar the son of Dodai the son of an Ahohite, one of the three mighty men with David, when they defied the Philistines who were there gathered together to battle, and the men of Israel were gone away. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

2 Samuel 23:10 He arose, and struck the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand froze to the sword; and Yahweh worked a great victory that day; and the people returned after him only to take spoil. (See NIV)

1 Chronicles 6:3 The children of Amram: Aaron, and Moses, and Miriam. The sons of Aaron: Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar. and Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 6:4 Eleazar became the father of Phinehas, Phinehas became the father of Abishua, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 6:50 These are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar his son, Phinehas his son, Abishua his son, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 9:20 Phinehas the son of Eleazar was ruler over them in time past, and Yahweh was with him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 11:12 After him was Eleazar the son of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was one of the three mighty men. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 23:21 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. The sons of Mahli: Eleazar and Kish. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 23:22 Eleazar died, and had no sons, but daughters only: and their brothers the sons of Kish took them to wife. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:1 These were the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron: Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:2 But Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no children: therefore Eleazar and Ithamar executed the priest's office. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:3 David with Zadok of the sons of Eleazar. and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, divided them according to their ordering in their service. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:4 There were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of Ithamar; and thus were they divided: of the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen, heads of fathers' houses; and of the sons of Ithamar, according to their fathers' houses, eight. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:5 Thus were they divided impartially by drawing lots; for there were princes of the sanctuary, and princes of God, both of the sons of Eleazar. and of the sons of Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:6 Shemaiah the son of Nethanel the scribe, who was of the Levites, wrote them in the presence of the king, and the princes, and Zadok the priest, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, and the heads of the fathers' houses of the priests and of the Levites; one fathers' house being taken for Eleazar. and one taken for Ithamar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 24:28 Of Mahli: Eleazar. who had no sons. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

1 Chronicles 27:4 And over the division for the second month was Eleazar. the son of Dodai the Ahohite, the ruler; and in his division were twenty-four thousand. (BBE)

Ezra 7:5 the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar. the son of Aaron the chief priest; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Ezra 8:33 On the fourth day the silver and the gold and the vessels were weighed in the house of our God into the hand of Meremoth the son of Uriah the priest; and with him was Eleazar the son of Phinehas; and with them was Jozabad the son of Jeshua, and Noadiah the son of Binnui, the Levite; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Ezra 10:25 Of Israel: Of the sons of Parosh: Ramiah, and Izziah, and Malchijah, and Mijamin, and Eleazar. and Malchijah, and Benaiah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Nehemiah 12:42 and Maaseiah, and Shemaiah, and Eleazar. and Uzzi, and Jehohanan, and Malchijah, and Elam, and Ezer. The singers sang loud, with Jezrahiah their overseer. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)

Beginning Your Family History, Admon

FAMILY HISTORY FOR BEGINNERS

Introduction We are familiar with the expression "Last Will and Testament" but may not appreciate the difference between the two components of this single document. Before the Statute of Wills in 1540 it was not generally possible to bequeath land. A legal loophole had been exploited from the 15th century by which the land was conveyed during the holder's lifetime to trustees "to hold to the use of the owner's will". The document instructing the trustees was known as his "Will". The Statute of Wills made the bequeathing of land legal. Other property was transferable by means of a "Testament" and after 1540 the two documents were combined into one.

For the terms of a will to be discharged, it was usual to "prove" the will before a probate court which would try to ensure that the terms of the will were followed and proper accounts rendered. Until 1858, these courts were operated by the Church. Subsequently, their work was transferred to civil probate registries.

If a person died without leaving a will (died intestate) the estate, particularly if small, might be divided up by mutual agreement. Otherwise, one or more of the family or a substantial creditor might apply to the court for Letters of Administration (Admons) which gave permission to dispose of the estate. If the deceased's property was of more than ?5 value, letters of administration were mandatory (though it might be expected that many estates of modest value went without this formality). Only a small percentage of people left wills or had Admons issued on their death but it is not safe to assume that if an ancestor was not wealthy, he would not leave a will. Before the Married Women's Property Act of 1882, a married woman could only make a will with her husband's permission and he could choose not to carry out its terms if he wished.

It was not usual practice for a person to make a will in the course of normal life. Wills were something which were attended to when death looked like a possibility or a certainty, for example, when the individual was seriously ill. Wills might also be drawn up when the person was about to undertake a lengthy sea voyage or get involved in military action. Since death could strike suddenly, there are many occasions where a person who held substantial assets died intestate, leaving the family to apply for letters of administration.

Probate Before 1858 The ecclesiastical probate courts were organised in a hierarchical structure. At the lowest level was the Archdeaconry Court (an Archdeaconry consisting of several parishes) and if a testator held all of his property in a single Archdeaconry, this court could grant probate. If, however, the property extended into another Archdeaconry in the same Diocese, the authority of the Bishop's Consistory or Commissary Court was required if the value of this property exceeded ?5 (bona notabilia). Similarly, if the property extended into more than one Diocese, probate jurisdiction was again claimed by the next highest level, the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop. There were two of these courts, the Prerogative Court of York (PCY) for the northern Dioceses and the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (PCC), which confusingly was based in London, for the southern. If property extended into both Provinces, the PCC claimed jurisdiction as the senior court. The PCC also claimed jurisdiction over probate matters concerning people who died overseas while still holding property in England & Wales.

A level of complication is introduced by "Peculiar Jurisdictions" which might extend to a single parish or cover a group of parishes. Probate jurisdiction in Peculiars, for historical reasons, was claimed by a variety of bodies such as the Dean & Chapter of a Cathedral or a University College. Where property extended outside the peculiar, the hierarchical rules described above would apply. Peculiars are very common in some counties such as Yorkshire and Wiltshire yet absent entirely from others such as Durham and Cumberland.

To add a further level of complication, executors were not constrained to present the will to the lowest competent court in the hierarchy and could (and did) seek a grant of probate in any of the higher courts. They might do this for convenience (i. e. the executor(s) lived closer to the Bishop's court than to the Archdeacon's), in the belief that a higher court might deal more competently, or simply as a matter of status. You will consequently have to check each court in the hierarchy to be certain that a will was not proved. In some Dioceses, Archdeaconry Courts did not operate and all probate matters were handled by the Consistory or Commissary Court.

There was a disruption of this system during the Commonwealth period 1653-1660. During this time all wills were required to be proved in a single civil registry in London (this was to all intents and purposes the PCC). Some provincial courts, particularly peculiars, continued to grant probate during some or all of this period and so should not be ignored.

Finding a Will Before 1858 Finding a grant of probate under this system can be difficult since one first has to decide in which of the 300 or so courts the grant might have been made and then indexes or calendars for each of those courts must be searched for the required entry. The quality of indexing varies considerably between courts. Some are well indexed and the indexes have been published. An example is the Diocese of Chester for which indexes have been published in book form up to 1837. For testators resident in Cheshire, these, together with the remainder up to 1858, have been published on the Internet. For Lancashire, there are typed indexes 1838-1858 at Lancashire Record Office, Preston. For York (Diocese and PCY), however, the indexes have only been published up to around 1660. After this year, there are manuscript "Calendars" available only at the Borthwick Institute of Historical Research in York. A calendar is an annual list of grants sorted into alphabetical order of the first letter of the surname but not further sorted.

In each case, the index or calendar will identify the testator by name and residence, with the possible addition of occupation and indicate the location of the will within the court's records. The reference system may vary according to the court involved. That for the PCC is particularly complex.

Although the majority of wills were proved within a few months of the testator's death, there was no pressure to do so within any particular time limit. It is not uncommon to find a will proved several years after the death of the testator and a 20 year or longer delay is not unknown. Bear this in mind and do not limit your search to the year of death and possibly the year following.

The standard reference works to identify probate jurisdictions are The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers and Jeremy Gibson's guide "Probate Jurisdictions - Where to Look for Wills". The former is easier to use since it contains maps to a considerably larger scale but the latter is required to identify the location of the records once the jurisdiction is established. Anthony Camp's "Wills and Where to Find Them" contains somewhat more detail than Gibson but is now rather out of date. You should also consult record office catalogues which may provide more details, particularly in relation to records of unproved and disputed wills.

Probate After 1858 Responsibility for probate matters was transferred to a network of civil probate registries on 11 January 1858. These operated out of cities and large towns and had authority to grant probate regardless of the disposition of the deceased's assets. Finding a will or Admon within this system is considerably simpler than under the system it replaced since there is a single consolidated national index for probates granted by all of the registries. Copies of the indexes will be found in many record offices and in some local studies libraries. Wills and Admons are indexed separately in some years but together in others. Be aware of the scope of the index when searching. The index is very informative containing dates of both death and probate, the address and occupation of the testator and the names and addresses of the executors and their relationship, if any, to the deceased. The earlier comment about wills possibly being proved several years after the testator's death applies equally here. The probate index, though with some gaps, is available a

The Form and Content of a Will There is no rigid or legally required format for a will. The law simply requires it to record the freely expressed wishes of a mentally competent testator and to be signed by him in the presence of at least two witnesses who must sign it in his and each other's presence and who may not be beneficiaries. There is, however, particularly with wills written in the 19th century and earlier, a general pattern. A will usually begins with the words " In the Name of God Amen. " followed by the name, occupation and residence of the testator. The testator will then assert his mental competence " . being weak in body but of sound and disposing memory. " or similar wording. It was common to leave the writing of a will until death seemed imminent so this wording is frequently more than simply a formula. There may then be instructions as to the disposal of the body and erection of a memorial and possibly a request for gifts to mourners or local residents. There will then be a list of bequests. This will frequently begin " Imprimis I give and bequeath. " and subsequent bequests will be identified by " Item. ". There may be many of these and some may be complicated, particularly if property is to be held in trust. An executor or executors (female = executrix) will then be named (the executors may occasionally be named before the list of bequests or within the first or a subsequent bequest). Finally, there will be a declaration that all former wills are to be revoked and the date is given (the date may sometimes appear at the beginning after the identification of the testator). The signatures or marks of the testator and witnesses (who may be the attorney and his clerk) will then be appended.

Problems with the Interpretation of Wills It should be noted that, particularly in early wills, bequests will include brassware and bedlinen which were then prized and valuable items. There may also be names of household and trade items and tools which are today unfamiliar. Caution should also be exercised with the interpretation of stated relationships. As with the census, terms such as "cousin", "nephew", "stepson/daughter" and "-in-law" may not be interpreted as they are today.

You should not assume, because a child, particularly the eldest son, is given a small bequest such as "one shilling" that this signifies disapproval and disinheritance. It may signify that he has already received his portion of the estate and the small bequest may simply be included to ensure that there is no subsequent argument that he has been forgotten. If someone is "cut off with a shilling" as a disinheritance, this will usually be made clear.

With wills written before 1800 and particularly before 1700, the handwriting may be in an archaic style and difficult to read. There may also be a tendency to use some unusual abbreviations and symbols to indicate the omission of one or more letters from a word. One can either practice reading this script until proficient or seek a transcription from a specialist in this work. Sometimes, one can get a start by looking for the standard phrases discussed earlier from which you can get some feeling for the letter and word forms used. You will, however, not usually encounter Latin in wills unless they are very early in date. The condition of some wills is less than ideal and you will usually find yourself dealing with a microfilm or photocopy. Photocopies and microfilms may be difficult to read and the edges of the original document may be frayed with consequent loss of text. Parchment occasionally develops holes (lacunae) into which a vital name may be lost for ever.

Administrations In the event that no will was left and authority was needed to dispose of the deceased's estate, a grant of Letters of Administration (Admon) would be obtained from the court or registry. In general, Admons usually contain very limited information and this usually consists of the name, residence and possibly the occupation of the administrator appointed. This will frequently be a family member. Very occasionally, however, an Admon may name several family members and be of considerable value but there is seldom any way to determine this from the index entries. It is wise to obtain a copy of any Admon for a deceased ancestor "just in case".

You will also occasionally find an "Admon with Will Attached". This is usually found when either the executors have died or they have refused to execute the will. In these circumstances an administrator would be appointed by the court to discharge the terms of the will. The admon may indicate the reasons for its issue.

Other Probate Documents Although you will chiefly encounter wills and Admons, there is a variety of other probate material which you may find associated with probate records. These can be useful both genealogically and to assist in building a fuller picture of the deceased's life. Such documents may be filed with the will of admon but may also be filed and indexed separately. Record office guides and staff should clarify for any particular court.

Codicils - A codicil is an additional document to extend or modify the terms of a will. Codicils will usually be filed with the will and may, for example, have been written to amend the will in the light of the subsequent death of one of the beneficiaries or other changed circumstances. Since they will be dated, they can sometimes be useful as a means of identifying when one of the original beneficiaries died.

Inventories - Up to about 1700 it was the practice to require executors to compile an inventory of all of the deceased's possessions together with their monetary value. Inventories will give some idea of the deceased's material possessions, particularly tools of his trade and may indicate his interests through titles of books, inclusion of musical instruments and so forth. It is also common to find the items listed under the rooms in which they were found. This can give some idea of the size of the deceased's house and occasionally of the layout of the rooms. Inventories are often stored in archives and indexed separately from the wills to which they relate.

Tuition Bonds - When the testator had young children, he might nominate a person (often a relative) to ensure that the children were properly educated and set aside funds for the purpose. The appointed guardian could be asked to enter into a bond to guarantee his proper discharge of these responsibilities. Tuition would generally apply to children under the age of 14 (12 for girls) and so is of help in narrowing down the possible birthdates for a child named in the will.

Curation Bonds - For children over the qualifying age for a tuition bond, a curation bond would apply. The difference to a tuition bond is, for all practical purposes, academic though it indicates a narrower possible range of ages for the children named.

Act Books, Probate Copies and Registered Copies When you view a will at a record office, you will not necessarily see the original will. When a will was presented to the court, a probate copy was made. Up to about 1600 the copy would be filed and the original given to the executors. Later, it was the original which was kept and the copy given out. Registered copies were additional copies made by the court for office use and public reference. They are usually easier to read than original wills but the possibility of transcription errors is ever-present. Original wills can be easily recognised by the signatures, and occasionally the seals, of the testator and witnesses. The Probate Act Book contains a summary record of each grant including the names of the testator and executor(s) and the date of the grant. In some cases, all of the original documents have been lost and the Act Book holds the only surviving record of a will.

Nuncupative Wills The imminence of death may have made it impracticable to obtain an attorney in time and a dying man may have been illiterate or incapable of writing a will himself (a so-called holographic will). In such circumstances, he could dictate his wishes in front of witnesses who would see to it that these were written down at the first opportunity and would witness their validity. Such wills are termed Nuncupative and may be indicated as such in indexes, calendars and Act Books. A nuncupative will was of equal validity to a written one if accepted by the court and is of equal genealogical value.

The Genealogical Value of Wills Wills are in most cases the only written record (even if as is often the case they were penned by an attorney) left by our ancestors. They can contain vital information to establish or confirm relationships. The most obvious value is in the bequests which may list the names of the testator's wife, children and other family members. This is invaluable both to confirm the relationships and to confirm that these people were still alive at the time the will was written. Daughters may be identified by their married names (and often their husbands will also be named) so their marriages and subsequent descendants may be identified in parish registers.

Another value of wills, particularly for farmers, is that they will often name a residence quite precisely, for example the name of a farm or the street in which a testator lived. This can be of considerable value when there are two people of the same name in an area as a means of determining which is which. They may also mention other properties he owned which may help us in tracing his movements during his life. Place names may help you to identify the property in other records such as deeds and this may lead to new avenues of research.

Wills may often include clues to assist us in finding dates for births, marriages and deaths in the family, even if they do not provide explicit information. Bequests to children ". when they reach the age of 21. " tell us that the children at the date the will was written were under this age. A reference to "..my present wife. " may suggest that the testator was previously married (and probably widowed) before marriage to his current wife. Note, however, that a testator may not differentiate between the children of his two (or more) wives unless they are his step-children and even this is not certain. Other clues to the deaths of family members may be given by phrases such as ". children of my late sister. ". Remember that all of these clues relate to the date when the will was written and not to the date it was proved.

It is worth noting that the civil probate indexes from 1858 onwards contain far more information than the civil registration death indexes and may be valuable as a way to identify an ancestor if the indexes are inconclusive, possibly where the name is common.

Probate on the Internet The indexes to civil probate grants after 1858 are available on the internet at www. ancestry. com Some indexes of grants before 1858 are available. The most substantial collection is over 1 million grants of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury for which a free index is available at The National Archives Documents Online. Copies of the wills concerned can be ordered on line with payment by credit card. Other indexes include probate grants by the Chester Consistory Court and Chester Probate Registry (from 1858) which appear on the Cheshire Record Office web site. Copies can be ordered on line for delivery by mail.

The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers, Cecil Humphery Smith

Probate Jurisdictions, Where to Look for Wills, Jeremy Gibson, FFHS (essential!)

Wills and Where to Find Them, Anthony Camp (rather out of date but still useful)

Wills Before 1858, Eve McLaughlin (inexpensive concise summary)

Wills from 1858, Eve McLaughlin (inexpensive concise summary)

Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, Miriam Scott, PRO Reader Guide 15 (clear & useful)

Amended 3 January 2011 - John Marsden

Regard - Definition Of Regard By The Free Dictionary, Regerd

regard

In reference or relation to; with respect to.

In reference or relation to; with respect to.

[Middle English regarden . from Old French regarder . to look at . re - . re - + guarder . to guard, look at ( of Germanic origin ; see guard ).]

Synonyms: regard , esteem , admiration , respect These nouns refer to a feeling based on perception of and approval for the worth of a person or thing. Regard is the most general: "I once thought you had a kind of regard for her" (George Borrow). Esteem connotes considered appraisal and positive regard: "The near-unanimity of esteem he enjoyed during his lifetime has by no means been sustained since" (Will Crutchfield). Admiration is a feeling of keen approbation: "Greatness is a spiritual condition worthy to excite love, interest, and admiration" (Matthew Arnold). Respect implies appreciative, often deferential regard resulting from careful assessment: The well-behaved children showed great respect for their teacher. See Also Synonyms at consider .

Usage Note: Regard is traditionally used in the singular in the phrase in regard (not in regards ) to. In our 2004 survey, barely six percent of the Usage Panel accepted the phrase in regards to. Slightly more than half the Panel found the syntactically peculiar as regards acceptable in the sentence These surveys show a high level of satisfaction with government policy among the elderly in the Scandinavian countries, especially as regards the medical services provided by the state. Sixty-seven percent accepted in regard to in the same sentence. The phrase with respect to is also standard in this use. Many Panelists said that they would prefer regarding over the other prepositions in these situations. The similar prepositional use of respecting is controversial. In our 2009 survey, 55 percent rejected the example You must follow all regulations respecting the use of the park. This usage has a somewhat old-fashioned ring to it and probably should be avoided.

regard

1. to look closely or attentively at (something or someone); observe steadily

2. ( tr ) to hold (a person or thing) in respect, admiration, or affection: we regard your work very highly.

3. ( tr ) to look upon or consider in a specified way: she regarded her brother as her responsibility.

4. ( tr ) to relate to; concern; have a bearing on

5. to take notice of or pay attention to (something); heed: he has never regarded the conventions.

6. as regards ( preposition ) in respect of; concerning

8. attention; heed: he spends without regard to his bank balance.

9. esteem, affection, or respect

10. reference, relation, or connection (esp in the phrases with regard to or in regard to )

11. ( plural ) good wishes or greetings (esp in the phrase with kind regards . used at the close of a letter)

12. in this regard on this point

[C14: from Old French regarder to look at, care about, from re - + garder to guard]

re•gard

1. to look upon or think of with a particular feeling: to regard a person with favor.

2. to have or show respect or concern for.

3. to think highly of; esteem.

4. to take into account; consider.

5. to look at; observe.

6. to relate to; concern.

7. to see, look at, or conceive of in a particular way; judge: I regard every assignment as a challenge.

8. to pay attention.

9. to look or gaze.

10. reference; relation: to err with regard to facts.

11. an aspect, point, or particular: quite satisfactory in this regard.

12. thought; attention; concern.

14. respect, esteem, or deference.

15. kindly feeling; liking.

16. regards, sentiments of esteem or affection: Give them my regards.

1. as regards, concerning; about.

2. with or in regard to, with reference to; as regards; concerning.

[1350–1400; (n.) Middle English < Middle French, n. derivative of regarder to look at (compare reward ); (v.) late Middle English < Middle French regarder. See re -, guard ]

usage: The phrases as regards . in regard to. and with regard to are standard and occur in all varieties of spoken and written English, esp. in business writing: As regards your letter of January 19… However, these phrases are sometimes regarded as unwieldy substitutes for about or concerning . which may be easily substituted if desired. The phrases in regards to and with regards to are widely rejected as errors.

regard

If you regard someone or something as a particular thing, you believe that they are that thing.

I regard it as one of my masterpieces.

Kenworthy did not regard himself as an expert on language.

You can also say that someone or something is regarded as being a particular thing or is regarded as having a particular quality.

The play was regarded as being of mixed merits.

The couple are regarded as having one of the strongest marriages in showbiz.

regard

Past participle: regarded Gerund: regarding

regard

[r&a;ˈgɑː r d]

(= care, concern ) → consideration f to have no regard for sth → n'avoir aucune consideration pour qch without regard to sth/sb → sans aucune consideration pour qch/qn

(= respect, admiration ) → estime f sb's regard for sb → l'estime que qn porte a qn, l'estime de qn pour qn She was pleased by Hugh's regard for her parents → Elle etait contente de l'estime que Hugh portait a ses parents. Elle etait contente de l'estime de Hugh pour ses parents. to have a high regard for sb → avoir beaucoup d'estime pour qn

(= aspect ) in this regard (= in this respect ) → a cet egard

regards npl to give one's regards to sb Give my regards to Alice → Transmettez mon bon souvenir a Alice. to send one's regards Louis sends his regards → Vous avez le bonjour de Louis. "with kind regards" → "bien cordialement " I send this to you with kindest regards BUT Je vous envoie ceci avec mes meilleurs sentiments.

vt (= consider ) → considerer to regard sth as sth → considerer qch comme qch I regard it as one of my masterpieces → Je le considere comme un de mes chefs-d'œuvre. to regard sb as sth → considerer qn comme qch I regard her as a genius → Je la considere comme un genie. to regard sb with suspicion → considerer qn avec suspicion to be regarded with some suspicion by sb → etre considere (e) avec une certaine suspicion par qn He regarded drug dealers with loathing BUT Il avait une profonde aversion pour les dealers. to regard o. s. as sth → se considerer comme qch She regards herself as something of an expert → Elle se considere comme une sorte d'expert. those who regard themselves as agnostic or even atheist → ceux qui se considerent agnostiques ou meme athees

regard

(= attention, concern) → Rucksicht f (→ for auf +acc ); to have some regard for somebody/something → auf jdn /etw Rucksicht nehmen ; to show little/no regard for somebody/something → wenig/keine Rucksichtnahme fur jdn /etw zeigen ; with no regard for his safety → ohne Rucksicht auf seine Sicherheit (zu nehmen) ; without regard to or for her views → ohne sich um ihre Ansichten zu kummern ; without regard to or for what people might think → ohne sich darum zu kummern. was die Leute denken mochten

(= respect) → Achtung f ; to hold somebody in high regard → jdn achten or sehr schatzen ; to have a great regard for somebody → jdn hoch achten

regard

1. ( with as ) to consider to be. I regard his conduct as totally unacceptable. beskou ????????? считам considerar povazovat ansehen anse ????? considerar pidama ?????? ???? pitaa jonakin considerer ?????????? ????? smatrati vminek tart vmit menganggap alita considerare ~???? ???? laikyti uzskatit mengambil kira beschouwen se pa. betrakte uwazac ?? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???: ??? ????? (??????) ???? ???: ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??? considerar a considera считать povazovat imeti za smatrati anse, betrakta ??????? saymak. dusunmek ?? вважати ???? ???? coi nhu ?. ??

2. to think of as being very good, important etc ; to respect. He is very highly regarded by his friends. eer, loof ????????? уважавам prezar vazit si, ctit achten respektere ???????. ?????? tener considerado/estimado (korgelt) hindama ?????? ???? ??? arvostaa tenir en (. ) estime ??????? ????- ??? ???? imati visoko misljenje, vrlo cijeniti elismer menghormati vir?a stimare ???? ????? vertinti, gerbti vertet dihormati hoogachten regne/anses for a v?re powazac ?????? ??? prezar a stima уважать vazit si ceniti uvazavati uppfatta, se pa, anse ?????? saymak ??,?? ставитися ??? ? ??? ???? coi tr?ng ??

3. to think of (with a particular emotion or feeling). I regard him with horror; He regards his wife's behaviour with amusement. dink aan ?????????? ??????? ??? смятам pensar em uvazovat (o), pohlizet (na) betrachten se pa; betragte ???????????? considerar ; mirar suhtuma ?? ???? ????? suhtautua considerer ?????????? ????? ???? zgrazati se nad gondol vkire, vmire memikirkan hugsa til giudicare ~???? (?? ??? ???) ???? ziureti i domat par; iztureties pret mengingati dengan perasaan tertentu aanzien se pa. betrakte traktowac ???? ????? pensar em a privi относиться pozerat sa (na) gledati na posmatrati se pa, betrakta ?????? dusunmek ?? дивитися (на) ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? nh?n xet ai ??

4. to look at. He regarded me over the top of his glasses. kyk na, bekyk ??????? ??? гледам fitar divat se na, pozorovat betrachten se pa ???????. ???????? mirar vaatlema ???? ???? katsoa regarder ??????????? ????? promatrati (nekoga ili nesto) nez memandang lita a osservare ?? ?? ziureti i uzlukot memandang, menumpu kijken naar se pa. betrakte spogladac na, obserwowac ??? ??? fitar a privi la разглядывать pozerat sa na, pozorovat opazovati posmatrati se pa, betrakta ??????? bakmak ?? розглядати ?????? nhin ??

5. to pay attention to (advice etc ). gee aandag aan ??????? ??? ????? ?????????? обръщам внимание fazer caso de dbat beachten lytte til ???? ???????, ????????? prestar atencion. tener en cuenta arvesse votma ???? ???? huomioida tenir compte de ??????????? ??????????? ????? obratiti paznju na figyel memperhatikan veita athygli (tenere in considerazione) ???? ??? ???? kreipti demesi, paisyti nemt vera mempertimbangkan aandacht besteden aan ta hensyn til. akte wziac pod uwage ?????? ??? fazer caso de a tine cont de считаться dbat na upostevati obratiti paznju ta notis om, bry sig om ???????? dikkat etmek ?? брати до уваги, зважати ??? ???? chu y ??

1. thought; attention. He ran into the burning house without regard for his safety. om na te dink ???????? ???????? грижа consideracao ohled die Rucksicht hensyntagen ???????. ??????? consideracion ; atencion mote ????? ?????? huomio egard ???????? ??? ????? obzirom na tekintet perhatian tillit considerazione ?? ?? demesys, paisymas nedomajot par peduli aandacht hensyn. tanke pa zwazanie ?????? consideracao grija внимание ohlad, zretel ozir osvrt hansyn ??????? dikkat. ozen ?? відношення ???? suy nghi; s? chu y ??

2. sympathy; care; consideration. He shows no regard for other people. simpatie ???????? ???????? ???????? зачитане consideracao ohled, zajem, pochopeni die Rucksicht hensyn ??????. ????????. ??????? consideracion. respeto tahelepanu ????? huoli egard ??????? ??????, ????? ne cijeniti nikoga figyelem simpati tillit, umhyggja riguardo. rispetto ???? ?? rupestis, uzuojauta rupes; uzmaniba simpati eerherstel hensyn. aktelse wzglad ????? consideracao consideratie забота ohlad, zaujem; pochopenie obzirnost obzir hansyn, aktning ??????????; ???????? sempati. anlay?s ?? увага, турбота ??? ???? s? thong c?m ??

3. good opinion; respect. I hold him in high regard. hoe aansien ????????? ??? ?????? уважение estima ucta die Achtung respekt ????????. ???????? estima. consideracion austus ?????? arvostus estime ????? ?????? lijepo sjecanje elismeres hormat vir?ing stima. considerazione ?? ?? pagarba ciena kehormatan aanzien aktelse. respekt szacunek ?????? estima stima уважение ucta, vaznost spostovanje uvazavanje aktning ????????????????? sayg?. hurmet ?? повага, прихильність ????? ? ????? quy tr?ng ??

about; concerning. Have you any suggestions regarding this project? oor ??? ??????????? ???? ????? относно em relacao a tykajici se bezuglich med hensyn til ??????? ?? con respecto a. en cuanto a kohta ????? koskien jotakin concernant ????? ? - ?? ???? ??? obzirom na, sto se tice tekintettel vmire; azert tentang vi?vikjandi riguardo a ~???? …? ??? del sakara ar; attieciba uz tentang, berkenaan betreffende angaende. vedrorende. nar det gjelder odnosnie ?? ???? ?? em relacao a pri­vitor la относительно tykajuci sa glede po pitanju betraffande, angaende ????????? ilgili. konusunda ?? щодо, стосовно ????? v? ??

re?gardless adjective, adverb

not thinking or caring about costs, problems, dangers etc . There may be difficulties but I shall carry on regardless. ongeag ????? ???????? невнимателен sem olhar a bez ohledu na; presto ungeachtet alligevel; uden hensyn til ?????????? ???, ???????????? ??? a pesar de. sin hacer caso de hoolimata ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? huolimatta sans souci de; quand meme ??? ??? ??????? bezobziran vmire valo tekintet nelkul tanpa mempedulikan a tillits til indifferente ; ???? ???? ?? nepaisant (to) neverigs; neatkarigi no; par spiti tanpa menghiraukan ongeacht uten hensyn til. uansett bez wzgledu na (wszystko) ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? sem olhar a indiferent de; ori­cum невзирая ни на что napriek tomu; bez ohladu na brezbrizen; ne glede na bez obzira na utan hansyn, trots, oberoende av ?????????????? her seye ragmen, gene de ?????,????? такий, що не зважає; попри ??? ???? khong tinh d?n ?????(?)

re?gards noun plural

greetings; good wishes. Give my regards to your mother; He sent her his regards. groete ????????? ??????? ??????? поздрави cumprimentos pozdravy die Gru?e(pl.) hilsen ???????????? saludos. recuerdos tervitused ???? ????? ?????? terveiset amities ???????? ?????? ?????????? pozdravi, lijepe zelje udvozlet salam kve?jur saluti ~????? ?? linkejimai sveicieni, laba velejumi kiriman salam groeten hilsen pozdrowienia ???? cumprimentos salutari привет pozdravy pozdravi pozdrav halsningar ????????????????? selamlar ?? уклін, привіт ??? ??????? l?i chao; l?i chuc ??

as far as (something) is concerned. As regards the meeting tomorrow, I hope as many people will attend as possible. betreffende ???? ?????? ???? ?????????? за quanto a pokud jde was. betrifft med hensyn til ???? ????? por lo que respecta, en cuanto a mis puudutab ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????? mita jhnk tulee pour ce qui est de ????? ? - ?????, ?????? sto se tice, s obzirom na ami. t illeti mengenai a? ?vi er vi?vikur per quanto riguarda. riguardo a ~????? …? ???? o del, kalbant apie kas attiecas uz berkenaan wat betreft nar det gjelder. med hensyn til co do ?? ???? ?? quanto a in ceea ce priveste что касается co sa tyka kar se tice sto se tice vad betraffar ????????????????. - e gelince. ile ilgili olarak ??,?? щодо ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?? lien quan d?n ??,??

about; concerning. I have no complaints with regard to his work. oor ???? ??????????? ???? ????? относно em relacao a ohledne hinsichtlich med hensyn til ?? ????? ?? respecto a, en cuanto a suhtes ?? ???? suhteen concernant ????? ? - ?? ??????? u pogledu tekintettel vmire mengenai me? tilliti til, var?andi riguardo a …? ???? del attieciba uz; par mengenai wat betreft nar det gjelder. angaende co sie tyczy, odnosnie ?? ???? ?? em relacao a cu pri­vire la относительно ohladne glede u vezi sa med avseende pa, angaende ?????????. hakk?nda. - e iliskin ?? стосовно ?? ????? v?; lien quan ??

with regards is sometimes used in ending a letter. with regard to means `about'.

regard

regard

n. respeto, consideracion;

in ___ to > respecto a ;

Her respect and regard for the `Laurence' boy increased very much, for he played remarkably well and didn't put on any airs.

In those days young women did not go out of our towns to Eastern colleges and ideas in regard to social classes had hardly begun to exist.

But it sure is queer that this Professor Beecher should have taken such a fancy to Mary, and that her father should regard him so well.

Cutter had been so insistent in regard to these details that now she felt uncomfortable about staying there alone.

He had gone over to Klein's, looking up some cotton broker whom he wished to see in regard to securities, exchanges, stocks, bonds, or something of the sort, Madame Ratignolle did not remember what.

exclaimed the proprietor of the condemned animal, aloud, without regard to the whispering tones used by the others; "spare the foal of Miriam

Just within the entrance, however, stood two serving-men, pointing some of the guests to the neighborhood of the kitchen and ushering others into the statelier rooms,--hospitable alike to all, but still with a scrutinizing regard to the high or low degree of each.

The better part of my companion's character, if it have a better part, is that which usually comes uppermost in my regard. and forms the type whereby I recognise the man.

I quite agree--in regard to Griffin's ghost, or whatever it was-- that its appearing first to the little boy, at so tender an age, adds a particular touch.

The baleen, hump, back-fin, and teeth; these are things whose peculiarities are indiscriminately dispersed among all sorts of whales, without any regard to what may be the nature of their structure in other and more essential particulars.

She believed the regard to be mutual; but she required greater certainty of it to make Marianne's conviction of their attachment agreeable to her.

They who set themselves to give precepts must of course regard themselves as possessed of greater skill than those to whom they prescribe; and if they err in the slightest particular, they subject themselves to censure.

Regard - Definition Of Regard By The Free Dictionary, Regad

regard

In reference or relation to; with respect to.

In reference or relation to; with respect to.

[Middle English regarden . from Old French regarder . to look at . re - . re - + guarder . to guard, look at ( of Germanic origin ; see guard ).]

Synonyms: regard , esteem , admiration , respect These nouns refer to a feeling based on perception of and approval for the worth of a person or thing. Regard is the most general: "I once thought you had a kind of regard for her" (George Borrow). Esteem connotes considered appraisal and positive regard: "The near-unanimity of esteem he enjoyed during his lifetime has by no means been sustained since" (Will Crutchfield). Admiration is a feeling of keen approbation: "Greatness is a spiritual condition worthy to excite love, interest, and admiration" (Matthew Arnold). Respect implies appreciative, often deferential regard resulting from careful assessment: The well-behaved children showed great respect for their teacher. See Also Synonyms at consider .

Usage Note: Regard is traditionally used in the singular in the phrase in regard (not in regards ) to. In our 2004 survey, barely six percent of the Usage Panel accepted the phrase in regards to. Slightly more than half the Panel found the syntactically peculiar as regards acceptable in the sentence These surveys show a high level of satisfaction with government policy among the elderly in the Scandinavian countries, especially as regards the medical services provided by the state. Sixty-seven percent accepted in regard to in the same sentence. The phrase with respect to is also standard in this use. Many Panelists said that they would prefer regarding over the other prepositions in these situations. The similar prepositional use of respecting is controversial. In our 2009 survey, 55 percent rejected the example You must follow all regulations respecting the use of the park. This usage has a somewhat old-fashioned ring to it and probably should be avoided.

regard

1. to look closely or attentively at (something or someone); observe steadily

2. ( tr ) to hold (a person or thing) in respect, admiration, or affection: we regard your work very highly.

3. ( tr ) to look upon or consider in a specified way: she regarded her brother as her responsibility.

4. ( tr ) to relate to; concern; have a bearing on

5. to take notice of or pay attention to (something); heed: he has never regarded the conventions.

6. as regards ( preposition ) in respect of; concerning

8. attention; heed: he spends without regard to his bank balance.

9. esteem, affection, or respect

10. reference, relation, or connection (esp in the phrases with regard to or in regard to )

11. ( plural ) good wishes or greetings (esp in the phrase with kind regards . used at the close of a letter)

12. in this regard on this point

[C14: from Old French regarder to look at, care about, from re - + garder to guard]

re•gard

1. to look upon or think of with a particular feeling: to regard a person with favor.

2. to have or show respect or concern for.

3. to think highly of; esteem.

4. to take into account; consider.

5. to look at; observe.

6. to relate to; concern.

7. to see, look at, or conceive of in a p