How Does A Ventilator Work Nhlbi, Nih, Ventilar

How Does a Ventilator Work?

Ventilators blow air—or air with extra oxygen—into the airways and then the lungs. The airways are pipes that carry oxygen-rich air to your lungs. They also carry carbon dioxide, a waste gas, out of your lungs.

The airways include your:

Nose and linked air passages, called nasal cavities


Larynx (LAR-ingks), or voice box

Trachea (TRA-ke-ah), or windpipe

Tubes called bronchial tubes or bronchi, and their branches

For more information about the airways, go to the Health Topics How the Lungs Work article.

The Breathing Tube

A ventilator blows air into your airways through a breathing tube. One end of the tube is inserted into your windpipe and the other end is attached to the ventilator. The breathing tube serves as an airway by letting air and oxygen from the ventilator flow into the lungs.

The process of inserting the tube into your windpipe is called intubation (in-too-BA-shun). Usually, the breathing tube is put into your windpipe through your nose or mouth. The tube is then moved down into your throat. A tube placed like this is called an endotracheal (en-do-TRA-ke-al) tube.

In an emergency, you're given medicine to make you sleepy and ease the pain of the breathing tube being put into your windpipe. If it's not an emergency, the procedure is done in an operating room using anesthesia. (That is, you're given medicine that makes you sleep and/or causes a loss of feeling.)

An endotracheal tube is held in place by tape or with an endotracheal tube holder. This holder often is a strap that fits around the head.

Sometimes the breathing tube is placed through a surgically made hole called a tracheostomy (TRA-ke-OS-to-me). The hole goes through the front of your neck and into your windpipe. The tube put into the hole sometimes is called a "trach" tube.

The procedure to make a tracheostomy usually is done in an operating room. Anesthesia is used, so you won't be awake or feel any pain. Specially made ties or bands that go around the neck hold the trach tube in place.

Both types of breathing tubes pass through your vocal cords and affect your ability to talk.

For the most part, endotracheal tubes are used for people who are on ventilators for shorter periods. The advantage of this tube is that it can be placed in an airway without surgery.

Trach tubes are used for people who need ventilators for longer periods. For people who are awake, this tube is more comfortable than the endotracheal tube. Under certain conditions, a person who has a trach tube may be able to talk.

The Ventilator

A ventilator uses pressure to blow air or a mixture of gases (like oxygen and air) into the lungs. This pressure is known as positive pressure. You usually exhale (breathe out) the air on your own, but sometimes the ventilator does this for you too.

A ventilator can be set to "breathe" a set number of times a minute. Sometimes it's set so that you can trigger the machine to blow air into your lungs. But, if you fail to trigger it within a certain amount of time, the machine automatically blows air to keep you breathing.

Rarely, doctors recommend a ventilator called a chest shell. This type of ventilator works like an iron lung—an early ventilator used by many polio patients in the last century. However, the chest shell isn't as bulky and confining as the iron lung.

The chest shell fits snugly to the outside of your chest. A machine creates a vacuum between the shell and the chest wall. This causes your chest to expand, and air is sucked into your lungs. No breathing tube is used with a chest shell.

When the vacuum is released, your chest falls back into place and the air in your lungs comes out. This cycle of vacuum and release is set at a normal breathing rate.

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Velkaderm 2% Tubx40g 7appl, Velkaderm


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Atomos - Definition Of Atomos By The Free Dictionary, Atomo

a. A part or particle considered to be an irreducible constituent of a specified system.

b. The irreducible, indestructible material unit postulated by ancient atomism.

2. An extremely small part, quantity, or amount.

3. Physics & Chemistry

a. The smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a very small and dense central nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by one or more shells of orbiting electrons. Atoms remain undivided in chemical reactions except for the donation, acceptance, or exchange of valence electrons.

b. This unit regarded as a source of nuclear energy.


1. (Atomic Physics)

a. the smallest quantity of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction

b. this entity as a source of nuclear energy: the power of the atom. See also atomic structure

2. any entity regarded as the indivisible building block of a theory

3. (Philosophy) the hypothetical indivisible particle of matter postulated by certain ancient philosophers as the fundamental constituent of matter. See also atomism

4. a very small amount or quantity; minute fragment: to smash something to atoms ; there is not an atom of truth in his allegations.

[C16: via Old French and Latin, from Greek atomos (n), from atomos (adj) that cannot be divided, from a - 1 + temnein to cut]


1. the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element, consisting of a positively charged nucleus of neutrons and protons that exerts an electrical attraction on one or more electrons in motion around it.

2. this component as the source of nuclear energy.

3. a hypothetical particle of matter so minute as to admit of no division.

4. anything extremely small; a minute quantity; speck; scintilla: not an atom of truth in that statement.

[1350–1400; < Latin atomus < Greek atomos literally, undivided = a - a-6 + - tomos divided < temnein to cut]


The smallest unit of an element, consisting of protons and neutrons in a dense central nucleus orbited by a number of electrons. In electrically neutral atoms, the number of protons equals the number of electrons. Atoms remain intact in chemical reactions except for the removal, transfer, or exchange of certain electrons. See Note at subatomic particle .


The smallest part of an element capable of taking part in a chemical change.

Thesaurus Antonyms Related Words Synonyms Legend:

atom - (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

substance - the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists; "DNA is the substance of our genes"

chemical science. chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy. physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

elementary particle. fundamental particle - (physics) a particle that is less complex than an atom; regarded as constituents of all matter

nucleus - the positively charged dense center of an atom

isotope - one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons

monad - (chemistry) an atom having a valence of one

chemical element. element - any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter

molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

free radical. radical - an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule that has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule; "in the body free radicals are high-energy particles that ricochet wildly and damage cells"

grain - a relatively small granular particle of a substance; "a grain of sand"; "a grain of sugar"

grinding - material resulting from the process of grinding; "vegetable grindings clogged the drain"

material. stuff - the tangible substance that goes into the makeup of a physical object; "coal is a hard black material"; "wheat is the stuff they use to make bread"

chylomicron - a microscopic particle of triglycerides produced in the intestines during digestion; in the bloodstream they release their fatty acids into the blood

flyspeck - a tiny dark speck made by the excrement of a fly

identification particle - a tiny particle of material that can be added to a product to indicate the source of manufacture




1. the smallest part of an element. atoom ?????? атом atomo atom das Atom atom ????? atomo aatom ??? atomi atome ???? ?????? atom atom atom atom, frumeind atomo ?? ?? atomas atoms atom atoom atom atom ???? atomo atom атом atom atom atom atom ????? atom ?? атом ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? nguyen t? ??

2. anything very small. There's not an atom of truth in what she says. greintjie ??????? ????? ????? частица atomo zrnko das Kornchen gran ?????. ????? apice. pizca. gota kube ???? ???? hitunen parcelle ????? ????? ?? trunka paranyi sedikit snefill briciola ?? ?? ?? ? dalele druska sedikit pun greintje fnugg. prikk odrobina ??? atomo pic, strop капля zrnko, kusok kancek zrnce smula, dugg, uns ???????????????? zerre ?? краплина ??????? ????? v?t nh? ??

a?tomic ( - ?to - ) adjective

atomies ????? атомен atomico atomovy Atom-. atom - ???????? atomico aatom(i)- ???? atomi - atomique ?????. ?????? ????????? atomski atom - dari atom atom-, kjarnorku-; orsmar atomico ??? ??? atominis atoma - atom atoom - atom - atomowy ????? atomico atomic атомный atomovy atomski atomski atomisk ??????????????? atomla ilgili ??? атомний ????? thu?c nguyen t? ???

a bomb using atomic energy. atoombom ????????? ??????? атомна бомба bomba atomica atomova bomba die Atombombe atombombe ??????? ????? bomba atomica aatomipomm ??? ???? atomipommi bombe atomique ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? atomski atombomba bom atom kjarnorkusprengja bomba atomica ???? ?? ?? atomine bomba atombumba bom atom atoombom atombombe bomba atomowa ? ???? ??? bomba atomica bomba atomica атомная бомба atomova bomba atomska bomba atomska bomba atombomb ???????????? atom bombas? ??? атомна бомба ????? ?? bom nguyen t? ???

very great energy obtained by breaking up the atoms of some substances. atoomenergie ????? ??????? атомна енергия energia atomica atomova energie die Atomenergie atomenergi ??????? ???????? energia atomica/nuclear aatomienergia ????? ???? atomienergia energie atomique ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? atomska energija atomenergia tenaga atom kjarnorka energia atomica ??? ?? ??? atomine energija atomenergija tenaga nuklear atoomenergie atomenergi energia atomowa ????? ????? energia atomica energie atomica атомная энергия atomova energia atomska energija atomska energija atomenergi ???????????? atom enerjisi ??? атомна енергія ????? ??????? nang lu?ng nguyen t? ???

power (for making electricity etc ) obtained from atomic energy. atoomkrag ?????? ??????? атомна енергия poder atomico atomova energie die Atomkraft kernekraft; atomkraft ??????? ???????? energia nuclear aatomienergia ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? atomivoima energie nucleaire ????? ????????? ?????? ????? atomska snaga atomenergia tenaga nuklir kjarnorka energia nucleare ??? (??) ??? atomine energija atomenergija kuasa nuklear atoomkracht kjernekraft. atomkraft energia atomowa ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?? poder atomico energie ato­mica/nucleara атомная энергия atomova energia nuklearna energija atomska snaga atomkraft ????????????? atom gucu ??? атомна електростанція; атомна енергетика ????? ??? nang lu?ng nguyen t? ???,????



Among these is ATOMOS. a leading player in camera-mounted recorders, which has officially recognized Fixstars as a certified storage partner.

After the presentation and networking session, attendees will have the opportunity to see the latest addition to the Atomos line of Recorders-Monitors-Playback Decks, the 4K Shogun fresh from the IBC show in Amsterdam.

It's called Atomos and promises to showcase all the attributes we've come to associate with him.

The license agreements were signed by a total of five companies including Sharp, Sigma, NextoDi, Black Magic and Atomos Global.

O reagente Klemm e mais indicado para acos ULC (Ultra Low Carbon), pois interage com o interior dos graos, ja que os contornos apresentam baixa concentracao de atomos .

a) Amor inconcreto y ambiguo (Wang 34-35): Los invisibles atomos del aire en derredor palpitan y se inflaman; el cielo se deshace en rayos de oro; la tierra se estremece alborozada.

Este quimico aleman era el principal impulsor de la "teoria de la estructura quimica", que abrevaba en la idea de la valencia atomica, especialmente la tetravalencia del carbono y la capacidad de los atomos de carbono para enlazarse entre si.

En efecto, el texto lo describe como "puntualisimo escudrinador de los atomos desta verdadera historia" (Rico: 928) y lo elogia por el gran cuidado con el que cuenta "las seminimas de ella, sin dejar cosa por menuda que fuese" (Rico: 848).

December 2, 2011) -- Atom AMPD, LLC, Volo, developer of the AtomOS Kwick KeyT, a single-source network and communications platform, has formed a strategic partnership with ThreatSTOP in which ThreatSTOP's Botnet Defense Cloud is integrated into Atom AMPD Kwick KeyT as a value-added service.

De acordo com Granovetter (1985), os atores se comportam e tomam decisoes dentro de um contexto social determinado e nao devem ser tomados como atomos isolados.

A materia fala e, desse fato, depreendemos que a linguagem, o pensamento e a vida necessitam da acao das estrelas; que na economia geral do universo as estrelas desempenham o papel de um artesao consciencioso e, independente dessa acao, sua propria existencia passa a ser uma condicao necessaria a diversidade dos atomos .

Adquiriendo contenidos tales como episodios de TV shows, peliculas y musica (o atomos. refiriendose a segmentos de programas) de iTunes, Amazon.

Keto Plus Gel For Animal Use, Keto Plus

Keto Plus Gel


Propylene Glycol, Niacin Supplement, Water, Xanthan Gum, Silicon Dioxide, Vitamin A Acetate (stability improved), D-activated Animal Sterol (source of vitamin D 3 ), Cyanocobalamin (source of Vitamin B 12 ), D-alpha Tocopheryl Acetate (source of Vitamin E), Riboflavin Supplement, d-Pantothenic Acid, Folic Acid, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Choline Bitartrate.


Give one tube following calving. Give additional tubes as needed.

Directions For Use

Place the tube in a dosing gun and remove the cap. Hold the head of the cow in a normal to slightly elevated position and carefully place the nozzle into the back of the mouth. Administer the entire contents of one tube per feeding. Do not give to cows that are unable to swallow.

Keto Plus Gel Caution

Contact with eyes or wounds or prolonged contact with skin can cause irritation.

Keep out of reach of children.

Single dose unit.

Discard unused portion.

Store at 20°C.

For animal use only.

Manufactured for: Agri Laboratories, Ltd. St. Joseph, MO 64503

Keto-Gel For Animal Use, Ketogel


This page contains information on Keto-Gel for veterinary use . The information provided typically includes the following:

Keto-Gel Indications

Warnings and cautions for Keto-Gel

Direction and dosage information for Keto-Gel


Keto-Gel is a high energy gel, packed with vitamins, amino acids and trace minerals. It is used as an aid to help maintain normal blood glucose (sugar) levels during stress periods when ketosis (acetonemia) often develops.

One tube can be administered twice daily, or one tube can be administered after IV treatment of dextrose.

Load cartridge in standard dose gun and remove protective end cap. Place the nozzle near the back of the oral cavity and empty contents, allowing the cow to swallow.

Pirox Gel (Piroxicam) - United Pharmacies, Pirox


* Our best price. $ 4.20

Pirox Gel (Piroxicam BP) is a topical gel that is used to treat pain and swelling caused by a variety of conditions, such as osteoarthritis, tendinitis, strains, sprains or tennis elbow. It contains the active ingredient, piroxicam, a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID, which works by blocking the production of certain chemicals in the body, known as prostaglandins, which are responsible for causing pain and swelling.

Brand Name : Pirox Active Ingredients : Piroxicam Manufacturer : Cipla Country of Origin : India Intended Patient : Unisex

* Quantity 1-5 Tube(s) 6-11 Tube(s) 12-19 Tube(s) 20-29 Tube(s) 30 Tube(s) +

Price / Each $5.20 $5.00 $4.60 $4.40 $4.20


Pirox Gel (Piroxicam BP) is a topical gel that is used to treat pain and swelling caused by a variety of conditions, such as osteoarthritis, tendinitis, strains, sprains or tennis elbow. Its active ingredient is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID, which works by blocking the production of certain chemicals in the body, known as prostaglandins, which are responsible for causing pain and swelling. By reducing these chemicals, this gel helps to relieve pain and reduce inflammation.

Dosage and Administration

Pirox Gel (Piroxicam BP) is applied directly to the affected area. Patients should first wash and dry the area where pain occurs, and then gently rub a thin layer into the affected area. The gel is absorbed into the tissues, and will then help to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.

Patients should consult their physician in order to determine how often the gel should be applied, and for how long treatment is required. Do not use this gel for longer than recommended by your physician.

Some side effects of Pirox Gel (Piroxicam BP) include:




stomach pain


breathing difficulties


Dometic Patio Awnings, Dometic

Dometic Patio Awnings

* Prices subject to change; excludes taxes and shipping

RV awnings consist of a Fabric canopy, a roller tube, arms (also called awning hardware), and an awning rail. Of course there are replacement parts available for the roller tube and hardware.

Usually, a full awning is ordered as two separate components: 1. FRTA (Fabric Roller Tube Assembly) 2. Arms (or Hardware)

First is the "FRTA" or fabric and roller tube assemly. Most RV patio awnings extend 8ft from the vehicle and are measured in even foot increments for the length of the awning. This awning measurement is the distance from the center of either the arms or the arm mounting brackets on the side of your RV. The awning fabric will measure aproximately 10 inches less than the actual awning measurement. DO NOT USE THE FABRIC MEASUREMENT AS THE AWNING MEASUREMENT.

Second it the hardware or Arms of the awning. The hardware measurement is taken from the top bracket to the bottom bracket, in inches. This distance is usually between 64 and 86 inches. There is a break at around 75 to 76 inches from short to long hardware. Most manufactures also offer a "universal" hardware. It may be, especially on 5th Wheel RV's that the front hardware may be of one size and the rear hardware may be of another size.

ALL RV Patio Awnings are considered Non-Returnable Custom Orders and care should be taken to order correctly.

When replacing parts on you existing awning you will need the Model numbers from the roller tube and hardware. Ordering the correct parts for your awning is impossible without these Model numbers. The Model number for your fabric and roller tube can be found under the fabric on the roller tube. Therefore you will need to extend the awning completely to see this number. The Model number for the hardware can usually be found inside one of the down tubes on the hardware arms. See the diagram below for examples.

You may have heard the term "Weatherguard". On most vinyl awnings this is an integral part of the canopy and is the piece of fabric that wraps around the awning when it is stowed. The Weatherguard can also be an optional corrugated metal shield, separate from the fabric, which wraps the canopy when it is stowed.

The majority of RV awnings are either Vinyl or Acrylic. Vinyl awnings are less expensive than Acrylic. As you would expect, Vinyl awnings have a smooth feel. Acrylic awnings are more fabric like. Both come in a variety of color styles. In addition to the standard awning designs, many custom options are available.

Replacement Awning Fabric comes in Original Equipment Fabric and Universal Replacement Fabric. Original Equipment Fabric is the direct replacement from you awning manufacturer. Universal Replacement Fabric will fit most manufactures of awning. The Universal Fabrics come in more limited color/pattern selection and are less expensive than Original Equipment Fabrics. Also the Original Equipment Fabrics will come in one piece, which starts at the awning rail and comes over the roller tube finishing in the scalloped valance. Universal Fabrics come in two pieces. the main canopy from the awning rail to the roller tube, and a second piece of fabric for the scalloped valance. for assistance or for ordering individual parts. We are an authorized dealer and stock popular products for immediate shipment. We can obtain almost any of their products from the warehouse for fast delivery.

SAVE! No Sales Tax if Shipped outside of Texas. The Sales Tax Savings will help pay for the shipping charge!

Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin) - United Pharmacies, Eryacnen


* Our best price. $ 28.80

Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin) is a topical antibiotic applied to the skin to help control acne. Erythromycin may be used alone or with one or more other medicines that are applied to the skin or taken by mouth for acne. Erythromycin may also be used for other problems, such as skin infections, as determined by your physician.

Brand Name : Eryacne Active Ingredients : Erythromycin Manufacturer : Galderma Country of Origin : New Zealand Intended Patient : Unisex

* Quantity 1 Tube(s) 2 Tube(s) 3-5 Tube(s) 6 Tube(s) +

Price / Each $30.90 $29.80 $29.10 $28.80


Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin) is a topical antibiotic applied to the skin to help control acne. Erythromycin may be used alone or with one or more other medicines that are applied to the skin or taken by mouth for acne. Erythromycin may also be used for other problems, such as skin infections, as determined by your physician.

Dosage and Administration

Before applying Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin), thoroughly wash the affected area with warm water and soap, rinse well, and pat dry. After washing or shaving, it is best to wait 30 minutes before applying the pledget (swab), topical gel, or topical liquid form. The alcohol in them may irritate freshly washed or shaved skin.

However, to help keep your acne under control, keep using Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin) for the full time of treatment, even if your symptoms begin to clear up after a few days. You may have to continue using Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin) every day for months or even longer in some cases.

If you stop using Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin) too soon, your symptoms may return. As a rule, an 8 week treatment period will be necessary, but in instances of recurrence, the period of treatment may be prolonged further.

Adverse effect reported with erythromycin therapy, such as Eryacne Gel (Erythromycin), include dryness, tenderness, pruritus, desquamation, erythema, oiliness and burning sensation. Irritation of the eye has also been reported. The skin irritation reported has ranged from mild to severe. A case of generalised urticaria reaction, possibly related to the drug, which required the use of systemic steroids has been reported.

How Does An Epidural Work, Epiral

How Does An Epidural Work?

I’m trying to decide whether or not to get an epidural. Can you give me the basics on how it works?

Epidural medication is used to block the transmission of pain impulses so you can have a more comfortable labor. Here’s how an epidural works:

Epidural medication is delivered through a tiny, flexible tube that’s inserted into your lower back. The tube (called a “catheter”) goes into the epidural space, which is outside of the spinal cord. That space contains all of the nerves that go to the lower part of the body, so doctors can administer special medication (often a local anesthetic, or numbing medicine, combined with a narcotic, or pain-relieving medicine) through the tube near those nerves, so pain impulses don’t reach your brain. “The medication basically dazes the nerves, so you don’t feel the pain impulses coming in,” says William Camann, MD, an anesthesiologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and coauthor of Easy Labor: Every Woman’s Guide to Choosing Less Pain and More Joy During Childbirth .

The epidural stays in your back so you can continue to receive the medicine throughout labor. Many hospitals now have patient-controlled epidurals, which allow moms-to-be to control the flow of pain-relieving epidural medication. Moms push a button when their pain increases; the machine is set so that it will not deliver too much medication. Patient-controlled epidurals let women tailor their pain relief to their unique birth experiences.

Plus, more from The Bump:

Enteral And Parenteral Nutrition, Enteral

Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition


Enteral nutrition generally refers to any method of feeding that uses the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to deliver part or all of a person's caloric requirements. It can include a normal oral diet, the use of liquid supplements or delivery of part or all of the daily requirements by use of a tube (tube feeding). The site of entry of the tube and tube types will be discussed under "enteral access". Parenteral nutrition refers to the delivery of calories and nutrients into a vein. This could be as simple as carbohydrate calories delivered as simple sugar in an intravenous solution or all of the required nutrients could be delivered including carbohydrate, protein, fat, electrolytes (for example sodium and potassium), vitamins and trace elements (for example copper and zinc). There are many reasons for enteral and parenteral nutrition including GI disorders such as bowel obstruction, short bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis; as well as certain cancers or in comatose patients. While enteral nutrition is always preferred when technically possible, some people may have a variety of medical issues that make the safe use of the GI tract difficult. Alternatively, their calorie and nutrient needs may not be met by the current level of functioning of their GI tract. That is when parenteral nutrition may be needed to help an individual remain hydrated and possibly to provide calories and other nutrients to allow for growth and development or maintenance of physical well-being and function.

When a patient has difficulty eating for whatever reason, and if the GI tract is working, then using this natural means for feeding would be preferable to feeding by intravenous means. Using the GI tract is closer to normal and can help the immune system. An example might be a patient who has had a stroke and now has difficulty swallowing (called dysphagia). The swallowing may normalize over time or in some instances may not return to normal which could put the patient at risk for inadvertently swallowing any solids and liquids consumed into the lungs which could cause a severe pneumonia. During the short term, a patient like this might be fed with a tube entering the nose. For longer use, a tube entering the stomach from outside the abdomen (a gastrostomy) might be appropriate.

Tube feeding is nutrition provided through the GI tract via a tube, catheter, or a surgically made hole into the GI tract. As previously mentioned, it is the preferred method of feeding when patients are unable to eat enough calories on their own. Enteral access devices are feeding tubes placed directly into the GI tract to deliver nutrients as well as additional fluids and often is a method for delivering medications (Figure 1). Nasal or oral tubes may be placed at the bedside or with endoscopy. A nasoenteric tube means that the tube enters the nose and the end of it may be in the stomach, duodenum (first part of the small intestine) or the jejunum (second part of the small intestine). Gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes are inserted through the skin (percutaneous) through a small incision on the upper abdominal wall. This may be done by a Radiologist with X-ray guidance, by an Endoscopist via endoscopy, or surgically. The table below shows options for enteral access feeding (Table 1). Short-term enteral nutrition is usually defined as use less than 4 weeks; long-term enteral nutrition is defined as use for more than 4 weeks. For more specific information on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, please see the ACG patient resource of the same name.

Fungiderm Creme Review, Fungiderm


I remember that one of my family member ever had a skin problem. The doctor said that he had fungi on her skin. And the doctor told her to buy Fungiderm Creme to use it as a treatment to her skin problem.

Actually Fungiderm creme is available in the pharmacy store here. You can buy this Fungiderm Creme with or without prescription from your doctor. And the price per tube of Fungiderm creme is not really that expensive in this country. I mean if we compare to other creme which have similar function, this Fungiderm Creme is much more cheaper in prices.

But don’t worry about the effectiveness of the

product itself. Some people always think that the more expensive the product, the better the quality. This is not for this case. Although Fungiderm is affordable to buy, the effectiveness of this creme is really good.

It is easy to use. You just need to apply the creme on your skin surface where you have fungi problem. Normally you need to apply it twice in a day, in the morning and at night before you go to bed. But sometimes, you need to ask your doctor first if you are not sure about how to use this Fungiderm creme. The doctor will let you know about it.


tube of Fungiderm creme package will have about 10gram creme. And since you only need to apply a little cream each time you use it, you will not running out of creme in short time. Sometimes, you will still have a lot of creme left in the tube after you realize that the fungi is no longer there on your skin.

I think this Fungiderm creme is also available in some countries. Maybe the packages or the color of the packages will not be the same as the one that I have in my country, but it is still the same product with the same effectiveness of the product

itself. So, don’t worry about the quality of the product. It is a good product for the market.

Until this moment, my mother always suggest everyone that ask her about solution for fungi problem on the skin, to use Fungiderm creme. And they said they also happy with the results that they got after using Fungiderm creme.

But please be careful with suing this product to small children or babies. Maybe it is better to ask your doctor or medical person first if you want to use it to small kid or baby. Just to make sure that there will not be any side effect to the small kids or baby.

Fallopian Tube Surgeries For Infertility Laparoscopy & More, Valopin

Infertility & Reproduction Health Center

A fallopian tube blockage typically prevents successful passage of the egg to the sperm. or the fertilized egg to the uterus. Surgery can be used to try to correct this common cause of infertility. The specific type of surgery depends on the location and extent of the fallopian tube blockage.

Some tubal procedures can be done using microsurgical techniques, either during open abdominal surgery or using laparoscopy through a small incision. The surgeon must have special training and expertise in microsurgery techniques and/or laparoscopy. This general overview describes the most common tubal procedures.

Tubal reanastomosis typically is used to reverse a tubal ligation or to repair a portion of the fallopian tube damaged by disease. The blocked or diseased portion of the tube is removed, and the two healthy ends of the tube are then joined. This procedure usually is done through an abdominal incision (laparotomy ), but some specialists can do this procedure using laparoscopy.

Salpingectomy . or removal of part of a fallopian tube, is done to improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) success when a tube has developed a buildup of fluid (hydrosalpinx ). Hydrosalpinx makes it half as likely that an IVF procedure will succeed. 1 Salpingectomy is preferred over salpingostomy for treating a hydrosalpinx before IVF.

Salpingostomy is done when the end of the fallopian tube is blocked by a buildup of fluid (hydrosalpinx). This procedure creates a new opening in the part of the tube closest to the ovary. But it is common for scar tissue to regrow after a salpingostomy, reblocking the tube.

Fimbrioplasty may be done when the part of the tube closest to the ovary is partially blocked or has scar tissue, preventing normal egg pickup. This procedure rebuilds the fringed ends of the fallopian tube.

For a tubal blockage next to the uterus, a nonsurgical procedure called selective tubal cannulation is the first treatment of choice. Using fluoroscopy or hysteroscopy to guide the instruments, a doctor inserts a catheter, or cannula, through the cervix and the uterus and into the fallopian tube.

What To Expect After Surgery

After open abdominal surgery, there usually is a 2- to 3-day hospital stay. Antibiotics may be given to prevent infection. A woman usually can return to work in 4 to 6 weeks, depending on the extent of surgery, the nature of her work, and her overall health and stamina.

After laparoscopic surgery, there is a brief hospital stay. A woman's return to daily activities can take a few days to a couple of weeks, depending on the type of procedure.

Why It Is Done

Fallopian tube surgery may be done if:

Hysterosalpingography shows blocked fallopian tubes.

A blocked fallopian tube has a buildup of fluid (hydrosalpinx).

You want to have a tubal ligation reversed.

How Well It Works

The success of a fallopian tube procedure depends in part on the location and extent of the blockage, as well as the presence or absence of other fertility problems.

Clearing a blockage in the part of the tube closest to the uterus (proximal occlusion) is more likely to be successful. These blockages often are functional (such as a mucus plug) rather than structural (such as scarring or other obstruction). Up to 60 out of 100 women with proximal occlusion have been reported to have successful pregnancies after tubal surgery. 2

From 20 to 30 out of 100 women with a blockage near the end of the fallopian tube have had successful pregnancies after tubal surgery. 2

The amount of fallopian tube that remains after surgery is critical to the function of the tube. If a large part of the tube must be removed to eliminate blockage, the likelihood of pregnancy after surgery is reduced.

The success of a sterilization reversal is influenced by the tubal ligation method used, by how recently the tubal ligation was done, and by the woman's age-related fertility.

Other conditions that affect the success of surgery include not only whether the woman has scar tissue (adhesions) in her pelvis and whether she has other diseases in the pelvic area but also the surgeon's level of skill and experience.


Risks of fallopian tube surgery include:

Pelvic infection.

Scar tissue (adhesions) forming on the reproductive organs, causing them to bind to the abdominal wall or to other organs.

Increased risk of tubal (ectopic) pregnancy after surgery.

What To Think About

Some fallopian tube problems can be treated with more than one type of surgery or procedure. Ask your doctor for his or her success rates (birth of a healthy baby ), as well as national success rates, for any procedure you are considering.

Hysterosalpingography may be done 3 to 6 months after surgery, to check whether the tubes have been opened.

If you do not become pregnant within 12 to 18 months following surgery, your doctor may do a laparoscopy to check the condition of your fallopian tubes or may refer you for in vitro fertilization (IVF).

When successful, a fallopian tube procedure can enable a woman to have more than one pregnancy without ongoing fertility treatment and repeated use of IVF. 2

Complete the surgery information form (PDF) (What is a PDF document?) to help you prepare for this surgery.


American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Society of Reproductive Surgeons (2008). Salpingectomy for hydrosalpinx prior to in vitro fertilization. Fertility and Sterility, 90(Suppl 3): S66-S68.

Bhattacharya S, et al. (2010). Female infertility. search date October 2009. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www. clinicalevidence. com.

By Healthwise Staff Primary Medical Reviewer Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine Specialist Medical Reviewer Femi Olatunbosun, MB, FRCSC - Obstetrics and Gynecology

Current as of June 4, 2014



The dialysis system from B. Braun offers components that are perfectly adapted one to another, for effective extracorporeal treatment. The safe and gentle vascular access is an important criterion for users and patients in efficient and successful dialysis treatment. Using the optimum canulation procedure, the Diacan and Diacan S dialysis fi stula needles from B. Braun cause, due to their precise 2-phase facet profile, minimal trauma to the vascular access. The extremely thin-walled, siliconised needle secures a laminar flow and ensures a high blood flow rate. The siliconisation of the fistula needles reduces blood coagulation; the tube material is highly flexible and latex-free. With the Diacan and Diacan S dialysis fi stula needles canulation is safe for patients and gentle on the vessels, as well as user-friendly for your nursing staff .


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Ectopic (Tubal) Pregnancy Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention, Ectopal

Ectopic Pregnancy - Topic Overview

What is an ectopic pregnancy?

In a normal pregnancy. a fertilized egg travels through a fallopian tube to the uterus. The egg attaches in the uterus and starts to grow. But in an ectopic pregnancy . the fertilized egg attaches (or implants) someplace other than the uterus, most often in the fallopian tube. (This is why it is sometimes called a tubal pregnancy.) In rare cases, the egg implants in an ovary, the cervix. or the belly.

There is no way to save an ectopic pregnancy. It cannot turn into a normal pregnancy. If the egg keeps growing in the fallopian tube, it can damage or burst the tube and cause heavy bleeding that could be deadly. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, you will need quick treatment to end it before it causes dangerous problems.

What causes an ectopic pregnancy?

An ectopic pregnancy is often caused by damage to the fallopian tubes. A fertilized egg may have trouble passing through a damaged tube, causing the egg to implant and grow in the tube.

Things that make you more likely to have fallopian tube damage and an ectopic pregnancy include:

Smoking. The more you smoke, the higher your risk of an ectopic pregnancy.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This is often the result of an infection such as chlamydia or gonorrhea .

Endometriosis. which can cause scar tissue in or around the fallopian tubes.

Being exposed to the chemical DES before you were born.

Some medical treatments can increase your risk of ectopic pregnancy. These include:

What are the symptoms?

In the first few weeks, an ectopic pregnancy usually causes the same symptoms as a normal pregnancy, such as a missed menstrual period, fatigue. nausea. and sore breasts.

The key signs of an ectopic pregnancy are:

Pelvic or belly pain. It may be sharp on one side at first and then spread through your belly. It may be worse when you move or strain.

Vaginal bleeding .

If you think you are pregnant and you have these symptoms, see your doctor right away.


How is an ectopic pregnancy diagnosed?

A urine test can show if you are pregnant. To find out if you have an ectopic pregnancy, your doctor will likely do:

A pelvic exam to check the size of your uterus and feel for growths or tenderness in your belly.

A blood test that checks the level of the pregnancy hormone (hCG). This test is repeated 2 days later. During early pregnancy, the level of this hormone doubles every 2 days. Low levels suggest a problem, such as ectopic pregnancy.

An ultrasound. This test can show pictures of what is inside your belly. With ultrasound. a doctor can usually see a pregnancy in the uterus 6 weeks after your last menstrual period.

How is it treated?

The most common treatments are medicine and surgery. In most cases, a doctor will treat an ectopic pregnancy right away to prevent harm to the woman.

Medicine can be used if the pregnancy is found early, before the tube is damaged. In most cases, one or more shots of a medicine called methotrexate will end the pregnancy. Taking the shot lets you avoid surgery, but it can cause side effects. You will need to see your doctor for follow-up blood tests to make sure the shot worked.

For a pregnancy that has gone beyond the first few weeks, surgery is safer and more likely to work than medicine. If possible, the surgery will be laparoscopy (say "lap-uh-ROSS-kuh-pee"). This type of surgery is done through one or more small cuts (incisions) in your belly. If you need emergency surgery, you may have a larger incision.

What can you expect after an ectopic pregnancy?

Losing a pregnancy is always hard, no matter how early it happened. Take time to grieve your loss, and get the support you need to make it through this time.

You could be at risk for depression after an ectopic pregnancy. If you have symptoms of depression that last for more than a couple of weeks, be sure to tell your doctor so you can get the help you need.

It is common to worry about your fertility after an ectopic pregnancy. Having an ectopic pregnancy does not mean that you can't have a normal pregnancy in the future. But it does mean that:

You may have trouble getting pregnant .

You are more likely to have another ectopic pregnancy.

If you get pregnant again, be sure your doctor knows that you had an ectopic pregnancy before. Regular testing in the first weeks of pregnancy can find a problem early or let you know that the pregnancy is normal.


Frequently Asked Questions

Ef 225, Parkan

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Standard Features

Capacity: 225 units

20' KSi Conveyor

Standard Height: 11' 2" / Discharge Height: 12' 7"

Length: 28'

Width: 8'

Unloads at 1000 lbs per minute

Hydraulic conveyor rotation

Conveyor rotates 180 degrees

Honda Engine

Self-loading conveyor

Bumper pull hitch

Platform ladder

Black roll tarp

Manual Gates

Entire unit powder-coat painted

2 compartments

2 - 7,000 lb axles, all with electric brakes

Optional Equipment

4' Short Seed Tube

4" LED Digital Remote Display

16' Telescoping Seed Tube

Aluminium Wheels

Digi-Star Scale System

Electric Gates

Engine Tarp

Mounted Spare Tire

Rear Compartment Ladder

Wireless Remote with Scale Readout

Deluxe Wireless Remote with: Scale Readout, Conveyor Speed, Seed Gate Position

Work Light Kit

Wrap Decals

Custom Paint Colors Available

Seed Weigh